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date: 28 March 2020

Index

Index

“f” indicates material in figures and “n” indicates material in endnotes. (p. 433)

AANB, 43
Aaron, 160, 201f, 202
Abbott, Sukie, 292
Abdur-Rahman, Aliyyah I., xi, 14, 235247
Abolition de I’esclavage (Schoelcher), 347
abolitionism
as agricultural reform movement, 319320
Davis’ (David Brion) study of, 64
Emerson and, 385
histories of, 64
labor and, 188
prejudice against interracial relations in, 374
print culture and, 65, 69, 166
psychological assessment of slavery and, 63
Quarles’ study of, 64
Romanticism and, 170, 375380
white narratives (see white abolitionist narratives)
Williams’ (George Washington) study of, 64
Abolitionist’s Library, The, 157
abortion, 104
Absalom, Absalom! (Faulkner), 184
Abu Ghraib, 194
acceptance of slave narratives, 45
accuracy of slave narratives, 46, 90, 112113, 299
Adams, Ellen Jackson, 305
Adams, Ezra, 290
Adams, John Quincy, 226, 228
Adams, Nehemiah, 59, 337, 355
Adansonia digitata, 421
Address of Abraham Johnstone (Johnstone), 68, 81
“Address on the Emancipation of the Negroes in the British West Indies” (Emerson), 385
Address to All the Colored Citizens of the United States (Meachum), 44
Adger, Robert, 39
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The (Twain), 188
advertisements, 155, 203
affiliations and slave narratives, 14
African, 378
African American Biographical Database, 43
African American mutual benefit societies, 179
African American National Biography (AANB), 43
African American Newspapers and Periodicals (Danky), 40
African Colonization Society, 354
“African Slavery in America” (Paine), 376
African Union Meeting and School-House, 419, 423, 427
Afro-American Periodical Press, The (Bullock), 40
agrarianism, 316, 319320
agriculture, 138, 318320
Alabama
Aunt Sally on, 339
Burton on, 306
The Forks of Cypress Plantation Slave Quarter, photograph of, 137f
FWP interviews in, 103, 291, 293, 330
Nixon interviews in, 95, 99n
plantation architecture in, 141
slave movement to, 288
slave quarters in, 137f
Washington on education in, 192
Albert, Octavia, 225, 292, 293
alcohol, 9798, 355
Aleckson, Sam, 331 (p. 434)
Alexander, Lucretia, 292
Aljoe, Nicole N., xi, 15, 362368
Allen, Richard, 44, 74
Allen, Roxanna, 119
Allen, Samuel V., 428
Allen, William G., 373374
Alphabetical Digest of the Public Statute Law of South Carolina (Brevard), 79
al-Sadiqa, Abu Bakr, 362, 363, 364, 367368
Alsberg, Henry, 104
amanuensis, 6, 298299
Amelioration Act, 372
American Antiquarian Society, 45
American Anti-Slavery Almanac, The, 158, 160
American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS)
almanac of, 158, 160
annual reports of, 158
Brown (William Wells) and, 152
collapse of, 157
Declaration of Sentiments, 79
distribution network of, 153, 156159
Douglass’ narrative and, 159
formation of, 385
model for formation of, 156
publications of, 77, 152
Ward and, 336, 355
Williams’ narrative and, 23, 77, 152, 157159
American Colonization Society, 3
American Crisis, The (Paine), 376
American Farmer, 140
American Freedman’s Inquiry Commission, 110
American Fugitive in Europe (Brown, William Wells), 340, 375
American Historical Review, 92
American Literature, 339
American Negro Slavery (Phillips), 45, 59
American Prejudice Against Color, The (Allen), 374
American Renaissance, 186, 266
American Revolution
Colored Patriots, 39, 42
economy after, 263
Eldridges in, 422
English colonial slavery and, 373
George (David) in, 352
number of slaves in American colonies, 294
Rhode Island slaves and, 418
slaves in military during, 287, 294
American Slave, The (Rawick), 3031, 39, 8990, 105, 107108, 143
American Slave Code in Theory and Practice, The (Goodell), 79
American Slavery, American Freedom (Morgan), 80, 185
American Slavery as It Is (Weld), 44, 79, 158
Amherstburg, 355357
Amistad (film), 31, 197
Amistad (ship), 80, 197, 213216, 289
Analytical Review, 376, 380
Anderson, John, 6869, 201
Anderson, Pernella, 109
Anderson, Thomas, 151
Andrews, William L.
background of, xi
on collaborative narratives, 303
Curse of Caste and, 45
on Grandy, 340
Mason and, 45
on messages in narratives, 14
North American Slave Narratives, 41, 156
North Carolina Slave Narratives, 7, 41, 7174, 330, 332
“Novelization,” 416, 420421
research by, 150
“Slave Narratives,” 219229
To Tell a Free Story, 36, 68, 119120, 374, 386, 403
Angélique, 351
Anglo-African Magazine, 4
animism, 316317
Antigua, 284, 347348, 349
antipartyism, 173
anti-sentimentalism, 186
Anti-Slavery Examiner, The, 157
anti-slavery library system, 158
Anti-Slavery Monthly Reporter, 363
Anti-Slavery Record, The, 160
Appeal (Walker), 179, 354
Applewood Books, 330
Apprenticed Laborer in Jamaica, An (Williams), 345, 349, 362363
apprenticeship, 127, 349, 357358
Archibald Monteath (Warner-Lewis), 345, 350
Archie (Cocke’s freed slave), 141 (p. 435)
Archie Moore, the White Slave (Hildreth), 196
archival function of slave narratives, 38, 4345
Aristodemou, Maria, 381
Arkansas
Bearing Witness on, 108
FWP interviews in, 90, 103, 107109, 290, 293
slave movement to, 288
slave quarters in, 143
Armisted, Wilson, 198
Arno Press, 39
Ar’n’t I a Woman? (White), 9596
“Art and Science of Reading WPA Slave Narratives, The” (Escott), 28, 109, 112, 114
Art of the Slave Narrative, The (Sekora & Turner), 149
Asa-Asa, Louis, 348, 350, 363
Ashton, Susanna, 41, 76, 330, 331
Ashy, 367
Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
founding of, 60
Journal of Negro History, 27, 42, 60, 91
Atlantic Monthly, 397398
audience
for Douglass’ works, 67, 170181
for gallows literature, 74
language adaption for, 65
memory and, 38
Olney on, 6
private family, 26
“Reading Communities” on, 13
witnessing by, 235237, 241, 243247
for women’s works, 223
Aunt Sally, 339
authenticity, 6, 59, 151, 167, 261, 364365. See also veracity
authorship, 3738, 151, 198199, 298310, 363, 400
autism, 394, 409
Autobiogafía de un esclavo (Manzano), 345, 346347
autobiographies
Andrews on, 120
challenges in assessing, 6
individuality in, 364
legal status and, 71
Mascuch on, 71
memoirs and, 223
novelization of, 416
Olney on narratives vs., 6, 23, 71
pension records and, 120, 123124
pre- vs. post-Civil War, 220222
published by anti-slavery societies, 153
vs. Romantic works, 386
social class and, 225
structure of, 224, 424
Autobiography, Bond and Free, An (Campbell), 201, 330
Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro (Ward), 201, 336337, 339, 353, 355, 373375
Autobiography of James L. Smith (Smith), 227, 333, 338
Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, The (Gaines), 193194
Autobiography of Omar ibn Said (Said), 333, 341
Autobiography of Rev. Josiah Henson, An (Henson), 9, 219220
Autobiography of The Reverend Josiah Henson, An, 89
Avery, Celeste, 291
Ayers, Mrs., 429
“Background of the Slave Narrative Collection, The” (Yetman), 102103, 291, 292
Back of the Big House (Vlach), 136
Bacon’s Rebellion, 294
Bahamas, 347
Bailey, David T., 6263
Baker, Houston A., 73, 272, 274, 339
Baker, T. Lindsay and Julie, 99n
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 365
Ball, Charles
Fifty Years in Chains, 23, 156, 289292
Fischer and, 151, 322
on hiding after escape, 326
on master’s labor, 319
on memories, 23
occupation of, 54
Phillips on narratives of, 59
slave coffle description by, 59
Ball, Edward, 310
Ball, Joseph, 142
Baltimore Sun, The, 402
Bancroft, Frederic, 60
Banks, Julia, 139
baptisms, 293
Baptist Annual Register, 352
Baptist churches, 427
Baquaqua, Mahommah Gardo, 345, 350351
Baraka, Amiri, 396
Barbados, 200, 268, 280, 281, 362, 367
Barbaric Traffic (Gould), 72, 73
Barbauld, Anna, 376, 377
Barber, Charley, 287
Barber, John, 197, 213216, 289
Barden, Thomas E. See Weevils in the Wheat
Barnet, Miguel, 345, 347, 363
Barr, Caroline, 192
Bates, Edward, 49
Bauer, Raymond & Alice, 6061
Baxter, Gabrilla, 130
Baxter, Thomas, 130, 132
Baym, Nina, 250
Beard, John Relly, 212
Bearing Witness (Lankford), 108
“Becoming a Citizen” (Franke), 271
Becoming Free in the Cotton South (O’Donovan), 130
Before the War and after the Union (Aleckson), 331
Behind the Scenes (Keckley)
on abuse, 292
audience for, 219
Brown (William J.) and, 429
emancipation documents in, 44
Fulton on, 252256, 258
literary criticism of, 40
locations of, 7, 226, 253256, 258, 335
on middle class, 226
philosophical approach of, 221222
on son’s death in Civil War, 256
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson and, 258
structure of, 224
Behn, Aphra, 200
Belinda (Edgeworth), 384
Bell, Philip, 40
Beloved (Morrison), 31, 191, 193194, 408
Benezet, Quaker Anthony, 340
Benitez-Rojo, Antonio, 366
Ben Venue plantation, 142
Bercovitch, Sacvan, 184
Bergad, Laird, 344
Berlin, Ira, 31, 91, 92, 98, 271, 417
Bermuda, 284, 345, 349
Berthold, Michael C., 186, 187
Best, Stephen, 393, 400, 410
Bethune, James Neil, 393, 395
Bibb, Henry
Narrative of the Life and Adventures# (see Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, The)
occupation of, 54
portrait of, 203
on proslavery sermons, 56
Shadd and, 353354
on Wilkins, 357
Bibb, Mary, 353
Biografía de un cimarrón (Barnet), 345, 347
biographical data on authors, 4249
Biography of Rev. David Smith (Smith), 222
Birney, James G., 2223, 77
Birth of a Nation, The (Griffiths), 191
Black, Leonard, 153
Black Abolitionist Papers, 39
Black Abolitionist Papers, The (Ripley), 355357
Black Abolitionists (Quarles), 64
Black Atlantic (Gilroy), 341
Black Biographical Dictionaries (Burkett & Gates), 43
Black Codes, 127, 353
Black Culture and Black Consciousness (Levine), 5
Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, The (Gutman), 5, 92
Black Feminist Thought (Collins), 248250, 254
“Black Founders” (Newman & Finkenbine), 74
Black Genealogy (Blockson), 45
Black literature, nineteenth century, 165181, 219220, 268, 279, 301
Black Literature collection, 40
Black Man, The (Brown, William Wells), 42, 198
Black Masculinity (Staples), 265266
“Black Message/White Envelope” (Sekora), 3738, 68, 71, 151, 299 (p. 437)
Black Periodical Literature Project (BPLP), 40, 41
Black Portsmouth (Sammons & Cunningham), 45
Black Power movement, 192
Black Reconstruction in America (Du Bois), 191, 263264
Blacks in Canada, The (Winks), 351, 353, 354, 357
Black suffrage, 104, 121. See also voting
Black Then (Mackey), 351, 353, 354
Black Trials (Weiner), 8081
Black Women in America (Hine), 4243
Blair, Norvell, 44, 226
Blake, Margaret Jane, 225
Blake, William, 373, 375, 376
Blassingame, John W.
BPLP, 40, 41
on circulation, 154
Elkins and, 62
Frederick Douglass Papers, 42, 49
on FWP interviews, 91, 102, 109, 113
Jacobs’ Incidents and, 37
on publication of narratives, 153
on reference sources, 42
The Slave Community, 5, 31, 62, 91, 193
on slave narratives, 6
Slave Testimony, 153, 293
“Using the Testimony of Ex-Slaves,” 62
on women’s narratives, 102
Bleak House (Dickens), 180
Blight, David W., 25, 26, 171
Blind African Slave, The (Brinch), 219, 339, 341
Blind Memory (Wood), 160
Blockson, Charles, 39, 45
Blues, Ideology, and Afro-American Literature (Baker), 73, 272, 274
Bluesprint (Compton), 357
Bluett, Thomas, 279280
Blum, Elizabeth, 317
Boles, Elvira, 139
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 212
Bond, Cynthia, 40, 249
Bond, William E., 129
Bon Sàam, Moses, 366, 367
Bontemps, Arna, 7, 41, 333335, 340
Book for the People! (Blair), 44, 226
“Book History and African American Studies” (Cossu-Beaumont & Parfait), 152, 154, 156
Book of the Bible against Slavery, The (Robertson), 352
Boost, W. L., 292
Born in Bondage (Schwartz), 95
“Born in Slavery” (LOC), 105, 107108, 111
Boston
Burton in, 306
Crafts in, 301
Edes and the Tea Party, 381
Eliot and, 8
hate acts in, 428
Jacobs’ Incidents and, 38, 153, 156, 338
Lane in, 332
publication in, 220, 340341
Stearns in, 260
Twelfth National Anti-Slavery Bazaar in, 157
Wheatley in, 204, 383
Boston Gazette, The, 381
Botkin, Benjamin A., 99n, 104, 108
Bowen, Pardon, 425
BPLP, 40, 41
Brace, Jeffrey, 219. See also Brinch, Boyrereau
Bradford, Sarah, 8, 208211, 225
Branch, Cyrus, 341
Branch, Jacob, 291
branding, 277
Brant, Joseph, 351
Brazil, 344, 345, 350351
“Brazilian Slaves Represented in Their Own Words” (Krueger), 350
Bremo plantation, 140141
Brent, Linda, 250, 391392. See also Jacobs, Harriet
Brevard, Joseph, 79
Brinch, Boyrereau, 219, 339, 341
Brinkley, Robert, 236
Briston, Josephine, 291
British American Institute, 354
British Columbia, 357
broadsides, 3, 4, 41, 213
Broken Shackles (Henson), 356
Brooks, Charlotte, 292
Brooks, Daphne A., xi, 16, 391412
Brooks, Joanna, 153
Brown, Cudge, 425426 (p. 438)
Brown, George (Jackson’s husband), 305
Brown, George (William J.’s brother), 426
Brown, Henry “Box”
anti-slavery lecture tour of, 203, 261
commodity status of, 81, 203
Ernest on narrative of, 151
family of, 261
“First English Edition” of narrative, 7
formats for narrative distribution, 160
legal citations of, 81
The Liberty Almanac and, 159
marketing by, 153
Narrative of Henry Box Brown (see Narrative of Henry Box Brown)
Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (see Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown)
Phillips on narratives of, 59
portrait of, 203
Brown, Jack, 123, 132
Brown, James Seay, 330
Brown, John (Moses’ brother), 417, 425
Brown, John (Slave Life in Georgia), 24, 201, 319Brown, John (white abolitionist), 38, 80, 210Brown, Joseph, 425, 429
Brown, Kimberly Juanita, 242
Brown, Moses, 417418, 425426
Brown, Nicholas, 425
Brown, Noah, 425428
Brown, Paola, 354
Brown, Phillis, 425426
Brown, Rhoda, 426
Brown, Samuel, 123
Brown, Sharper, 426
Brown, Sterling, 104, 107, 109
Brown, Thomas, 426
Brown, William J., 16, 415417, 419420, 423, 424430
Brown, William Wells
AASS press and, 152
as abolitionist, 64
American Fugitive in Europe, 340, 375
anti-slavery lecture tours of, 157
biographical data on, 49
The Black Man, 42, 198
in Canada, 355
copyright to works of, 154
Crafts and, 302
Douglass, letter to, 375
on effects of slavery, 10
on England, 374
on family, 318
Female Anti-Slavery Society speech, 12, 10
freedom, desire for, 57
on knowledge of slavery, 1
legal citations of, 79, 81
locations of narratives of, 335, 341
manhood and, 265, 374
on middle class, 226, 227
My Southern Home, 219, 227
printing of narratives, 152
on property, 318
on representations of slavery, 1, 4
Three Years in Europe, 374
Troy and, 356
Brown University, 425
Brown v. Board of Education, 61, 374
Bruce, Blanche, 220
Bruce, Dickson D., Jr., xi, 12, 5465, 74
Bruce, Henry Clay, 220221
Bryant, William Cullen, 384
Buell, Lawrence, 315, 324
Bugg, John, 38
Bullock, Penelope, 40
Burke, Edmund, 378
Burkett, Randall and Nancy Hall, 43
Burnard, Trevor, 350, 364
Burton, Annie Louise, 298, 305308
Burton, Lawrence, 307
Butcher, Nathan, 130131
Butler, Benjamin F., 190
Butler, Octavia, 193194
Buxton settlement, 355, 356
Byrd, Susie R.C., 109
By the Work (Vlach), 138140 (p. 439)
Calder, Loth, 142
California, 40, 226
Cambridge Companion to the Slave Narrative, The (Fisch), 149
Cameron, Nelson, 143
Camp, Stephanie M.E., 92, 9495
Campbell, Israel, 201, 330
Campbell, Paul R., 418419
Camper, Lavater & Petrus, 214
Canada
abolition of slavery in, 351
Amherstburg, 355357
Anderson’s extradition from, 69
Baquaqua in, 345, 351
Black loyalists in after American Revolution, 287
British Columbia, 357
Brown (William Wells) in, 325, 355
Buxton settlement, 355, 356
Campbell in, 330
Chatham, 355
Clarke in, 318
Dawn settlement, 8, 354, 355
Drew on Black settlements in, 355
economy of, 351
Hamilton, 356
London, 355
Montreal, 351, 353, 356357
Moodie in, 347
Nova Scotia, 331, 352, 357
Peace of Paris and, 352
St. Catharines, 355356
Sandwich, 353, 355
slave narratives of, 15, 337338, 351357
slavery law in, 345, 351
Toronto, 354, 355
Ward in, 336
Wilberforce Colony, 329, 353
Windsor, 355, 356
Canadian Anti-Slavery Society, 355
“Can the Subaltern Speak?” (Spivak), 364
capitalism
Cherniavsky on incorporation and, 264
manhood and history of U.S., 14, 263, 266
Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge on, 424
slavery and, 266
Carbado, Devon W., 8081
Carby, Hazel, 249
Caribbean
Aljoe on slave narratives from, 15, 362368
Amelioration Act in, 372
apprenticeship system in, 349
Emancipation in, 349
free Blacks in, 419
past vs. present literary culture in, 368
Siemerling on slave narratives from, 15, 344, 346350
society and literature of, 366
Carleton’s “Book of Negroes,” 357
Carlyle, Thomas, 385
Carnegie, Andrew, 306
Carr, Peter and Samuel, 91
Carretta, Vincent, 23, 45, 316, 338339
Carroll, Henry, 128
carte de visite, 202, 205
Carter, Jennie, 40
Carter v. Eldridge, 423
cartoons, 3
Cartwright, Charles, 125
Cather, Willa, 391, 397, 398399
Caution and Warning, A (Benezet), 340
census
of Blacks in Canada, 356
of Blacks in Rhode Island, 418, 422, 430
on Brown (William J.), 430
on Eldridge, 422, 423
slaves in, 47, 48, 133
Chamberlain, Mary, 115
Chamber’s Miscellany, 160
Chamerovzow, Louis Alex, 319
Chaotic Justice (Ernest), 45, 151, 301
Charlton, Dimmock, 372
Chatham, 355
Chatterton, Thomas, 375, 377
Cherniavsky, Eva, 264, 271
Cherokees, 352
Child, Lydia Maria, 37, 151154, 180, 250, 366
children
bound out, literacy and, 423
Brown (William J.) on child care, 428429
devotion to, 55
duties of, 111
FWP interviews on, 104, 114, 291
naming ceremonies for, 280 (p. 440)
Children of God’s Fire (Conrad), 350
Childs, Mrs., 428429
Chinese indentured laborers, 346
Chinn, Joseph, 142
Christianity
agrarianism and, 320
Ashy on Fantee spirituality vs., 367
Brown (William J.) and, 427, 429
Buffalo convention on, 176177
cruelty and, 6
Douglass on, 56, 176
Equiano and, 170, 286
folksong research on, 115
literacy and, 223, 303
Monteath’s conversion narrative, 350
Montesquieu on slavery and, 165
proslavery sermons, 56
resistance vs. submission, 56
Ward on, 375
Wheatley on, 170
Christian Recorder, The, 156, 222
“Christmas on the Plantation” (Russell), 59
churches
Black leadership in, 222223
Buffalo convention on, 176177
early histories of, 42
FWP interviews on, 110, 278
Roper’s lectures in, 155
segregation in, 374, 427
Cinque, Joseph, 211, 213f, 214216. See also Amistad
circulation, 37, 38, 154160, 372, 377
civil and criminal court proceedings
Delaney on, 225
Eldridge in, 417, 419420, 423
The Federalist Papers on slaves in, 70
freedom suits, 4748, 363
Grimes and, 7576
legislative mandate against testimony in, 240
in Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown, 68
in newspapers, 363
Northup’s case, 7778
print coverage of, 80
probate, 47, 48
in research on authors, 47
in Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom, 68
sensationalism and, 68
testimonies from, 309
Tocqueville on, 69
for wages, 4748
Civil Rights movement, 61, 9091, 192, 194
Civil War
Blacks’ role in, 27
causalities of, 25
“The Contrabands” in, 190191
Keckley’s son in, 256
Marrs in, 224
pension records, 13, 119131, 271
Clansman, The (Dixon), 191, 193
Clark, J. P., 151
Clarke, George Elliott, 337338, 352
Clarke, John Henrik, 193
Clarke, Lewis
copyright to works of, 154
on environment, 318
on free labor, 324
Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis and Martin Clarke, 4344, 152, 155156, 322, 337338, 353
Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clarke, 151, 160, 353
Clarke, Martin, 4344, 152, 155156, 322, 337338, 353
Clarkson, Thomas, 378379, 383
class, social
Andrews on narratives and, 221, 225228
Douglass and, 185, 270
free labor and, 188
FWP interviews and, 90, 94, 102, 109
historians and, 63, 89, 9294, 133
Maguire on, 187
Providence riots and, 428
public records and, 46
resistance and, 221
Classic Slave Narrative, The (Gates), 119, 337, 344345
Clay, Henry, 357
Clayton, Ronnie, 105
Cleaver, Eldridge, 197
Clements, James H., 128
Clifton, Lucille, 310 (p. 441)
clothing
of Defoe’s Crusoe, 198
in Equiano’s portrait, 200
Keckley’s designing and sewing of, 254, 255, 335
making of plantation, 138139
in Robert’s portrait, 202
in Truth’s portrait, 206
Washington on, 291
in Wheatley’s portrait, 204
Cocke, John Hartwell, 140141
Cohen, Daniel A., 68, 69
Cohen, David, 419
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 375380, 384, 385
Collected Works of Phyllis Wheatley, The (Wheatley), 382383
Collins, Julia, 45
Collins, Patricia Hill, 248250, 254
Collison, Gary, 356357
Colombia, 362
Colonial Slave Law, 349
Colored American, 180
Colored Cadet at West Point, The (Flipper), 224
Colored National Convention (1853), 3
Colored Patriots of the American Revolution (Nell), 39, 42
Commonwealth v. Aves, 80
communication, 56, 240241
community
Blassingame’s study of, 31, 62, 91, 193
creation of, 5657
Cugoano on, 284285
Equiano on, 285287
folksongs function in, 57
FWP interviews on, 277278, 287
George on, 288
Gronniosaw on, 280283
Hartman on, 309
ideals/values in, 5557, 290
Jacobs on, 278, 289, 338
Owens on, 143144
pension records on, 123125
Prince (Mary) and, 169
Some Memoirs of the Life of Job on, 280
Stevenson on, 277294
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson on, 305
Wheatley on, 283
Compromise of 1850, 2. See also Fugitive Slave Laws
Compton, Wayde, 357
concubinage, 237, 293
Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored Race, The (Delany), 42
Confessions of Nat Turner (Gray), 68, 75, 81, 213, 289
Confessions of Nat Turner, The (Styron), 193
Congress, U.S.
Constitution’s three-fifths clause and allocating representation in, 47
“Gag Rule,” 80
Great House Farm and, 173
Narrative of James Williams and, 158
conjurers, 5657, 96. See also healers
Connecticut
Amistad trial in, 289
Bontemps on, 333
Grimes in, 7576
hate acts in, 428
Mars on, 329
slavery law in, 373
Smith in, 268
Conrad, Robert Edgar, 350
consensualism, 72
Constitution, U.S.
13th Amendment, 120121, 374
14th Amendment, 121
15th Amendment, 121
Douglass and Garrison’s reading of, 67
drafting of, 373
three-fifths clause, 47, 70
contraception, 104
contracts, 7274
Cooper, James Fennimore, 180, 384
Cooper, J. California, 193194
copyright, 153154
corn huskings, 139, 293
corn pone, 113
corpses, 3, 246
Cossu-Beaumont, Laurence, 152, 154, 156
Cosway, Richard, 383
cotton gin, 288
Cotton Kingdom, The (Olmsted), 134136
cotton presses, 138139
Cottrol, Robert J., 422423 (p. 442)
covers for narratives, 41
Covey, Edward, 151, 184, 187, 221, 260, 267, 270, 272, 300
Covey, Herbert C., 112113
Covey, James, 213f, 214
Cowper, William, 375, 377378
Craft, Ellen & William
as abolitionists, 64
in Boston, 301302
Brown (William Wells) and, 302
legal citations of, 81
in Massachusetts, 301
portrait of Ellen, 207208
Creeks, 288
Creole, rebellion aboard, 80
creole testimony, 365366
Crèvecouer, J. Hector St. John de, 320321, 325
crime publications, 7475. See also gallows literature
criminal code, 74
“Crisis in North America” (Lewis), 353
Crossing the River (Phillips), 193194
Cruz, Jon, 74
Cuba, 213, 345347
Cubitt, Geoffrey, 27, 29
Cuffy, William, 130
Cugoano, Ottobah, 279, 283, 284, 383
Cullen, Susanna, 384
Cult of True Womanhood, 249
Culture on the Margins (Cruz), 74
Cummins, Oliver, 428
Cunningham, Valerie, 45
Cupples, Upham, and Company, 341
Curry, James, 160
Curse of Caste (Collins), 45
Cuthbert, Salone, 362, 363, 364
Dabney, Richard, 119
D’Aguiar, Fred, 193, 194
Danky, James, 40
Darwin, Erasmus, 378
Davenport, Cary, 139
Davidson, James West, 98
Davis, Angela, 252
Davis, Charles T., 2425, 27, 40, 41, 149, 150
Davis, David Brion, 64, 344
Davis, E.M., 159
Davis, Jefferson, 98
Davis, Noah, 201
Davis, Rebecca Harding, 397398, 407
Davis, Varina, 253
Dawn settlement, 8, 354, 355
“Day to Day Resistance to Slavery” (Bauer), 6061
Dear Senator: A Memoir by the Daughter of Strom Thurmond (Washington-Williams & Stadiem), 310
Declaration of Independence, 300
Defoe, Daniel, 198
DeForest, John William, 188
Delaney, Lucy A.
Bates and, 49
From the Darkness Cometh the Light (see From the Darkness Cometh the Light)
death certificate for, 4849
freedom suit of, 4748
in “List of Free Negroes,” 48, 49
marriages of, 47, 48
Masonic organizations and, 49
on middle class, 226
on mother, 46
online searches for, 41
public records on, 47
publisher interactions with, 38
Scott and, 49
wage lawsuit of, 4748
Delany, Martin, 42, 49
Delavan, E.C., 157
Del Monte, Domingo, 346
DeLombard, Jeannine Marie, xi, 12, 6781
Demby, 244
democratic agrarianism, 316, 319320
Dessa Rose (Williams), 193194
Diallo, Ayuba Suleiman, 279280, 372
Dibble, Fred, 135
Dick (Eldridge’s grandfather), 421
Dickens, Charles, 69, 180
Dickinson, Emily, 384, 386
Dictionary of American Negro Biography (Logan & Winston), 4243
Dimock, Peter, 194
Dirt and Desire (Yaeger), 340
discursive terrain, 165170, 173, 176181, 346347, 371, 431
Disowning Slavery (Melish), 23
District of Columbia
Bradford on, in Reconstruction era, 8
Keckley in, 7, 226, 253256, 258, 335
Northup in, 7778
Wormeny in, 357
“Distrust of the Reader in Afro-American Narratives” (Stepto), 8
divorce, 104
Dixon, Melvin, 322, 325
Dixon, Thomas, 191, 193
Doctorow, E.L., 194
Documenting the American South, 41, 332333
Done with Slavery (Mackey), 353, 356
Donlan, Edward. See al-Sadiqa, Abu Bakr
Doughton, Thomas, 7, 41, 330, 333335, 340
Douglass, Anna Murray, 179, 270272
Douglass, Frederick
AASS and, 153
as abolitionist, 64
anti-slavery lecture tours of, 157, 205206, 299
on Biblical references, 325
“Blind Tom” and, 397, 412
Brown’s (William Wells) letter to, 375
on conjure beliefs, 57
copyright to works of, 154
Covey and (see Covey, Edward)
economic panic of 1837 and, 185
on England, 373
Frederick Douglass’ Paper, 155, 180
freedom, desire for, 57
freedom purchase by, 272273
Gates and, 268
Heglar on works of, 102
“The Heroic Slave,” 265
as house slave, 55
labor and, 185, 187188, 272
Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, 7, 25, 189, 202, 220, 227
literacy, struggle for, 57, 150151, 268
literary criticism of works of, 43, 44, 170179
marriage of, 179, 270272
in Massachusetts, 222, 272, 300, 322
McDowell on works of, 1011
“The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro,” 180
memories of, 24, 25, 172, 300
on middle class, 226, 227
My Bondage and Freedom (see My Bondage and Freedom)
“The Nature of Slavery,” 67
nickname of, 227
The North Star, 180
papers of, 42, 49
portrait of, 201, 202
on prejudice and job seeking, 187188
Preston’s biography of, 4546
publisher interactions with, 38
on religion, 56, 175177, 222
as ‘representative man,’ 1011
on slave breeding, 55
Truth and, 205206
on Tubman, 209
Drew, Benjamin, Jr., 337, 340, 353, 355356
Drumgoold, Kate, 43, 225
DuBois, Silvia, 225
Du Bois, W.E.B.
Black Reconstruction in America, 191, 263264
on Civil War, 191
dissertation on slave trade, 60
Doctorow and, 194
education of, 60
“The Negro in Literature and Art,” 22
Philadelphia Negro, 324
on Phillips’ image of enslaved people, 91
The Souls of Black Folk, 324
Duke of Argyle, 378
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 189191
Dunmore, John, 287
Dunning, William A., 93
Dwight’s Journal, 407409
“Early African American Print Culture” conference, 37
Eason, Barbara, 124
Eason, Isaac, 124, 132 (p. 444)
Easton, Hosea, 2
Edes, Peter, 381
Edgeworth, Maria, 384
editors
benefits for, 303
of Caribbean texts, 364365
collaborations with, 152, 298, 309, 365
of FWP narratives, 101, 106110
legal analysis by, 6768
manuscript evidence of, 37
music transcribers and, 403
Olney on master outline for, 6
Pringle on, 348
Sekora on, 151, 299
Yellin on, 50
education
Black leadership in, 222223
Burton on, 306307
Drumgoold on, 225
FWP interviews on, 104
identity and, 222
Iola Leroy on, 188
laws on, 240, 303
literacy (see literacy)
religious conversion and, 223
in Rhode Island, 419
Sandford on, 307
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson on, 304305
Washington on, 192, 223
Egipcíaca, Santa Rosa, 350
Eisnach, Dwight, 112113
Eldridge, Elleanor, 16, 415417, 419424
Eldridge, Robin, 422
Eldridge v. Balch, 423
electoral college, 2
Eliot, Samuel A., 8
Eliot, William, 341
Elizabeth, 222
Elkins, Stanley, 5, 6162, 91, 105, 193
Ellis, Markman, 70
Ellison, Ralph, 186
Eltis, David, 344
Emancipation Proclamation, 212
Emancipator, The, 157158
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 171, 180, 384, 385
England
abolition of slavery in, 351, 375
Anti-Slavery Society, 347348, 363
British lawsuits over Black mariner imprisonment in U.S., 80
Brown (William Wells) on, 374
Douglass on, 373
Equiano and, 339, 383384
“Glorious Revolution” in, 375
Licensing Act in, 375
London, 283, 346, 354
newspapers in, 375376
printing presses in, 375376
Public Records Office, slavery documents in, 350
Romanticism in, 375, 379386
Royal Academy, founding of, 383
Watkins in, 374
Williams in, 157
engravings, 197204, 212, 213f, 214216
entrepreneurs, Black, 7173
environment
architecture, 134136, 137f, 138f, 140142
Brown (William J.) on, 424425
identity, perspective, and, 15, 169
location (see geography)
manhood and, 265266
Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge on father’s, 421
environmental criticism, 15, 315326
environmental justice movement, 316, 324
Episcopal churches, 427
Eppes, F., 140
Equiano, Olaudah
Cugoano and, 283
England and, 383384
Gates and, 268
Hastings and, 383
letters of, 374
marriage of, 384
on memory, 23, 24
nativity of, 23, 283, 285, 316
portrait of, 197, 199200
property to personhood conversion by, 73
publisher interactions with, 38
Sharp and, 383384
Wheatley and, 170 (p. 445)
Equiano the African (Carretta), 23, 45, 316, 338339
Ernest, John
background of, xi–xii
Brown (Henry “Box”) research by, 38
Chaotic Justice, 45, 151, 301
introduction to slave narrative studies, 116
Liberation Historiography, 45
Escott, Paul D., 28, 109, 112, 114
Examiner, 380
Experience and Personal Narrative of Uncle Tom Jones (Jones), 9
Experience of Rev. Thomas H. Jones, The (Jones), 9, 224, 330, 334
Experiences of a Slave in South Carolina, The (Jackson), 329
Fabian, Ann, 23, 68, 156
Fabre, Genevieve, 16
“Face to Face” (Gardner), 4445, 336
family
aspirations for, 57
Ball on, 289292
Brown (William Wells) on, 318
creation/destruction of, 55, 58
Cugoano on, 284285
Equiano on, 285287
Frazier’s study of, 22, 60
FWP interviews on, 9697, 104, 277278, 290291
George on, 288
Gronniosaw on, 280283
ideals/values in, 55, 290
Jacobs on, 278, 289, 338
King on, 288
master/slave relationship and, 92
Nixon interviews on, 95
pension records on, 123128
Prince (Mary) on, 284
in Reconstruction, 294
Some Memoirs of the Life of Job on, 280
Stevenson on, 277294
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson on, 305
Vlach on, 144
Wheatley on, 283
Family Redeemed from Bondage, A (Kelley), 152
Fanatics, The (Dunbar), 189191
Fannen, Mattie, 290
Far More Terrible For Women (Minges), 292293
Farrier, Arthur, 428
Faulkner, William, 45, 184, 192
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), 99n, 103. See also Works Progress Administration
Federalist Papers, The (Madison, Hamilton, & Jay), 69, 70
Federal Writers’ Project (FWP) interviews
age of former slaves during, 110
The American Slave, 3031, 39, 8990, 105, 107108, 143
Applewood Books series on, 330
audio-recorded, 105, 107, 109
authenticity of, 90, 106108
bias in, 28, 106, 108113
Blassingame on, 91, 102, 109, 113
“Born in Slavery,” 105, 107108, 111
candor in, 113114
Civil Rights movement and, 9091
on crafts, 138139
critiques of, 9, 1213, 90, 94, 106
Elkins and, 105
end of, 104
environmental criticism of, 317
on family and community life, 277278, 287
historian’s use of, 62, 9098
history of, 99n, 103104
interviewers for, 9, 28, 101
introductions to, 109110
Jacobs’ index of, 110
Lay My Burden Down, 99n, 104
LOC website for, 99n
McCaskill on, 308309
memory and, 28, 111113, 115
Musher on, 9, 1213, 101116
pension records and, 122
Potts’ index of, 108, 110
questions asked in, 11, 28, 90, 94, 9798, 99n, 103104, 110
Remembering Slavery, 31, 91, 98
Schwartz on, 9, 12, 8998
size of archive, 4, 101102, 116n1
Slave Narratives, 22 (p. 446)
Federal Writers’ Project (Cont.)The Slave Narratives of Texas on, 277
on slave quarters, 134, 135
speech and dialect in, 107
statistical analysis of, 111
Unchained Memories, 105
vs. University oral histories projects, 2728
Up Before Daylight, 330
value of, 9298
West on, 93
women interviewed in, 9596, 102, 104
Feeding the Ghosts (D’Aguiar), 193, 194
Female Anti-Slavery Society, 1, 10
FERA, 99n, 103
Fett, Sharla, 92, 96
Fiedler, Leslie, 192193
Fifteenth Amendment, 121
Fifty Years in Chains (Ball), 23, 156, 289292
Fifty Years of Slavery in the USA (Smith), 225226
Figures in Black (Gates), 73
Finkenbine, Roy E., 74
First Folio (Shakespeare), 198
First Great Awakening, 74
First World War, 29
Fisch, Audrey, 149
Fischer, Isaac, 151, 322
Fisher, Philip, 186
Fisk University, 2728, 62, 103, 105
FitzGerald, Frances, 30
Five Black Lives (Bontemps), 7, 41, 333335, 340
Fleischner, Jennifer, 24
Fleming, George, 143
Flight to Canada (Reed), 193, 194
Flipper, Henry Ossian, 224
Florida, 103, 105, 107, 308309
Flynn, Katherine, 45
Folkes, Minnie, 292
folksongs
content of, 57
Douglass on, 173174, 391, 392
function in community, 57
FWP questions on, 104
Lomax and, 103, 109
research on FWP interviews, 115
Slave Songs of the United States, 408
food
Covey and Eisnach on culture and, 112113
Douglass on, 175176
FWP interviews on, 95, 111, 277278
Genovese on, 92, 138
independent production of, 318
Jacobs on, 246
Olney on, 6
preparation of, 252
Simpsons on, 277278
stealing of, 246, 292
Stevenson on, 291292
Foote, Julia, 223, 431
Ford, John, 367
Ford, Joseph, 128
Foreman, P. Gabrielle, 45, 248
Forgotten Readers (McHenry), 38, 179, 180
The Forks of Cypress Plantation Slave Quarter, 137f
Foster, Frances Smith
on authorship/composition, 3738
on Jacobs’ Incidents, 3738, 250
on marriages, 254255
“A Narrative of the Interesting Origins,” 37
“In Respect to Females,” 249
on Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom, 302
on sex and sexuality, 249
“‘Til Death or Distance Do Us Part,” 254255
Witnessing Slavery, 36, 68, 149
Foucault, Michel, 167, 168, 240241, 382
Fourteenth Amendment, 121
Franke, Katherine, 271
Franklin, Benjamin, 267
Franklin, John Hope, 42
Frazier, E. Franklin, 22, 60
Frederick Douglass’ Paper, 155, 180
Frederick Douglass Papers project, 42, 49
free bond registrations, 48
Freedmen’s Bureau, 123, 271
Freedom’s Journal, 3, 180
freedom suits, 4748, 363
free farming, 320321, 324
free labor, 188, 321, 324
Freelandhouse, “Reverend,” 282
Freeman, Enos, 430
French Physiocrats, 321
French Revolution, 375, 378 (p. 447)
From Behind the Veil (Stepto), 43, 261262
From Bondage to Belonging (McCarthy & Doughton), 7, 41, 330, 333335, 340
From Bondage to Liberty (Stanford), 307
From Slave Cabin to the Pulpit (Randolph), 224, 228
From Sundown to Sunup (Rawick), 5, 31
From the Darkness Cometh the Light (Delaney)
“Face to Face” on, 4445, 336
literary criticism of, 4, 45
location of, 336
mother’s story in, 46, 225, 336
online searches for, 41
organizations listed in, 45
publication of, 7, 336
public records and, 47
on success after Emancipation, 224
frontispiece, 198212, 215
front matter, 41, 68, 300
Frost, John, 356
Frost, Robert, 45
Fugitive Blacksmith, The (Pennington)
on chattel principle, 71
on environment, 322
location of, 329
manhood and, 265
on plantation networks, 56
sales of, 155
on slave breeding, 55
Fugitive Convention of Canada, 330
Fugitive Slave Laws
Bibb and, 353
Canada and, 345, 352, 353
Douglass on, 272
Emerson on, 385
England and, 373
Illinois and, 336
Jacobs and, 325, 338
Loguen and, 354355
notices of, in Struggles for Freedom, 68
resistance to enforcement of, 80
Roper and, 332
Ward and, 336
Fuller, Margaret, 171
Fulton, DoVeanna S., xii, 14, 45, 248258, 304
funerals, 293
Furr, Anderson, 292
Future of Environmental Criticism, The (Buell), 315, 324
Gaddis, John Lewis, 96
Gaines, Ernest, 193194
Gale, Anthony, 160
gallows literature, 68, 7475, 77, 196, 351
Gama, Luís, 350
Gambia, 283, 372
Gara, Larry, 156
Gardner, Eric, xii, 12, 3650, 150, 336
Garner, Margaret, 31, 80, 191
Garrison, William Lloyd
American Antislavery Office and, 340
anti-slavery lecture tour of, 155
on Constitution, Douglass and, 67
his “Preface” to Douglass’ narrative, 235237, 261262, 299301, 308
historians and, 64
Liberator and, 68, 299
My Bondage and Freedom and, 9
Garrison family papers, 39
Garvey, Ellen Gruber, 40
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.
AANB, 43
on authorship/composition, 308
Black Biographical Dictionaries, 43
on Black literary tradition, 70
BPLP, 40, 41
The Classic Slave Narratives, 119, 337, 344345
Figures in Black, 73
Flynn and, 45
on literacy, 268
The Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Woman Writers, 3940, 41
The Slave’s Narrative (see Slave’s Narrative, The)
“Writing ‘Race’ and the Difference It Makes,” 70
genealogical records, 46
“Generation of Postmemory, The” (Hirsch), 415
Genette, Gérard, 300
Genovese, Eugene D., 5, 9192, 136138, 266, 325 (p. 448)
geography
Black freedom and, 268
categorizing by, 7, 15
Douglass on plantation, 172173
of escape, 325326
Old Testament types, tropes, and, 325
Thomas on, 7, 15, 328342
George, David, 287288, 352
George, Henry, 278
George Anderson (Dimock), 194
Georgia
Ball on farms in, 322
Becoming Free in the Cotton South on, 130
FWP interviews in, 103, 109, 289292
George in, 352
The Hermitage Slave Quarters, photograph of, 137f
Gerhardt, Christine, 315, 319
Gerzina, Gretchen, 45
Ghana, 283, 367
Gilbert, Olive, 204
Gilded Age, The (Twain & Warner), 189
Gillam, Cora, 143
Gilroy, Paul, 341, 371
Glenelg, 356
Goddu, Teresa A., xii, 13, 149161
Go Down, Moses (Faulkner), 192
Godwin, William, 376, 381
Gone With the Wind (Mitchell), 191, 193
Goodell, William C., 79
Good Woman (Clifton), 310
Gordon, Miles, 126, 132
Gordon, Samuel, 126
Gordon-Reed, Annette, 309
Gore (overseer), 244
Goree, Jordan, 139
gothic, 149
Gough, John, 125126, 132
Gough, Priscilla, 125126
Gould, Philip, 72, 73, 372
Gould, Virginia Meacham, 254
Grandy, Moses
Andrews on, 340
freedom purchase by, 73
narrative of, 69, 7173, 151, 153, 160, 340
Thompson and, 151
“Grapevine in the Slave Market” (Troutman), 258
Grason, Jerome, 127, 132
Gray, Thomas R., Confessions of Nat Turner, 68, 75, 81, 213, 289
Grayson, Anna Maria, 127
Grayson, Herbert Upton, 127
Grayson, Jerome Bonaparte, 127
Grayson, John Armstead, 127
Grayson, Julia, 127
Grayson, Mary Jane, 127
Grayson, Tolliver, 127
Green, Alice Prophet, 426427
Green, Elisha, 224, 228
Green and Russell, printers, 340
Greene, Jack, 419
“Greening of African-American Landscapes, The” (Gerhardt), 315
Greenwell, Augustus, 129
Greenwell, French V., 128
Greenwell, Gustavus, 128
Grenada, 283
Griffin, Charles, 130
Griffith, David, 123
Griffiths, D.W., 191
Grimes, William
advocates for, 77
Andrews and descendants of, 45
Ashton on, 82
narrative of (see Life of William Grimes, The)
Grimké, Sarah & Angelina, 64
Gronniosaw, Betty, 282283
Gronniosaw, James Albert Ukawsaw, 279, 280283, 383
guardianship, 127
Guinea, 268, 372, 421
Gusdorf, George, 24
Gutman, Herbert G., 5, 92
Guyana, 350
Hackett, Nelson, 357
Hair-Breadth Escape from Slavery to Freedom (Troy), 356
Haiti, 211213, 351
Haley, Alex, 31, 192194
Hall, Florence, 362, 363, 367 (p. 449)
Hall, Samuel (activist), 26
Hall, Samuel (pension witness), 125
hall-and-parlor house, 135
Hamilton, 356
Hamilton, Alexander, 69, 70
Hamilton, Thomas, 4
Hammon, Briton, 73, 339, 340
Hannah, 238
Hanno, Joseph, 68, 81
Hard-Scrabble Calendar, 428
Harper, Frances E.W., 187189, 303
Harriet Jacobs: A Life (Yellin), 46, 50
Harriet Jacobs Family Papers, The (Yellin), 42, 46, 4950
“Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents” (Foster), 3738
Harris, Joel Chandler, 26
Harris, Leslie M., 271
Hartman, Saidiya V., 70, 172, 243, 245, 309, 408
Harvard University, 39
Hastings, Selina, 383
Hatt, Samuel, 352
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 384
Hayden, Clement “Clem” (father), 128, 132
Hayden, Clem (son), 128
Hayden, Eliza, 128, 129
Hayden, Henry, 128
Hayden, Susan, 128
Hayden, William, 329
healers, 291, 317. See also conjurers
“Hearing Slave Voices” (Lean & Burnard), 350
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 24, 166
Heglar, Charles J., 102, 302, 315
Heller-Roazen, Daniel, 411
Hemings, Elizabeth, 140
Hemings, Eston, 91
Hemings, John, 140
Hemings, Sally, 91, 309
Hemingway, Ernest, 186, 188
Henderson, Phoebe, 138
Henny, 57
Henry, George, 73, 221
Henry, John, 132
Henry, Patrick, 300
Henson, Jim, 356
Henson, Josiah
An Autobiography of Rev. Josiah Henson, 9, 219220
An Autobiography of The Reverend Josiah Henson, 89
Biblical references of, 325
Canada and, 353
Eliot and, 8
freedom, desire for, 57
The Life of Josiah Henson, 8, 151, 260, 337, 354
Lobb and, 9
manhood in works of, 265
occupation of, 54
Phillips on narratives of, 59
on property, 318, 324
on proslavery sermons, 56
travels of, 337
Truth Stranger than Fiction, 89, 152, 184, 340341
Uncle Tom’s Cabin and, 89, 186, 354
Uncle Tom’s Story of His Life,” 9, 354
The Hermitage Slave Quarters, 137f
Herndon, Ruth Wallis, 423
“Heroic Slave, The” (Douglass), 265
Heth, Joice, 394
Hewitson, Mark, 2930
Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, 43
Hine, Darlene Clark, 4243
Hirsch, Jerrold, 104, 109
Hirsch, Marianne, 415
historiography of slavery, 5863, 9098, 165166, 191
History & Memory (Fabre & O’Meally), 16
“History of Abu Bakr al-Sadiqa, The” (Madden), 367368
History of Mary Prince, The (Prince)
authorship of, 347, 348
community and, 169
on environment, 168169
on knowledge of slavery, 170
literary criticism of, 363
memories in, 168169
“Narrative of Louis Asa-Asa” in, 348, 350, 363
Pringle and, 347348
publication of, 345
on punishment, 241244
on sex and sexuality, 239244
Sharpe on, 348
on slave trade, 238240 (p. 450)
History of Mary Prince (Cont.)story of, 284, 347
Strickland and, 347348
Sturge and, 349
on torture, 169, 242
History of the Amistad Captives (Barber), 197, 213216, 289
History of the Negro Race in America (Williams), 60, 64
History of the US from the Compromise of 1850 (Rhodes), 58
Hodge, Arthur William, 372
Hodges, Alonzo, 123
Hodges, Caleb, 123
Hodges, Deana, 123
Hoffman, Alice & Howard, 112
Holocaust, 29
Home Refugee Society, 353
Hopkins, Mary Ann, 119
Hopper, Daniel, 125
Hopper, Issac T., 160
Hopper, Jack, 123
Hopper, Maria, 123
Hopper, Owen, 125
Hopper, Samuel “Sandy,” 125, 132
Hopper, Sarah, 125
Horrors of Slavery, The (Johnson), 357
Horrors of Slavery, The (Wedderburn), 350
Horton, James, 267
Hostead, John, 125
House of Bondage, The (Roger), 278
Howe, Samuel Gridley, 356
Hugh, “Master,” 184185, 272
Hughes, Louis, 7
Hume, David, 24
Humes, Gilbert, 428
Hunt, Leigh, 379380
Hunter, Carolina, 96
Hurston, Zora Neale, 103, 105, 107, 308309
I Belong to South Carolina (Ashton), 41, 330, 331
identity
Black literary, 371
collaboration and, 309, 365
of Douglass, 8081, 151
education and, 222
environment, perspective, and, 15, 169
fugitive, 430
Fulton on women’s, 248
Hartman on shared, 309
illustrations and, 199, 200
indexing and, 333
literacy and, 151, 180, 307, 365
master’s, architecture of, 243
memory and, 29
music and, 399
portraits and, 202, 203
in Reconstruction, 299
religion and, 56, 222
slavery and, 372
transatlantic, transcultural, 381
Illinois, 46, 336
illustrations
authorship and, 198199
cartoons, 3
deterioration of extant, 38
engravings, 197204, 212216
European traditional, 201
frontispiece, 198212, 215
lithographs, 160, 196, 202
photographs, 14, 44, 202, 205207
sensationalism and, 196, 216
sentimentalism and, 202, 207, 212
symbolism in, 203
techniques for, 200
Western art and, 198
woodcuts (see woodcuts)
Wood on, 14, 196216
Impartial Citizen (Ward), 355
Impossible Witness (McBride), 46, 346, 375
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (Jacobs)
authorship of, 3738, 151, 250
Blassingame and, 37
canonization of, 36
Child and, 37, 151, 250
on ears, hearing, and sound, 391392
environmental criticism of, 321, 323, 325
extracts from, in periodicals, 160
on family and community life, 278, 289, 338
Foster on, 3738, 250
Fulton on, 250253
on “the genealogies of slavery,” 310
illustrations in, 204 (p. 451)
literary criticism of, 4, 43, 44, 184
locations of, 325, 338
on master, 391
memories in, 24
plot structure of, 250
popularity of, 250
publication of, 38, 152, 153
sensationalism and, 171
on sex and sexuality, 56, 245247, 291293, 391392
veracity of, 37
“incorporated embodiment,” 264, 271
Incorporations (Cherniavsky), 264
India, 363
Indiana, 40, 41, 103
Indianapolis Freeman newspaper, 40
individualism
American Romanticism on, 384
economic independence and, 274
entrepreneurial ideal and, 266
freedom and, 184
manhood and, 222, 270
markers of, 227
individuality, 200, 202, 203, 293, 364
industrialization, 189
“Inkle and Yarico,” 366
Inquisition, 350
“In Respect to Females” (Foster), 249
In Search of Satisfaction (Cooper), 193194
Interesting Narrative (Baquaqua), 345, 350351
Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (Equiano)
audience for, 38
Baker on, 272, 274
canonization of, 197
circulation of, 38, 377
on community, 285287
copyright on, 376
editions of, 26
on England, 384
environmental criticism of, 316317
on family, 278, 279
illustrations in, 197, 199200
on interracial relationships, 384
on Jamaica, 350
legal status and, 74
literacy and freedom in, 268
literary criticism of, 4, 341
locations of, 338339, 383384
manumission certificate in, 272
on marriage, 285
materiality in, 73
memory and, 2324
on middle passage, 286
Monteath and, 350
publication of, 197, 376377
reviews of, 376, 381
rhetorical strategies of, 174
Romanticism and, 384
Taylor on, 316
interviews
by American Freedman’s Inquiry Commission, 110
Blassingame’s in Texas, 113
Byrd’s in Virginia, 109
factors affecting, 21, 2829
of former slaves, circa Civil War, 110
historian’s use of, 62
Mather’s with Hanno, 68, 81
Nixon’s in Alabama, 95
Reddick’s in Kentucky, 103
reliability of, 28
for University oral histories projects, 2728, 62
Iola Leroy (Harper), 187189
Iraq, 194
Irish, 300301, 429
“I Rose and Found My Voice” (Stepto), 35
Irving, Washington, 384
Islam, 279280, 282, 368
it-narratives, 7071, 75
Ito, Akiyo, 38
“‘I Was Born’” (Olney), 6, 23, 71, 150
I Was Born a Slave (Taylor), 154, 316319, 321326
Jackson, Alverna, 127
Jackson, Andrew, 151, 157
Jackson, Ellen, 257258, 305
Jackson, Henry, 127
Jackson, John Andrew, 329
Jackson, Julia Grayson, 127 (p. 452)
Jackson, Leon, 37, 151
Jackson, Martin, 113
Jackson, Mattie
memories of, 304
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson, 225, 252253, 256258, 298, 303305
Thompson and, 303305, 308
Jackson, Westly, 305
Jacobs, Donald M., 110
Jacobs, Harriet
copyright to works of, 154
as house slave, 55
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (see Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl)
letters of, 251252
on memory, 24
papers of, 42, 4950
portrait of, 204
on prejudice and job seeking, 187188
publisher interactions with, 38
sales of book by, 156
Stowe and, 153
on writing, 251
Yellin biography of, 46, 50
Jamaica, 345, 349350, 364, 366
James, Henry, 186
James, Thomas, 228
Jameson, Aron, 142
Jarvis, Charley, 124, 130131, 132
Jay, John, 69, 70
Jefferson, Thomas
on Africans, 421
on agrarian reform, 319321
as envoy to France, 140
John Hemings and, 140
on memory, 24
Sally Hemings and, 91, 309
on writing, 24
Jeffrey, Julie Roy, 25
Jenkins, Sandy, 57
Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, The (Thwaites), 351
Jeune, Olivier le, 351
Jewett, John, 152, 340341, 355
Joanna’s Narrative, A West Indian Tale, 366
Johnson, Charles R., 193
Johnson, Charles S., 91
Johnson, Joseph, 376, 380, 381, 384
Johnson, Rachel, 119
Johnson, Samuel, 377
Johnson, Walter, 238240, 365
Johnson, William Henry, 394
Johnson, William H.H., 357
Johnstone, Abraham, 68, 81
Jones, Edward P., 193194
Jones, Thomas H., 9, 224, 330, 334
Journal of Negro History, 27, 42, 60, 91
Joyce, Justin A., xii, 13, 165181
JSTOR database, 27
Jubilee (Walker), 193194
Kachun, Mitch, xii, 1112, 2132, 45
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 355
Kant, Immanuel, 24, 71
Kaufman, Paul, 186
Kazanjian, David, 73
Keckley, Elizabeth
marriage of, 254255
narrative of (see Behind the Scenes)
Kelley, Edmond, 152
Kelley, Robin, 98
Kentucky
Bibb on, 323, 353
Brown (William Wells) in, 1
education in, 223
FWP interviews in, 103
Green on, 224
Hayden on, 329
Jacksons in, 305
Kentucky State University interviews in, 2728
Marrs on, 223
Mt. Lebanon Plantation Slave Quarter, photograph of, 137f
Reddick interviews in, 103
Smith on, 225
Wash in, 46
Kerber, Linda, 320
Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, A (Stowe), 11, 44, 79, 159160
Kimber, Edward, 143
Kimmel, Michael, 267, 270
Kindred (Butler), 193194
King, Boston, 73, 288, 352 (p. 453)
King, Mary, 374
King Philip’s War, 418
Kirkpatrick, Kathyrn, 384
Knapp, Isaac, 340
knitting, 205f, 206
Known World, The (Jones), 193, 194
Kolchin, Peter, 133
Krueger, Robert, 350
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 104
Kun, Josh, 399, 410411
labor
abolitionism and, 188
Adams on, 226
agricultural, 318319
Carnegie on, 306
Civil Rights movement and, 194
Davis on, 252
DeForest on, 188
Douglass and, 185, 187188, 272
free, 188, 321, 324
Fulton on, 248, 251258
Jacobs on, 250251
Keckley on, 253
literacy and, 253
Melville and, 187
Phillips on, 45, 59
during Reconstruction, 263264
Santamarina on, 252, 255
slave rebellion/resistance and, 185, 318
Truth on, 252
Washington on, 189
Wertheimer on, 253
LaFantasie, G. W., 419
land records, 4647
Landscape of History (Gaddis), 96
Lane, Edward, 71
Lane, Lunsford
freedom purchase by, 73
narrative of, 44, 69, 7174, 152154, 332, 334
language use, 23, 166167, 347, 365
Lankford, George E., 108
Lapsansky, Philip, 39
Larence, Ellen, 126127
Larence, Mahala, 126127
Larence, William, 126127, 132
La Vie de Toussaint l’Ouverture (St. Remy), 212
Laws Respecting Women, 376
Lay My Burden Down (Botkin), 99n, 104
Lea, 141
leadership, 56
Lean, John, 350
“Learning to Read” (Harper), 303
Leaves of Grass (Whitman), 38, 385
Lee, Debbie, 377
Lee, Jarena, 223, 431
Leeward Islands, 372
legal matters
apprenticeship, 127, 349, 357358
Aristodemou on, 381
Black Codes, 127, 353
Blair on, 226
Brown (William Wells) on, 68, 79
civil and criminal court proceedings (see civil and criminal court proceedings)
contracts, 7274
criminal code, 74
Delaney on, 225
DeLombard on, 12, 6781
Douglass on, 6768, 7681
English, on slaves, 372373
Grimes on, 69, 7576, 81
guardianship, 127
juries, service on, 263
libel, 76
on literacy, 240, 303
Northup on, 7778
propaganda and, 78
slave codes, 68, 76, 79, 373
Thomas on, 381382
Williams on, 226
wills, 280
León, Gerardo Fulleda, 347
Leopard’s Spots, The (Dixon), 191
Lerche, Eliza, 395
Leslie, Kent Anderson, 310
Letters from an American Farmer (Crèvecouer), 320321, 325
Leverenz, David, 266, 267
Levin, Daniel, 194
Levine, Brian, 111, 112
Levine, Lawrence, 5, 92, 115
Lewis, Israel, 353
Lewis, Roscoe, 104, 105 (p. 454)
libel, 76
Liberation Historiography (Ernest), 45
Liberator, The
advertisements in, 152, 159, 340
Curry’s narrative in, 160
on distribution of Douglass’ narrative, 157
Douglass letter on law in, 7879
Eldridge’s narrative and, 422
extracts from Douglass’ narrative in, 158
extracts from Williams’ narrative in, 160
first issue of, 68
Liberty (Thompson), 380
Liberty Almanac, The, 157, 159
Liberty Bell, The, 160
Library Company of Philadelphia, 39
Library of Congress (LOC)
“Born in Slavery,” 105, 107108, 111
Botkin’s FWP collection in, 104
website of, 99n
Life, and Dying Speech of Arthur, a Negro Man, 69
Life, Experience, and Gospel Labours (Allen), 44, 74
Life and Adventures of James Williams, a Fugitive Slave (Williams), 226
Life and Adventures of Peter Wheeler, The (Wheeler), 151
Life and Adventures of Robert the Hermit (Trumbull), 6, 202
Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, The (Defoe), 198
Life and History of the Rev. Elijah P. Marrs (Marrs), 223224
Life and Labor in the Old South (Phillips), 45, 59
Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Douglass), 7, 25, 189, 202, 220, 227
Life of Charles T. Walker, D.D. (Walker), 339
Life of George Henry (Henry), 73, 221
Life of Henry George, The (George), 278
Life of Isaac Mason as a Slave, The (Mason), 278, 334
Life of James Mars (Mars), 329, 333, 334, 341
Life of John Thompson, The (Thompson), 322, 334335
Life of Josiah Henson, The (Henson), 8, 151, 260, 337, 354
Life of Rev. Thomas James (James), 228
Life of the Rev. Elisha W. Green (Green), 224, 228
Life of Toussaint L’Ouverture (Beard), 212
Life of William Grimes, The (Grimes)
on legal matters, 69, 7576, 81
location of, 333
profit from sales of, 152153
publication of, 45, 152
on racism, 69, 229
social class and, 225
study of, 219
Life of William J. Brown (Brown), 415, 416417, 419420, 424431
Light and Truth of Slavery, The (Aaron), 160, 201f, 202
Ligon, Glenn, 203
Lincoln, Abraham, 98, 264, 306307
Lincoln, Mary Todd, 253, 255256, 335
Lincoln, Willie, 255, 256
line engraving, 200
Listening to Nineteenth-Century America (Smith), 393, 411
literacy
aspirations for, 57, 299
bound out children and, 423
Burton on, 307
collaboration and, 298299, 303, 365
freedmen’s citizenship projects and, 298
freedom and, 268
FWP interviews and, 102
Gates on, 268
Gilroy on, 341
historians and, 9294
humanity and, 179
identity and, 151, 180, 307, 365
Jackson on, 257258
laws on, 240, 303
The Light and Truth of Slavery on, 201f
numeracy and, 268
pension records and, 124, 129
public model of, 179
religious conversion and, 223
Sandford on, 307
slave rebellion/resistance and, 303
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson on, 304305
Troutman on insurgent, 258 (p. 455)
urban vs. rural labor and, 253
literary criticism
canonization and, 36
material contexts and, 149150
Literary Dollars and Social Sense (Zboray), 38
literary history, Black, 1314, 70
literary societies, 179
lithographs, 160, 196, 202
Little, Malcolm. See X, Malcolm
Lloyd, Colonel, 173175, 244
Lobb, John, 9
Locke, Alain, 22
Locke, John, 74
Logan, Rayford, 4243
Loggins, Vernon, 22
Loguen, Jermain Wesley, 54, 337338, 353, 354355
Lomax, John A., 28, 103105, 109110
Lomax, Ruby, 105
London (Canada), 355
London (England), 283, 346, 354
Long, Fannie, 293
Longest Memory, The (D’Aguiar), 193, 194
Lost Family Found, A (Branch), 341
Loughran, Trish, 156
Louisiana
Brooks in, 292
free Blacks in, 419
FWP interviews in, 105, 107, 109
Northup in, 7778
slave movement to, 288
Louisiana Purchase, 288, 294
l’Ouverture, Toussaint, 211213, 379
Lucas, James, 98
lynching, 244, 331
Lyrical Ballads, The (Coleridge & Wordsworth), 379, 385
Lytle, Mark Hamilton, 98
Mackey, Frank, 351, 353, 354, 356
Madden, Richard Robert, 346347, 362, 363, 367368
Madison, James, 69, 70
Maguire, Ian, 187
mail, censorship of antislavery, 80
Maine, Henry, 72
Making of African America, The (Berlin), 417
Making of America database, 22
“Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe” (Spillers), 242243
managerialism, 263, 266
Mandle, Jay R., 264
Manhood and the American Renaissance (Leverenz), 266, 267
Manning, Abscom, 123
Many Thousands Gone (Berlin), 92
Manzano, Juan Francisco, 345, 346347
mapping, 168169
March, The (Doctorow), 194
marketing
anti-slavery lecture tours and, 156
of Blind Tom’s sheet music, 400
by Brown (Henry “Box”), 153
by Equiano, 200
by Truth, 207
Fabian on, 156
Jacobs on, 156
location and, 341
numbers used in, 155
Webb and, 155
Marrant, John, 73, 74, 352
marriages
arranged, in Africa, 280
Bibb on, 271, 273274
Brown (William Wells) on, 273
Douglass on, 270271
Equiano on, 285
Foster on, 254255
Franke on, 271
Gronniosaw on, 282
pension records and, 123124
polygamous, in Africa, 280
Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom on, 302303
Slavery in New York on, 271
Marrs, Elijah P., 223224
Mars, James, 329, 333, 334, 341
Marsh, Bela, 152
Marvelous Musical Prodigy, The, 395397, 400, 411
Marx, Karl, 71, 193 (p. 456)
Maryland
Ball in, 289, 292
Blind Tom concert in, 407
Douglass in, 222, 289, 322
Keckley in Baltimore, 255
pension records on slavery in, 125126
slave quarters in, 136f, 143
slavery law in, 373
Some Memoirs of the Life of Job on, 279280
Sotterly Plantation Slave Quarter, photograph of, 136f
Watkins on, 329
Mascuch, Michael, 71
Mason, Isaac, 278, 334
Mason, Regina, 45
Massachusetts
Anti-Slavery Society, 1
From Bondage to Belonging on Worcester, 334
Boston (see Boston)
Commonwealth v. Aves, 80
Douglass in, 222, 272, 300, 322
Lane in, 332
slavery law in, 373
Wheatley in, 283
The Worcester Slave Narratives, 7, 41, 330, 333335, 340
Massie, Ishreal, 141142
masters
definition of, 67
historian’s use of papers from, 9395
magistrates and, 349, 358
in pension files, 127128
portrayal of, 65
relationship to slave, 9192, 244
Slavery Abolition Act compensation for, 373
Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire (Burnard), 364
material contexts, 149161
materialism, 266
Mather, Cotton, 68, 81
May, Sam’l J., 262
McBride, Dwight A.
background of, xii
Impossible Witness, 46, 346, 375
on print culture, 13
“Reading Communities,” 165181
on Romanticism, 377
McCarthy, B. Eugene, 7, 41, 330, 333335, 340
McCaskill, Barbara, xii, 1415, 298310
McCoy, Beth A., 299300
McDowell, Deborah E., 1011, 270
McFeely, William, 184
McGill, Meredith, 150, 154
McHenry, Elizabeth, 38, 179, 180
McHenry, “Jerry,” 354355
McKoy, Millie-Christine, 225
Meachum, John Berry, 44
“Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro, The” (Douglass), 180
Melish, Joanne Pope, 23, 417418
Melville, Herman, 171, 180, 186187, 384
Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge (Eldridge), 415417, 419425, 430431
Memoirs of the Life of Boston King (King), 73, 288, 352
Memories of Childhood’s Slavery Days (Burton), 298, 305308
memory
accuracy of, 2829
African American history and, 16, 25, 28
Baquaqua on, 351
Cather on animated, 391
collective, 2425, 2930, 169
constructed nature of, 168
factors affecting, 21, 2829
FWP interviews and, 28, 111113, 115
identity and, 29
Kachun on, 1112, 2132
Levine on, 111, 112
Olney on, 23
postmemory, 16, 415416
reliability of, 28
theft of, 24
University oral history interviews and, 2728
“Memory Theory” (Hoffman), 112
men
artisanal tradition of, 266
entrepreneurial ideal of, 266
FWP interviews of, 104, 114115
market economy and, 14, 263
patrician paradigm of, 266268, 270
portraits of, 197203
traits of nineteenth century, 265
Men of Mark (Simmons), 42 (p. 457)
metaphors, 23
Metcalf, Nathaniel G., 428
Methodist Magazine, 352
Methodists, 292, 427
Mexico, 292
Michigan, 203, 225
Michigan Observer, The, 158, 160
Middle Passage (Johnson), 193
midwives, 291
military
Dunmore’s Proclamation on, 287
enlistment in, 263
pension for service in, 13, 119131, 271
Washington’s Continental Army, 287, 422
Mill, John Stuart, 385
Miller, Anna, 138139
Miller, Orton and Mulligan, 152
Miller, Randall M., 141
Miller, Steven F., 31, 91, 98
Millie-Christine, 394
Milton, John, 375, 384
Milwaukee, 7, 220, 329
Minges, Patrick, 292293
Mingo (Blind Tom’s father), 393
Mingo (FWP interviewee), 291
miscarriages, 104
Mississippi, 104, 107, 288
Missouri
freedom suit case files for, 48
Polly Wash in, 46
St. Louis (see St. Louis)
Miss Ravenal’s Conversion from Secession to Loyalty (DeForest), 188
Mitchell, Margaret, 191
Moby-Dick (Melville), 186187
modernism, 43, 186
Mohawk, 351
Molloy, Sylvia, 346347
Monteath, Archibald, 345, 349350, 363
Montejo, Esteban, 345347, 363
Montesquieu, 165, 166
Monticello, 91, 140
Montreal, 351, 353, 356357
Montreal Gazette, 357
Montserrat, 384
Moodie, Susanna, 347. See also Strickland, Susanna
Moody, Joycelyn K., xii–xiii, 16, 415431
Moore, A. M., 135
Moore, Samuel Downing, 351
Morattico plantation, 142
Moravian church, 349350
Moravian Society, 347
More, Hannah, 375, 380
Morgan, Edmund, 80, 185
Mormino, Gary R., 105
Morrison, Toni, 31, 191, 193194, 408
Morrow, Mandy, 143
Moses of Her People, The (Bradford), 8
Mt. Lebanon Plantation Slave Quarter, 137f
Mr. and Mrs. Prince (Gerzina), 45
Muir, John, 326
murder
by Hodge, 372
of Demby, 244
extradition for, 69
by Garner, of her child, 191 (see also Beloved)
Jacobs on, 246
of Maurepas’ family, 212
onboard the Amistad, 214
proslavery tales of, 93
sensationalism and, 65, 236
in Southampton slave revolt, 213
by Stielazen, 277
Murdoch, Francis B., 49
Murphy, Lawrence, 277
Musher, Sharon Ann, xiii, 9, 1213, 2728, 101116
music
of “Blind Tom,” 393412
folksongs (see folksongs)
identity and, 399
Kun on, 399
relaxing with, 293
slave impact on, 138
Muslims, 279280, 282, 368
My Bondage and Freedom (Douglass)
advertisements for, 155
on Black authorship, 76
consistency with other works, 7
on Constitution, 67
Garrison and, 9
illustrations in, 201, 202 (p. 458)
My Bondage and Freedom (Cont.)on labor, 185, 272
on legal matters, 6768, 7681
manhood and, 265, 270, 272274
manumission certificate in, 272273
publication of, 152
on religion, 222
sales of, 155
Myers, Amrita Chakrabarti, 96
My Southern Home (Brown, William Wells), 219, 227
Nancy, 336
Narragansett tribe, 422, 423, 426
Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Slaves of Surinam (Stedman), 210, 211f, 362, 363, 366, 376
Narrative of Bethany Veney, The (Veney), 225, 334
Narrative of Henry Box Brown (Brown & Stearns)
appendix of, 262
authorship of, 151, 260261
Douglass on, 180
illustrations in, 203
manhood and, 262, 274275
May address in, 262
Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown and, 9, 260262
preface of, 262
promotion of, 261, 262
sales of, 261
on slave as property, 81
Stepto and, 262
Narrative of Henry Watson (Watson), 152
“Narrative of James Curry,” 160
Narrative of James Watkins (Watkins), 329
Narrative of James Williams (Williams), 2223, 75, 77, 152, 157160, 340
Narrative of Joanna, The, 366
“Narrative of Louis Asa-Asa,” 348, 350, 363
Narrative of Lunsford Lane (Lane), 44, 69, 7174, 152154, 332, 334
Narrative of Sojourner Truth (Truth)
attention generated by, 225
audience for, 223
authorship of, 9
circulation of, 155
illustrations in, 204207
law and, 75
location of, 341
printing of, 152153
publication of, 152, 220
Narrative of the Adventures and Escape of Moses Roper (Roper), 4445, 155, 332, 338, 353
Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration (Rowlandson), 186
“Narrative of the Interesting Origins, A” (Foster), 37
Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, The (Bibb)
Biblical references in, 325
Canada and, 353
Cherniavsky’s incorporation and, 264
copyright to, 154
Douglass on, 180
environmental criticism of, 323, 325, 326
on hiding after escape, 326
illustrations in, 202203
location of, 338
manhood and, 262, 264, 265, 273274
on marriage, 271, 273274
on Ohio River, 325
publication of, 152, 260
Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture (Smith)
Cherniavsky’s incorporation and, 264
on commoditization, 69, 71, 73, 268
Cruz on, 74
Douglass and, 267
environmental criticism of, 317
Horton on, 267
location of, 333
manhood and, 262, 264, 267, 269270, 274
numeracy and, 268269
on property, 269, 274
on slave trade, 268
Narrative of the Life and Labors of the Rev. G. W. Offley, A (Offley), 333, 334
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Douglass)
abolitionists and, 9, 298, 299
advertisements for, 340
audience for, 67, 170179 (p. 459)
on Aunt Hester’s beating, 2324, 172, 236237
canonization of, 36
Cherniavsky’s incorporation and, 264
circulation of, 154
consistency with other works, 7
on Covey, 260, 267, 270
on ears, hearing, and sound, 392
environmental criticism of, 317
on family and community life, 278, 289290
on folksongs, 391, 392
Garrison’s “Preface” to, 235237, 261262, 299301, 308
George Anderson and, 194
Hartman on, 172
identity and, 8081, 151
ideology in, 184185
in libraries, 30
literary criticism of, 4, 183184
manhood and, 262, 264267, 270274
marketing of, 157
on marriage, 270271
on memory, 24
Moby-Dick and, 186
on murder of Demby, 244
My Bondage and Freedom and, 9
number of copies sold, 26
on patriarchy, 270
Peabody on, 364365
Phillips (Ulrich) on, 59
Phillips (Wendell) perfactory letter for, 261, 299301, 308
on prejudice and job seeking, 187188
publication of, 152, 155, 159, 340
Quarles’ edition of, 219
on religion, 222
rhetorical strategies of, 170179
sales of, 155
Smith and, 267
sound stories in, 410411
spirituality in, 183
Stepto on, 261262
Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (Brown)
Cherniavsky’s incorporation and, 264
Ernest on, 151
on family and community life, 278
on freedom, 260
illustrations in, 203
legal rhetoric in, 68, 81
literary criticism of, 184
locations of, 341
manhood and, 262, 264, 274
preface of, 262
publication of, 260, 261
purpose for writing, 9
Stearns’ book and, 9, 260262
Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy (Grandy), 69, 7173, 151, 153, 160, 340
Narrative of the Life of the Rev. Noah Davis, The (Davis), 201
Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars (Gronniosaw), 280283, 383
Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis and Martin Clarke (Clarke), 4344, 152, 155156, 322, 337338, 353
Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clarke (Clarke), 151, 160, 353
Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings, and Surprizing Deliverance of Briton Hammon, A (Hammon), 73, 339, 340
Narrative of the Writings of Andrew Jackson (Jackson), 151
Narrative of Thomas Smallwood, A (Smallwood), 354
Narrative of William Hayden (Hayden), 329
Narrative of William Wells Brown (Brown)
Biblical references in, 325
environmental criticism of, 318
on legal matters, 68, 79
literary criticism of, 184
locations of, 335
manhood and, 265
on marriage, 273
printing costs of, 152
publication of, 152, 260
sales of, 154, 155
slave code in, 68
on slave sales, 59
“Narratives of Fugitive Slaves” (Peabody), 364365
National Anti-Slavery Standard, The, 160
National Archives, 13, 119131, 271
national convention movement, 176 (p. 460)
National Manhood (Nelson), 263, 265266
Native Americans, 104, 186, 265, 288, 418419. See also specific tribes
Nature (Emerson), 385
“Nature of Slavery, The” (Douglass), 67
Nautchees, 288
Negro Affairs Committee, 104
Negro Author, The (Loggins), 22
“Negro Boy, The” (Hunt), 380
“Negro in Literature and Art, The” (Du Bois), 22
“Negro’s Contribution to American Art and Literature, The” (Locke), 22
Negro Seamen Acts, 80
“Negro Slave Family, The” (Frazier), 22, 60
Neither Fugitive nor Free (Wong), 69, 70, 72, 78, 80
Nell, William Cooper, 39, 42
Nelson, Dana, 263, 265266, 339
Nelson, John, 140
neomodernism, 43
“Neo-Slave Narratives” (Smith), 372
New Hampshire, 45
New Jersey, 336, 373
Newman, Richard S., 74
New Man, The (Bruce), 220221
New Orleans, 419
newspapers
in Black Literature collection, 40
court testimonies and depositions in, 363
in England, 375376
freedom suit coverage in, 48
postal distribution of, 223
purpose of, 180
slave narratives in, 25
on Union activities in St. Louis, 257
Newton, John, 375, 378
New York City
“Anti-Slavery Depository, Publication Office, and Free Reading Room” in, 157
Baquaqua in, 351
commodity exchanges in, 254
Douglass in, 270271
Gronniosaw in, 280, 282
Slavery in New York on, 271
New York Conspiracy, 80
New York State
Life of Rev. Thomas James on, 228
Narrative of James Williams in, 159
national convention at Buffalo, 176177
NYC (see New York City)
slavery law in, 373
Ward in, 336
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 168
Nigeria, 280282
Niles, Elisha, 317
Nixon, H. C., 95, 99n
North American Slave Narratives (Andrews), 41, 156
North Carolina
Aunt Sally on, 339
free Blacks “warned out” of, 73
FWP interviews in, 109, 292, 293
Jacobs in, 338
Keckley in, 335
Lane on, 332
pension records on slavery in, 126, 129
Roper on, 332
North Carolina Slave Narratives (Andrews), 7, 41, 7174, 330, 332
North-Side View of Slavery, A (Drew), 337, 340, 353, 355356
North Star, The, 180. See also Frederick Douglass’ Paper
Northup, Solomon
occupation of, 54
St. John and, 78
Twelve Years a Slave (see Twelve Years a Slave)
Wilson and, 78, 318
Notable Black American Women (Smith), 4243
Nova Scotia, 331, 352, 357
“Novelization of Voice in Early African American Narrative, The” (Andrews), 416, 420421
Novlin, Mary, 291
Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty (Price), 376
Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty (Priestley), 376
Occom, Samson, 382, 383
O’Connell, Daniel, 300301
O’Connell, Deidre, 394, 399, 400, 403407, 410411 (p. 461)
Octoroon (Picquet), 278, 291293
“Ode on the Slave Trade” (Coleridge), 379
O’Donovan, Susan E., 130
Offley, Greensbury Washington, 45, 333
Ohio, 158, 190191, 323, 353
Ohmsted, Frederick Law, 134136
Oklahoma, 99n, 109
“Old Clothes Scandal,” 256
“Old Ned,” 282
Oliver, Perry H., 394
Olney, James, 6, 23, 71, 150, 400
O’Meally, Robert, 16
Oronooko (Behn), 200
Othello (Shakespeare), 384
“Other Interesting Narrative, The” (Bugg), 38
Our Nig (Wilson), 38
Owens, Leslie Howard, 143144
Owens, Wade, 293
Oxford African American Studies Center, 43
Oxherding Tale (Johnson), 193
Page, Thomas Nelson, 26
Paine, Thomas, 376
Painter, Nell Irvin, 45, 152153
Palmer, Archibald, 349
Parfait, Clair, 152, 154, 156
Parker, Allen, 334
Parker, Caleb, 132
Parker, Peter, 128
Parker, Theodore, 188
Parkhurst, Henry M., 1
Paton, Diana, 349, 357358
Payne, Bruckner, 240
Peabody, Ephraim, 154, 364365
Peace of Paris, 352
Pearl, rebellion aboard, 80
Peculiar Institution, The (Stampp), 5, 61, 63, 91, 277
Peel, William, 356
Pen is Ours, The (Fagan & Bond), 40, 249
Pennington, Dylan, 272
Pennington, James W.C.
legal citations of, 81
narrative of (see Fugitive Blacksmith, The)
occupation of, 54
Pennsylvania, 25, 260, 356, 367, 376
Pennsylvania Journal, 376
pension records, 13, 119131, 271
Pequot War, 418
Perdue, Charles L., Jr.
on interviews, 28
Weevils in the Wheat (see Weevils in the Wheat)
Pereira dos Santos, Mariano, 350
Philadelphia Negro (Du Bois), 324
Phillips, Caryl, 193194
Phillips, Robert K., Weevils in the Wheat. See Weevils in the Wheat
Phillips, Ulrich B., 45, 5960, 91, 103, 105
Phillips, Wendell, 64, 67, 261, 299301, 308
Philosophy of History, The (Hegel), 166
photographs, 14, 44, 202, 205207
Picquet, Eliza, 278, 291293
Pierce, Yolanda, 317
Pilgrims, 300
Pillars of Salt (Cohen), 68, 69
“pise” buildings, 140141
Pitts, Reginald, 45
plantations
architecture of, 134136, 137f, 138f, 140142
arts, crafts, and practical skills on, 138140
Bassingame on, 5
economic and environmental challenges of, 321
geography of, 172173
Harris and Page’s stories of, 26
networks on/between, 55, 56
Phillips on, 45, 59
Schoepf on Virginian, 143
slave quarters on, 134136, 137f, 138f, 140144
slavery on, vs. urban, 254
Stampp on, 5
Thistlewood on Jamaican, 364
Wedderburn on Jamaican, 350
wild places outside, 317, 322323
Plea for Emigration, A (Shadd), 355
Poe, Edgar Allan, 384
Poem on the Bill Lately Passed for Regulating the Slave-Trade, A (Williams), 380
Poems by a Slave in the Island of Cuba (Manzano), 347
Poems on Various Subjects (Wheatley), 204, 283, 383
political power, 74, 104, 189, 263, 325 (p. 462)
Pooley, Sophia, 351352
pornography, 196
pornotrope, 236, 242
Portelli, Alessandro, 112
Post, Amy, 39, 251
postmemory, 16, 415416
postmodernism, 90
pottery, 138
Potts, Howard E., 108, 110
Poznanski, Joseph, 403407
Preston, Dickson J., 4546
Price, Richard, 376
Priestley, Joseph, 376
Prince, Mary
community and, 169
narrative of (see History of Mary Prince, The)
Warner and, 349
Prince, Nancy, 223
Pringle, Thomas, 347349
print culture
abolitionism and, 65, 69, 166
adaptation for, 23
archivally-based approaches in, 37
book history, 149, 152, 154, 156
Caribbean hybrid foundation of Black, 363
Douglass on, 76
“Early African American Print Culture” conference, 37
gallows literature, 68, 7475, 77, 196, 351
Goddu on material contexts, 13, 149
historian’s assessment of, 65
law and, 69
McBride and Joyce on, 13
Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge and, 420
numeracy and, 155, 268
Reconstruction and, 416
probate, 47, 48
Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, The (Davis), 64, 344
profit from sales, 152153
propaganda, 8, 23, 69, 78
property
Brown (Henry “Box”) on, 81
Brown (William Wells) on, 318
crime and status as, 7477
documents, in research on authors, 4647
The Federalist Papers on slaves as, 70
gallows literature and status as, 7475, 77
Henson on, 318, 324
it-narratives of, 7071, 75
manhood and, 266, 270271, 273274
ownership of, by free Blacks, 417, 422, 423, 426
religion and status as, 74
Smith on, 269, 274
Prophet, Hannah, 422
prostitution, 350
providence, 184
Providence Female Tract Society, 423
Provincial Freeman, The, 353354, 355
psychological assessment of slavery, 61, 63
Public Advertiser, 384
publication
cost of, 152153
histories of, 38
location of, 152, 156, 220, 334
location of narratives and, 328
material contexts of, 151156
number of, nineteenth century, 25, 219
of women’s narratives, 249
Pudd’n’head Wilson (Twain), 188189
punishment
Douglass’ description of, 174175, 178
The Federalist Papers on, 70
FWP interviews on, 104
Jacobs on, 246
Locke on, 74
Moby-Dick on, 187
personhood and, 76
Prince (Mary) on, 241244
submission via unpredictable, 55, 5758
Thistlewood on, 364
Pyatt, Jane, 293
quadroon, 374
Quakers, 419, 423
Quarles, Benjamin, 42, 64, 219
Quarterly Anti-Slavery Magazine, 22, 160
“Question of Ethics, A” (Carnegie), 306
quilting, 138, 139, 293
“Race, Violence, and Manhood” (Yarborough), 265266, 267
“Race Question in America, The” (Stanford), 306307 (p. 463)
race riots, 427428
Radano, Ron, 399, 411, 412
Randolph, Peter, 43, 224, 228
rape
breeding and, 237
Equiano on, 285
families and, 291
Foster on, 249
FWP interviews on, 111
Keckley on, 253
readers as witnesses to, 236
scopic terror from, 237
Simpson on, 277
in women’s vs. men’s narratives, 248, 249
rationalism, 384
Rawick, George
The American Slave, 3031, 39, 8990, 105, 107108, 143
Fisk University oral history interviews and, 105
indexes to works of, 107
From Sundown to Sunup, 5, 31
Reader’s Guide Retrospective, 22
Readex American Historical Newspapers, 22
realism, 149
Recollections of Slave Times (Parker), 334
Reconstruction
Andrews on reforms in, 228229
Bradford on District of Columbia in, 8
Du Bois on, 191, 263264
Dunning and, 93
family and community in, 294
FWP interviews on, 104
historians’ study of, 64
identity in, 299
labor during, 263264
Mandle on freedom in, 264
O’Donovan on, 130
print culture and, 416
racial violence in, 107
Reddick, Lawrence, 103
Redpath, James, 211
Reed, Ishmael, 193194
Reed, William, 130131
Reeve, Clara, 377
Refugees from Slavery in Canada (Howe), 356
Regosin, Elizabeth, xiii, 13, 119131
religion
Albert on, 293
Ashy on Fantee, 367
Black leadership in, 222223
Christianity (see Christianity)
Douglass on, 56, 175177, 222
Equiano on, 316
The Fanatics on, 190
First Great Awakening, 74
FWP interviews on, 104
identity and, 56, 222
Islam, 279280, 282, 368
property to personhood conversion by, 74
research using FWP collection, 115
Second Great Awakening, 74
songs in FWP collection, 115
The Story of Mattie J. Jackson on, 305
violence and, 176
Remembering Slavery (Berlin et al.), 31, 91, 98
Resistencia y cimarronaje (León), 347
revisionist histories of slavery, 28
Rev. J. W. Loguen, as a Slave and as a Freeman. A Narrative of Real Life (Loguen), 337338, 353, 354355
Reynolds, Emily E., 336
Reynolds, Joshua, 200
Rhode Island, 268, 415431
Rhodes, James Ford, 58
Richard, Shadrack, 289
Richardson, Lewis, 357
Rights of Man (Paine), 376
Riis, Thomas, 402
Ripley, C. Peter, 355357
Robert, 6, 202
Roberts, Anderson, 129
Roberts, Nelly, 129
Roberts, Solomon, 129
Robertson, John William, 352
Robeson, Paul, 192
Rodman, Samuel, 423
Roe, Nicolas, 380
Roger, Octavia, 278
Roll, Jordan, Roll (Genovese), 5, 136138, 325
Romanticism
abolitionism and, 170, 375380
in America, 384386
bondage and, 186, 187 (p. 464)
Romanticism (Cont.)concepts of, 372
in England, 374, 375, 379386
guarantees of, 348
interracial relationships and, 384
literary criticism of narratives and, 181
on Nature, 167
on self, 386
slavery and, 15, 374380
violence and, 172
Wheatley and, 382383
women’s rights and, 381
Roots (Haley), 31, 192194
Roper, Moses, 4445, 155, 332, 338, 353
Rowlandson, Mary White, 186
Royal African, The (Sessarakoo), 200
Ruggles, Jeffrey, 45, 261
Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom (Craft)
illustrations in, 207208
legal citations of, 68, 79
locations of, 330331, 341
writing of, 7, 298, 301303
Rushdy, Ashraf, 193
Russell, Irwin, 59
Sacks, Oliver, 394, 409410
Said, Omar ibn, 333, 341
St. Catharines, 355356
St. John, Thaddeus, 78
St. Louis
African American history, culture, and, 329, 335336
city directory listings in, 48
Delaney in, 4748, 336
Jacksons in, 257258, 304
Keckley in, 253254, 258, 335
“List of Free Negroes” in, 48, 49
probate records for, 48
Union occupation of, 257
St. Remy, M., 212
St. Vincent, 349
salt, 252
Sambo, 5, 193
Sammons, Mark, 45
Samuels, Ellen, 301
Sanborn, Geoffrey, 302
Sancho, Ignatius, 283
Sandford v. Scott, 2, 80, 335
Sandoval, Arturo, 362, 363
Sandwich, 353, 355
San Francisco Elevator newspaper, 40
Santamarina, Xiomara, 252, 253, 255
Sawyer, Fred, 129, 132
Sawyer, John, 129
Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman (Bradford), 208211, 225
Scenes of Subjection (Hartman), 70, 172, 243, 245, 309
Schacter, Daniel L., 110
Schantz, Mark S., 423, 427
Schoelcher, Victor, 347
Schoepf, Johan David, 143
Schomburg, Arthur, 39
Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Woman Writers, The (Gates), 3940, 41
Schulman, Ivan A., 346
Schwalm, Leslie, 26, 92
Schwartz, Marie Jenkins, xiii, 9, 12, 8998
scopic terror, 237, 241
Scott, Dred & Harriet
Delaney and, 49
Sandford v. Scott, 2, 80, 335
Scott, James C., 144
Scruggs, Lawson, 42
Second Great Awakening, 74
Second Treatise of Government, The (Locke), 74
Second World War, 2930
secret societies, 49, 104
Seguine, James, 125
Sekora, John, 3738, 68, 71, 149, 151, 299
self, Romantics vs. slave narrators on, 386
self-purchase fraud, 7273
Selling of Joseph, The (Sewall), 340
Senegal, 333
Senegambia, 279280
sensationalism
Black humanity and, 71
court cases and, 68
illustrations and, 196, 216
Jacobs and, 171
property to personhood conversion by, 74
sex and sexuality and, 65
violence and, 65, 236 (p. 465)
sentimentalism
Bibb and, 273
Black humanity and, 71
consensualism and, 72
Douglass and, 172173
illustrations and, 202, 207, 212
manhood and, 265
Oronooko and The Royal African, 200
rhetorical strategies of, 250, 354
sex and sexuality and, 65
slave narratives and, 71, 149, 186
violence and, 65
servant, definition of, 204
Sessarakoo, William Unsah, 200
Seven Years War, 294
Sewall, Samuel, 340
sex and sexuality
Abdur-Rahman on, 235247
in apprenticeship system, 349
Blassingame on, 293
Brown (Kimberly) on, 242
Cugoano on, 285
Cult of True Womanhood and, 249
family/community ideals/values and, 5556
Foster on, 249
FWP interviews on, 104, 111, 114, 277
Jacobs on, 56, 245247, 291293, 391392
Picquet on, 293
Prince (Mary) on, 239244
sensationalism and, 65
sentimentalism and, 65
Stevenson on, 292293
Williams on, 292293
Shadd, Mary Ann, 353354, 355, 357
Shadrach Minkins (Collison), 356357
Shaffer, Donald R., 121122
Shakespeare, William, 198, 384
Sharp, Granville, 378, 383384
Sharpe, Jenny, 348, 364
Shaw, Stephanie J., 92, 115
Sherman, William Tecumseh, 194
Sherrad, Lucinda, 135
Sibell, 367
Siemerling, Winfried, xiii, 15, 344358
Sierra Leone, 287, 352
silence, 240241, 345
Simmons, William J., 42
Simpson, Ben, 277, 294
Simpson, Emma (sister), 277
Simpson, Emma (wife), 277278
Sketches of my Life in the South (Stroyer), 330, 334
‘Sketch of a Negro Code’ (Burke), 378
Sketch of the Laws Relating to Slavery in the Several States of the United States of America (Stroud), 79
Skinner, Quentin, 184
Skipworth, George, 141
slave breeding, 55, 59, 237
slave codes, 68, 76, 79, 373
slave coffles, 59, 368
Slave Community, The (Blassingame), 5, 31, 62, 91, 193
slave gang, 322
slaveholders. See masters
Slave Life in Georgia (Brown, John), 24, 201, 319
Slave Narrative: Its Place in American History, The (Starling), 4, 68, 149, 185
slave narratives
chronological pattern in, 334
collaboration on, 298310, 364, 402403
conventions for, 6, 249
deconstructing, 90
definition of, 362
description of, 4
deterioration of extant, 38
etymology of, 22
Gates on classic, 119
goals of, 44, 321, 365
“hybrid” nature of, 372
pre- vs. post-Civil War, 219225, 229
proslavery responses to, 46
purpose of, 14, 25
rhetorical strategies of, 377
on self, 386
similarities in, 6, 23, 44
value of, 10
Slave Narratives:A Folk History of Slavery in the US from Interviews with Former Slaves (FWP), 22
Slave Narratives of Texas, The (Tyler & Murphy), 277
slave-owner. See masters
slave pens, 367 (p. 466)
slave quarters, 134–136, 137f, 138f, 140144
slave rebellion/resistance
accommodation and, 92
the Bauers’ study of, 6061
Cugoano on, 285
Elkins on, 105
environment and, 60
forms of day-to-day, 144
Fulton on women’s, 248
FWP questions on, 104
Hall on, 26
images of, 211216
justification for, 223
as labor uprising, 185, 318
literacy and, 303
Myers on women’s, 96
religion and, 56
roles and, 55
selfhood and, 221
shipboard, 197
silence and, 241
spies and, 175
University oral history interviews on, 28
Vlach on, 144
slavery
capitalism and, 266
effects of, 10
historiography of, 5863, 9098, 165166, 191
identity and, 372
knowledge of, 1, 170
Montesquieu on Christianity and, 165
plantation vs. urban, 254
psychological assessment of, 61, 63
representations of, 1, 4
revisionist histories of, 28
Romanticism and, 15, 374380
Slavery (More), 380
Slavery Abolition Act, 373
Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (Elkins), 5, 6162, 91, 105, 193
Slavery in New York (Berlin & Harris), 271
Slavery in the United States (Ball)
advertisements for, 152
copyright to, 154
extracts from, in periodicals, 160
Fischer and, 151, 322
locations in, 289, 292, 322
printing of, 152
publication of, 156
Quarterly Anti-Slavery Magazine on, 22
on race and gender, 339
slaves
Bauers on behavior of, 6061
in census, 47, 48, 133
definition of, 67
relationship to master, 9192
Slave’s Friend, The, 160
Slave Ship, 372
Slaves in the Family (Ball), 310
Slave’s Narrative, The (Davis & Gates), 2425, 27, 149, 150
Slave Songs of the United States, 408
Slave Testimony (Blassingame), 153, 293
slave trade
auction depictions, 238239
Brown (William Wells) on preparations for sale in, 59
Cugoano on, 284
Du Bois’ dissertation on, 60
family division by, 55, 58
FWP interviews on, 96, 104
Johnson on, 238240
legal end to African, 277, 288
Nixon interviews on, 95
pension records on, 125128
Prince (Mary) on, 238240
prosecution of traders, 7778
Rhode Island’s illegalization of, 417418
Romanticism and, 15, 375, 377380
Smith on, 268
Transatlantic Slave Trade Database on, 344
white women and, 239
Slave Trade Act, 372373
Slave-Trading in the Old South (Bancroft), 60
Slotkin, Richard, 68
smallpox, 128
Smallwood, Thomas, 353, 354
Smith, Adam, 320, 321
Smith, Amanda, 222, 225
Smith, Charlotte, 380381
Smith, Craig V., 151
Smith, Cuff, 269 (p. 467)
Smith, David, 222
Smith, Harry, 225226
Smith, James L., 227, 333, 338
Smith, Jessie Carney, 4243
Smith, Kimberly, xiii, 15, 315326
Smith, Mark, 393, 411
Smith, Meg, 269
Smith, Solomon, 269
Smith, Valerie, 372
Smith, Venture
family of, 269
freedom purchase by, 73, 268
Niles and, 317
Smith College, 39
Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 378
Sojourner Truth (Painter), 45
Solomon, Job Ben, 279280
Some Memoirs of the Life of Job (Bluett), 279280
Somerset, James, 372, 383
“‘Something Akin to Freedom’” (Sharpe), 348, 364
song sheets, 202, 203, 400, 405f
Sorisio, Carolyn, 253, 256
Sotterly Plantation Slave Quarter, 136f
Soul by Soul (Johnson), 238240, 365
Souls of Black Folk, The (Du Bois), 324
sound stories
of “Blind Tom,” 392412
of Jacobs, 391392
Radano on, 399
recorded FWP interviews, 105, 107, 109
in songs (see folksongs)
Weheliye on, 399
Southall, Geneva, 394, 400
South Carolina
Crèvecouer on Charleston, 320
FWP interviews in, 103, 109, 113, 290291
George on, 288
I Belong to South Carolina, 41, 330, 331
Jackson on, 329
slave quarters in, 135, 143
Southern Quarterly Review, The, 160
Southern University, 2728, 62
Southey, Robert, 375, 380
South-side View of Slavery, A (Adams), 59, 337, 355
Sparks, Elizabeth, 290
“Speech Made by a Black of Guardaloupe,” 362, 363, 366
“Speech of John Talbot Campo-bell, The,” 366
“Speech of Moses Bon Sàam,” 366, 367
Spielberg, Stephen, Amistad, 31, 197
Spillers, Hortense, 236, 242243
Spindel, Donna J., 2829, 111
spinning yarn, 138139
spirits, 98
Spivak, Gayatri, 364
Spurgeon, Charles H., 339
Stadiem, William, 310
Stampp, Kenneth, 5, 61, 63, 91, 277
Stanford, Peter Thomas, 306308
Stanley, Amy Dru, 272
Staples, Robert, 265266
Stark, Sylvia, 357
Starling, Marion Wilson
bibliographic efforts of, 39, 363
on number of narratives, 344
on researching narratives, 4
The Slave Narrative, 4, 68, 149, 185
Stauffer, John, 334
Stearns, Charles
anti-slavery lecture tour of, 261
Narrative of Henry Box Brown (see Narrative of Henry Box Brown)
occupation of, 260
Stedman, Joanna, 366
Stedman, John Gabriel, 210, 211f, 362, 363, 366
Stepto, Robert B., 8, 35, 43, 261262
Sterling, Dorothy, 39, 96
Sterling/Robertson Plantation Slave Quarter, 138f
Stevenson, Brenda E., xiii, 14, 277294
Steward, Austin, 329, 337, 353
Stielazen, Alex, 277
Still, William
on Black Canadian communities, 356
Ripley on fugitive slaves and, 356
The Underground Rail Road (see Underground Rail Road, The)
stipendiary magistrates, 349, 358
stipple engraving, 200 (p. 468)
“Story of a Fugitive” (Hopper), 160
“Story of Anthony Gale” (Gale), 160
Story of Archer Alexander, The (Eliot), 341
Story of Mattie J. Jackson, The (Jackson), 225, 252253, 256258, 298, 303305
Story of the Life of John Anderson, The (Twelvetrees), 6869, 201
Stowe, Harriet Beecher
Henson and, 89
Jacobs and, 153, 250
A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 11, 44, 79, 159160
legal discourse by, 69
Lincoln and, 250
Lobb and, 9
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (see Uncle Tom’s Cabin)
“‘Strangest Freaks of Despotism, The’” (Abdur-Rahman), 237, 241
Strickland, Susanna, 347349
Stroud, George M., 79
Stroyer, Jacob, 330, 334
structure, 23
Struggles for Freedom (Watkins), 68, 329
Stuckey, Sterling, 186
Sturge, Joseph, 349
Styron, William, 193
suicide, 421
Sumner, Charles, papers of, 39
Supreme Court
Brown v. Board of Education, 61, 374
Sandford v. Scott, 2, 80, 335
Suriname, 366
Sydenham, Lord, 357
Szendy, Peter, 412
“Talking Book and the Talking Book Historian, The” (Jackson), 37
Tappan, Lewis, 2223, 77
taxes, Constitution’s three-fifths clause and, 47
Taylor, John, 321
Taylor, Samuel S., 107, 109
Taylor, Yuval, 154, 316319, 321326
Temple University, 39
Texas
Blassingame interviews in, 113
FWP interviews in, 103, 107, 134, 138139
slave movement to, 288
The Slave Narratives of Texas, 277
slave quarters in, 135, 138f, 143
Sterling/Robertson Plantation Slave Quarter, photograph of, 138f
textile industry, 138139, 252, 288
textual masochism, 241, 243
Thayer and Eldridge (publisher), 38
Thirteenth Amendment, 120121, 374
Thirty Years a Slave (Hughes), 7
“‘This is no hearsay’” (Clarke), 337
Thistlewood, Thomas, 364
Thomas, Brook, 72
Thomas, Helen, xiii, 15, 371386
Thomas, “Master,” 175176
Thomas, Rachel, 128
Thomas, Rhondda Robinson, xiii, 7, 15, 328342
Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings (Gordon-Reed), 309
Thompson, George, 151, 155
Thompson, James, 380
Thompson, John, 322, 334335
Thompson, L.S., 303305, 308
Thoreau, Henry David, 165, 166, 171, 326
Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species (Cugoano), 283, 284, 383
Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade (Newton), 378
Three Years in Europe (Brown, William Wells), 374
Thwaites, Reuben Gold, 351
“‘Til Death or Distance Do Us Part” (Foster), 254255
Tirrell, Captain, 305
tobacco, 322
Tobin, James, 384
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 69
To Embark, 203
Tomkins, Jane, 250
Toronto, 354, 355
torture
at Abu Ghraib, 194
descriptions of, sales and, 236
Douglass on Gore’s, 244
Hartman on, 243
individual vs. collective, 169
lynching and, 244 (p. 469)
of Maurepas, illustration of, 212
Prince (Mary) on, 169, 242
To Tell a Free Story (Andrews), 36, 68, 119120, 374, 386, 403
Toussaint l’Ouverture a Biography and Autobiography, 211213
Transatlantic Slave Trade Database, 344
transgressive erotics, 245
Tribute for the Negro, A (Armisted), 198
Troutman, Philip, 258
Troy, William, 356
True American, The (Ward), 355
Trumbull, Henry, 6, 202
Truth, Sojourner
anti-slavery lecture tours of, 153, 155, 205206
biographical data on, 49
death of, 220
Douglass and, 205206
Gilbert and, 204
on labor, 252
narrative of (see Narrative of Sojourner Truth)
portraits of, 204207
speeches of, 78
Truth Stranger than Fiction (Henson), 89, 152, 184, 340341
Tubman, Harriet, 8, 44, 208211, 225, 355