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date: 19 May 2019

(p. 675) Index

(p. 675) Index

Action Plan to Combat Organized Crime, see EU organized crime control policies
Administrative and/or civil law measures to control organized crime, 472, 555
In Australia, 615–616, 621, 624, 625, 625, 626
In Canada, 557, 565
In the European Union, 472, 584–585
In Japan, 240, 243, 250
In Italy, 131, 598–601
In money laundering control, 433, 436, 472, 474, 660, 663–664, 667
In the Netherlands, 407, 565–566
In New Zealand, 621, 624, 625, 626
In the United Kingdom, 436
In the United States, 80, 461, 464, 472, 538–539, 555, 556, 557, 563–566, 667
Albania
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 605
Organized crime activities in, 332, 605
Amphetamine,
Policies, plans or interventions targeting, 240, 644
Production of, 204, 207, 363, 613, 637
Organized crime actors involved in the production and trafficking of, 240
Use of, 59, 643
Andreotti, Giulio, 130, 136, 607
Anti-Mafia
Movement, 123, 135–137, 593–612
Policies, 122–123, 135–136, 601
See also Italy
Anti-money laundering regime, see Money laundering
Argentina
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 667
Organized crime activities in, 278
Asia/ Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), 617, 670
Asset seizure, forfeiture and/or confiscation
Definitions of, 658–659, 669 note 1
Criticisms of, 666–667
Future perspectives of, 667–669
In Argentina, 667
In Australia, 618, , 622–623, 624, 631 note 10
In Austria, 665
In Belgium, 667
In Canada, 555–557
In China, 415, 641–642
In connection with fraud, 464, 474
In connection with illegal exploitation of natural resources, 513
In connection with money laundering, 427, 436, 437, 439 note 2, 474, 574, 596, 655–659, 660, 663, 667, 668 note 1
In Europe, 574, 655, 657–659, 661–662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 670–671 note 32
In France, 655, 656, 665
In Germany, 656, 665, 667, 671 note 61
In India, 639
In Ireland, 436, 659, 664
In Italy, 101, 595–596, 603, 605–606, 607, 664, 666
In Japan, 250
In international law, 574, 657–658, 661–662, 664, 665
In Mexico, 667
In New Zealand, 621, 622–623,
In Nigeria, 259, 265
In Switzerland, 433, 556, 659, 665
In the United Kingdom, 436, 556, 656, 663, 664, 665
In the United States, 151, 439 note 2, 538, 555–557, 664, 667
In Thailand, 646
Models of, 663–666
(p. 676) Australia
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 613, 615–616, 618–628, 629–630
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 627
Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC), 616
Organized crime actors in, 614–615
Organized crime activities in, 612–613
Austria
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 395, 412, 665
Belgium
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 21, 667
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 134, 452
Organized crime actors in, 63
Organized crime activities in, 414, 509
Bonanno mafia family, 151, 154, 351, 534–535
Borsellino, Paolo, 1, 21, 131, 135, 593
Bōryokudan, see Yakuza
Brazil
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 511–512
Corruption in, 386, 513,
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 511–512
Deforestation in, 503, 511–513
Drug trafficking in, 255, 261
Bulgaria
Organized crime actors in, 388
Organized crime activities in, 431–432, 463
Cali Cartel, 183–185, 198, 205, 366, 377
Cambodia,
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 652
Organized crime activities in, 261
Camorra, 593–594, 607,
Activities of,
Counterfeited products and currencies, 133
Drug trafficking, 104, 125, 133
Extortion, 347
Involvement in legal markets, 125, 133, 347
Future perspectives of, 138
History of, 66–67, 69, 71, 81, 127, 129, 630
Internal organization of, 125
International ramifications of, 47, 125, 133, 630
Law enforcement action against, 136
Membership of, 603
Political functions of, 125, 131
Relationship with politicians, 125
Revenues of, 133
Rituals of, 128
Women involvement in, 335
Canada
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 549–566, 619
Organized crime actors in, 124, 554, 559
Organized crime activities in, 292, 410, 454
Cannabis (including marijuana),
Policies, plans or interventions targeting, 180–182, 200–203, 212,
Organized crime actors involved in the production or trafficking of, 196–197, 200–203, 206–207, 209, 297, 554
Use of, 239
Capone, Al (Alphonse), 58, 73–74, 76–77, 143–144, 159, 346, 406, 419, 668
Cardenas Guillen, Osiel, 204, 206, 208
Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), 670
China
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 224, 634–635, 640–642
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 60, 230–231
Organized crime actors in, 56–57, 220–225, 228–229, 384–385, 639–640
Organized crime activities in, 58–59, 60–61, 219, 226–228230–231, 489, 640
Chinese organized crime, 3, 7, 23, 25, 35, 36, 44, 56–60, 97, 127, 219–233, 321, 343, 354, 483, 485, 516, 540, 631, 639–641, 650–652
(p. 677) Activities of,
Cybercrime, 485
Debt collection, 226
Drug trade, 222, 227–228, 640
Extortion, 221, 226–227,
Human smuggling, 222–223, 228–230
Human trafficking, 222
Illegal gambling, 221–222, 226
Illegal trade in animal parts, 516
Involvement in legal markets, 224, 231
Involvement in politics, 221, 225, 227
Loansharking, 226
Money laundering, 226
Prostitution, 221–222, 226
Protection services, 222, 226
Sex business, 227
Vehicle theft, 226
Countermeasures taken against, 229–230, 639–640
Culture of, 224–226,
Ethnic embeddedness of, 231, 640,
Future perspectives of, 230–231
History of, 56–60, 220, 223–224, 640
Internal organization of, 220–226, 231
International ramification of, 219, 222–223, 228, 231, 640–641, 650
Institutions investigating into,
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF, United States), 230
Department of Homeland Security (DHS, United States), 230
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA, United States), 230
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI, United States), 230
Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC, Hong Kong), 229
Organized Crime and Triad Bureau (OCTB) of the Hong Kong Police Force, 229
Laws and policies against, 631, 640, 651, 652
Links between the Mexican traffickers and, 229
Links between the Russian Mafia and, 540
Links between Yakuza and, 61, 540
Membership of, 225
Promoting factors of, 227, 229, 231, 639
Relationship with politicians and government officials of, 225, 229
Relationship with the police of, 640
Research on, 223, 640
Revenues of, 228
Rituals of, 640
Size of, 220–221, 225
Social embeddedness of, 229, 231, 640
Victims of, 228
Women as actors in, 223
Cocaine,
Policies, plans or interventions targeting, 186–189, 189–191, 200–201, 203, 280, 372–373, 439, 586
Production of, 177, 180, 182, 361–362
Organized crime actors involved in the production and trafficking of, 45–46, 105, 134, 183–189, 205–208, 292, 296, 366–367, 369, 373–374
Trafficking of, 5, 39, 41, 101, 183–189, 363–374, 376–377, 615
In Colombia, 181, 190, 322, 369–370, 429,
In Mexico, 205–208, 212, 366
In Nigeria, 261
In Tajikistan, 368
In the United Kingdom, 371
In the United States, 369–371
Colombia,
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 186–191
Plan Colombia, 186, 187
Plan Patriota, 187
Corruption in, 177, 185
Guerilla groups in, 179
M–19, 179
National Liberation Army (ELN), 179
History of drug use, production and trade in, 180–183
(p. 678) Organized crime activities in,
Drug trafficking, 180–189, 279, 361–366, 368
Money laundering, 183, 189, 429, 439, 556
U.S. drug policy in, 186
Colombian criminal organizations, 3, 19, 97, 177–195, 552
Activities of,
Counterfeiting, 177
Cybercrime, 177
Drug trade, 45, 46, 106, 177, 180–189, 279, 361–366, 368, 369–370, 429
Extortion, 179, 186, 189
Kidnappings, 177, 186
Involvement in legal markets, 189
Money laundering, 183, 189, 429, 439, 556
Murders, 177, 184, 189
Oil theft, 189
Human trafficking, 177
Vehicle theft, 189
Future perspectives of, 191
Government policies against, 186–187, 191
History of, 178–180
In the United States, 19, 198, 369–370, 374–375
Internal organization of, 184, 189, 279, 296, 324, 330, 331
International networks of, 183, 186, 189, 261, 332, 333, 615, 619
Law enforcement action against, 182, 184–187, 189
Links with Mexican drug cartels, 186, 205, 207
Promoting factors of, 177–179, 183, 190, 191
Relationship with government officials and representatives, 184–187
Revenues of, 183
Social embeddedness of, 178, 183
Strategy of, 183–184
Victims of, 184, 187, 189
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, see UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime, see Council of Europe
Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters, see Council of Europe
Council of Europe, 23, 26, 422, 434, 493, 572, 576, 648, 657, 660, 662
Relevant treaties
Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime of 1990 (Strasbourg Convention), 574, 657, 658, 659, 661
Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism of May 16, 2005 Warsaw Convention 658, 659, 661, 662
Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters, 578, 580
Court of Justice of the European Union, 412, 573, 582
Cybercrime
Actors of, 474, 485
Definitions of, 482–484
Future perspectives of, 492–495
In Estonia, 489
In India, 637
In New Zealand, 629
In Singapore, 488
In South Korea, 489–490
In the United Kingdom, 461, 487
In the United States, 486
Law enforcement action against, 486
Organized crime actors’ involvement in, 485–486
Patterns of, 466, 485–492
Policies against, 492–494, 629
Promoting factors of, 487–488
Research on, 483–484, 494
Victims of, 461, 490–491
(p. 679) Denmark,
Anti-organized crime laws and policies, 391, 546, 662
Drug production and trafficking
Data sources on, 104, 106, 108–110, 360–361
Definitions of, 365–366
Future perspectives of, 265, 540
History of, 5, 58, 72, 144, 180–189, 196–231, 257–258, 369
In producer countries, 362
Afghanistan, 361–362
Australia, 614
Canada, 292–293, 363
China, 222–223, 643
Colombia, 9, 45, 177–191, 294 366
Japan, 240
Mexico, 196–213, 362, 366, 375
Morocco, 361–362
Myanmar, 644
Netherlands, 363
Nigeria, 255, 257
North Korea, 240
South Korea, 240
Taiwan, 240
United Kingdom, 363
United States, 181
In transshipment countries,
Albania, 45
Belgium, 133
India, 637
Iran, 361
Netherlands, 47, 322, 427
Nigeria, 255
Pakistan, 637
Tajikistan, 361
Turkey, 45
In consumer countries,
Australia, 613–614
Britain, 257, 371, 663
Europe, 361
New Zealand, 613–614
United States, 5, 16, 19, 186, 207, 369–370
Law enforcement action against, 203, 260–261, 372–373, 420, 531, 644
Organized crime groups involvement in, 46, 61, 125, 134, 160–161, 211, 227, 240, 255, 257, 373–389, 612–613
Patterns of, 5, 45, 59, 211, 361–364, 370, 375–389, 431
Promoting factors of, 190–191, 198, 257
Research on, 100–101, 108–110, 145, 146, 292, 393, 334, 360–361
Revenues of, 259
Victims of, 9, 108–110, 184, 186, 210–214, 323, 324
Electronic surveillance, 79, 260, 372, 466, 472, 490, 533–534, 638
See also Wiretaps
Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), 423, 502, 506, 507
Escobar, Pablo 141, 183–184, 205
Eurojust, 25, 579–581, 583–584
European Commission, 420, 573, 578, 581, 582, 584, 586, 668
European Council, 577, 579, 582–584, 586
European Court of Human Rights, 664, 666
European Court of Justice, see Court of Justice of the European Union
European Police Office (Europol), 3, 23, 25, 134, 303, 575–579, 581, 583–584, 586–587
EU (European Union), 1, 3, 5, 8, 14–15, 22–23, 25–26, 81, 86–87, 97, 254, 328, 388, 390, 403, 421, 448, 470, 472, 519, 552, 572–587, 647, 656–658, 660, 662, 670
(p. 680) EU organized crime control policies,
In general, 572–587
Relevant institutions,
Ad Hoc Working Group on International Organised Crime, 575–576
Standing Committee on Operational Cooperation on Internal Security (COSI), 582–583, 585–586
Relevant treaties, programs and other policy documents
Action Plan to Combat Organized Crime, 577
European Union Security Strategy, 580
European Union Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment, 585
Falcone Programme, 578
Internal Security Strategy, 584–585
Organised Crime Threat Assessment, 97, 388, 584, 586
Pre–Accession Pact on Organised Crime, 578
Hague Programme, 580–584
Justice and Home Affairs External Relations Multi–Presidency Programmes, 580
Maastricht Treaty, 573–574, 577–578, 587
Schengen Agreement, 574
Stockholm Programme, 25, 583–585, 668
Tampere Programme, 578–581, 583, 584
Treaty of Amsterdam, 573, 577, 579, 582–583
Treaty of Lisbon, 573, 582–583, 587
Treaty on the European Union 57, 573
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 573, 582
Future perspectives of, 585–586
History of, 572
Extortion 608–609
In the United States, 227–228
Involvement of Italian mafia groups in, 16, 37, 71, 131–132, 136, 328, 344–347, 350–353, 599
Involvement of Russian mafia groups in, 165
Involvement of Triads, 58
Involvement of Yakuza, 61
Falcone, Giovanni, 1, 21, 86, 131, 135, 140, 141, 575, 590, 591, 593, 601, 611,
Falcone Programme, see EU organized crime control policies
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), 420, 422–423, 425, 440, 560–561, 616, 617, 660–661, 672
Financial Intelligence Units, 422, 434, 438, 560–561, 579–580, 616, 670 note 21
Flying Dragons, 221, 227
Four Seas, 220–221, 227
France
Anti–organized crime laws and policies in, 66, 404, 408, 510, 546, 574, 656, 664,
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 254, 314
Organized crime actors in, 264, 331
Fraud
Actors of, 463
Data sources on, 460–461, 463, 470
Definitions of, 460–461, 463
History of, 466, 473
In Japan, 486
In Nigeria, 254–256
In the United Kingdom, 460
Law enforcement action against, 472–473, 494
Organized crime actors’ involvement in, 476
Patterns of, 464, 465, 471, 474
(p. 681) Policies against, 471, 475, 623, 684
Promoting factors of, 473, 475
Types of,
Advance fee/email 419
Banking, 463, 464, 477, 491–492
Carousel, 424, 463
Identity frauds, 411, 461, 462–463, 468, 469, 486
Mortgage, 471
Telemarketing scams, 469
Scams, 262–264, 419, 469, 492
VAT, 440
Research on, 462–464, 469, 470
Victims of, 467, 469
Gambino mafia family, 154, 409, 454, 486, 533–535
Germany
Anti-organized crime laws and policies, 21, 85–86, 88, 585, 656, 665, 667, 668
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime, 453
Organized crime actors in, 69, 81, 82, 83–84
Organized crime activities in, 98, 414, 430, 660
Research on organized crime in, 81–82
Genovese mafia family, 146–147, 154, 351, 533, 536
Giuliani, Rudolph, 532, 538, 565
Global Witness, 423, 503
Global Financial Integrity, 423
Golden Triangle
Heroin and metamphetamine production in, 223
Research on organized crime in the, 644
Golfo Cartel, 197, 204–206, 208
Guadalajara Cartel, 196–197, 201, 204–205
Guzmán-Loera, Joaquín, 204, 208, 365
Hashish, see cannabis
Heroin,
Policies, plans or interventions targeting, 200–201, 202–203, 372, 549,
Production of, 199–203, 207–208, 361–363, 366
Organized crime actors involved in the production and trafficking of, 60–61, 147, 190–191, 206–208, 221–223, 227–228, 290, 367, 373–375, 586
Trafficking of, 5, 34, 45–46, 100–101, 430, 359, 361, 363–365, 371, 613, 643
In Colombia, 181
In Mexico, 199–203
In Nigeria, 255, 261
In Tajikistan, 366, 368
In Thailand, 261
In the United States, 153
Hong Kong,
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 640–642, 649
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 229
Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC), 229, 640
Organized crime actors in, 58–60, 219, 220–222, 639
Organized crime activities in, 224–226, 640
Human rights violations, 6, 188, 202, 209, 213, 305, 308, 309, 312–313, 315–316, 381–382, 394, 489, 504, 515, 552, 621, 627, 629, 631, 647, 651, 664, 666
Human smuggling,
Actors of, 221, 222, 223, 227, 231, 393–385
Data sources on, 394–395
Definitions of, 381–383, 393–394
In China, 231, 384,
In Mexico, 375
Organized crime actors’ involvement in, 384–385
Patterns of, 45
Policies against, 389–392, 649
Promoting factors of, 385
Research on, 45–46, 109–110, 393
Victims of, 109, 393
Human trafficking
Actors of, 60–61, 279, 326, 383–385,
Data sources on, 324–325, 393–395
Definitions of, 381–382, 396
In China, 60
(p. 682) In Japan, 240
Organized crime actors’ involvement in, 6, 60, 388–389, 640
Patterns of, 381–383
Policies against, 389, 394, 396
Border controls, 389
Labor market policies, 390
Prostitution policies, 390–392
Promoting factors of, 385–388
Research on, 109, 279, 393–395
Victims of, 383–385, 387–388
Women as actors in, 109, 324–326, 388–389
Illegal arms trafficking,
Actors of, 58, 61, 445, 448–456
Definitions of, 445–447
Future perspectives of, 456–457
History of, 58, 61, 447–456
In Angola, 449
In Democratic Republic of Congo, 452
In Sudan, 456
In Ukraine, 450–451
Organized crime actors’ involvement in, 58, 61, 453–454
Patterns of, 446–447, 455–467
Policies against, 447–448, 449, 454–457
Promoting factors of, 455–457
Research on, 444–445
Illegal gambling
Actors of, 60, 75
Addiction to, 6, 402, 403
Definitions of, 403–404
History of, 73, 75, 402, 404–407
In Hong Kong, 226
In Japan, 239
Law enforcement action against, 153
Organized crime actors’ involvement in,
Asia, 60, 239, 410
North America, 75, 145, 408–410
Patterns of,
Internet gambling, 403, 410–414
Match fixing, 414–415
Policies against, 415
In Asia, 410
In Canada, 408–410, 411
In the United States, 405, 408–410, 411–412
Promoting factors of, 145
Research on, 403
Illegal exploitation of natural resources,
Data sources on, 502
Definitions of, 500
History of, 505–506, 509–510
In Brazil, 504, 511–513
In Democratic Republic of Congo, 507–509, 515
In Indonesia, 505–507
In Liberia, 509–510, 514
In Pakistan, 500
In Rwanda, 508
In Uganda, 508
Law enforcement action against, 511–513
Patterns of, 451–452, 501, 507–510, 514
Promoting factors of, 505, 514–516
Research on, 502–503, 517
Types of,
Illegal logging and deforestation, 451, 501–507, 511–518, 520, 521, 647
Victims of, 504–505, 506, 511–513
Inagawa-kai, 56, 235, 236, 242, 247–249
India
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 636–637, 638–639, 649
Organized crime actors in, 635–636
Organized crime activities in, 637–638
Indonesia
Anti–organized crime laws and policies in, 59, 652
Corruption in, 514–515
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 506–507
Deforestation in, 504–507
Organized crime activities in, 261, 503
Informants, see witnesses
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 420, 425, 440, 670
Investigative powers, 2
In Australia, 618, 624
In connection to money laundering, 662
(p. 683) In Italy, 595
In Europe, 576, 662
In the United States 533–536
Ireland
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 436
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 659
Organized crime actors in, 72
Organized crime activities in, 73–74, 81, 331
Italian-American Cosa Nostra, 2, 3, 5, 32–34, 36, 121, 124, 142–158
Activities of,
Arson, 153
Bootlegging, 147
Disposal of waste, 80, 153
Drug trade, 147, 153
Extortion, 143, 148, 151, 153
Fraud, 149
(Illegal) Gambling, 5, 143–144, 147, 153, 409
Infiltration of labor unions, 153
Involvement in legal markets, 80, 147, 151, 153, 585
Involvement in politics, 143
Labor racketeering, 147, 153
Loansharking, 144, 147, 153
Marketing of alcohol during the Prohibition period, 144
Money laundering, 153
Murder, 153
Prostitution, 147
Racketeering, 149
Tax evasion, 149
Witness tampering, 153
Definition of, 17–18
Ethnic embeddedness of, 149
Families, 149–150, 530
History of, 3, 16, 53, 70–71, 77–78, 124, 142–151
In film and literature, 1, 17
Internal organization of, 147, 150–151, 297–298, 530
International ramifications of, 124
Legislation against, 142, 148
Law enforcement action against, 80, 87, 124, 144, 150–151, 153, 529–530
Media coverage of, 145–146
Prominent figures of, 143–144
Promoting factors of, 3, 143
Research on, 17–18, 59, 71, 80, 148, 406
Revenues of, 345, 409
Rituals of, 555
Size of, 150
Trials, 148, 150–151, 153, 159, 535, 555
Victims of, 71, 142, 144, 146, 345
Italian mafia, 32, 33–34, 36–37, 48, 53, 121–140
Activities of,
Extortion, 132
Involvement in legal markets, 36–37, 132–135
Definitions of, 33–34, 121–123
Fear of, 1, 21, 132, 575
Future perspectives of, 138
In films and literature, 122–123
International expansion of, 134
Political dominion of, 121
Research on, 123
Revenues of, 136
Socio-cultural embeddedness of, 137
Trials, 123, 131, 136, 597, 607
Victims of, 135, 137
Italy
Anti-organized crime laws and policies, 20, 24, 84, 122–123, 135–136, 347, 348, 575, 593–601, 607–609, 664, 665, 666
Pre–trial detention, 455
Prevention measures, 598–601
Special incarceration regime, 136, 598, 605, 606
Witness protection programs, 135–136, 596
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime, 151
Direzione Investigativa Antimafia (DIA), 135–137, 601–607
Direzione Nazionale Antimafia (DNA). 135–137, 601–607
Prosecutor’s Offices, 86, 455
Organized crime actors in, 16, 32, 33, 47, 48, 70–72, 67–68, 77, 106, 121, 123–129, 142–143, 326–327, 328–329, 146–148, 152, 572
(p. 684) Organized crime activities in, 1, 21, 36, 72, 73, 81, 83, 101–102, 129–135, 149–151, 264, 349, 352–353, 408, 532, 607–609
Parliamentary anti–mafia commissions, 130, 134, 345
Japan
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 250, 234–235, 242–245, 347–348
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 245–246
Organized crime actors in, 56–57, 59–60, 234–242
Organized crime activities in, 234–236, 247–250, 486
See also Yakuza
Japanese organized crime groups, see Yakuza
Juárez Cartel, 205–206, 208, 211
Kumarin, Vladimir, 159, 174
La Familia Michoacana Drug Cartel, 209, 211–212
League of Nations, 548–549
Maastricht Treaty, see EU organized crime control policies
Mafia
Concept of, 20, 121–124, 126, 354, 483
Etymology of, 122
History of, 122–123, 126–127
Fear of, 1, 21, 86, 132, 575
Organizations,
In the United States, see Italian American Cosa Nostra
Malyshev, Alexander, 164, 166
Marijuana, see cannabis
Medellin Cartel, 183–185, 198, 205, 366
Methamphetamine,
Policies, plans or interventions targeting, 212,
Production of, 363, 366, 613–614
Organized crime actors involved in the production and trafficking of, 223, 227, 617
Trafficking of, 255, 364
Use of, 239
Mexico
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 181, 209–213, 368, 667
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in,
Attorney General’s Office, 202, 207
Mexican Army Special Forces, 197
Mexican Federal Directorate of Security, 197, 203
Mexican Special Forces of the Navy, 210, 213
National Gendarmerie, 212
Corruption in, 197–198, 203–209, 211–212
Organized crime activities in,
Drug trafficking, 360, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 372, 376, 425–426
Violence, 1, 192, 199, 203, 204, 206, 207–212
Mexican drug cartels, 196–213
Activities of, 374–375
Drug trafficking, 196–209, 261, 331, 360, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 372, 376
Extortion, 197,
Money laundering, 205, 425–426
Violence, 1, 192, 199, 203, 204, 206, 207–212
Culture of, 211
Links with Colombian traffickers, 186, 205
(p. 685) Relationship with the military, 198, 202, 206, 208–210, 212–213
Relationship with the police, 196–198, 204–205, 208–209, 212–213
Relationship with other government representatives and politicians, 197–198, 203, 205, 206, 212
Future perspectives of, 213
History of, 196, 199–201
In the United States, 374–375
Internal organization of, 203–204, 207, 209, 212–213, 324
International ramifications of, 196, 198, 201, 206–208
Membership of, 196–197
Policies against,
Beyond Merida, 210, 213
Calderón Crackdown, 209–212
Coronado, 212
Merida Initiative, 209–210, 213
Operation Cleanup, 209
Operation Condor, 181, 202–203
Operation Intercept, 202
Operation Safe Mexico, 206
Promoting factors of, 196–198, 205, 213,
Revenues of, 207, 425
Strategies of, 207, 209
Size of, 207
Victims of, 197–198, 204, 206, 208, 210–211
Mexican drug trafficking organizations
Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF), 670
Money laundering
Actors of, 423–425, 431, 451, 488
Definitions of, 419, 421–422
Extent of, 425–426
History of, 419
In China, 231
In Colombia, 183
In Italy, 596
In Sri Lanka, 488,
Organized crime actors’ involvement in, 45, 430, 486–487, 596
Patterns of, 423, 426
Policies against, 148, 191, 259, 373, 419–420, 432–438, 465, 546, 550–551, 552–553, 557, 558–563, 574, 613–617, 646, 659–660
Effectiveness thereof, 432–438
Research on, 422–423, 425–426
’Ndrangheta,
Activities of,
Drug trafficking 134, 607
Extortion, 333, 613
Involvement in legal markets, 133
Culture of, 127–129
Etymology of, 124
History of, 3, 67, 126–129
Internal organization, 127–129, 607
International ramifications, 47, 124, 134, 607–608
Law enforcement action against, 124, 136, 326, 610
Longevity of, 126–127, 136
Membership of, 128–129, 603
Political dominion of, 126, 129–132, 134
Recruitment policies of, 124
Revenues of, 133, 607
Rituals of, 128
Size of, 124, 131
Social embeddedness of, 127, 607
Victims of, 132
Women as actors in, 128, 327
Netherlands, The,
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 21, 85–88, 391–392, 407, 412, 427–428, 565–566, 585
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 412
Organized crime actors in, 63, 64, 98, 279, 384
Organized crime activities in, 39, 81, 134, 322–323, 329, 332, 387, 427, 407–408, 427–428, 429, 463
Network analysis, see research methods
(p. 686) New York City Police Department, see United States
New Zealand,
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 613–614, 617–618, 619–623, 626–627, 628–629
Organized crime actors in, 615
Organized crime activities in, 613
Nigeria,
Corruption in, 255–258, 265
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 257, 259, 265
“Culture of impunity” in, 256–257
Nigerian criminal organizations, 254–268
Activities of,
Cybercrime, 256, 263–264
Drug trade, 254–255, 257–262, 265
Involvement in legal markets, 259–260
Money laundering, 265
Piracy, 255
Prostitution, 254, 256, 264
Theft and illegal export of oil, 255
Trafficking of women, 254, 260, 264
Ethnic embeddedness of, 255–256, 259–260
Future perspectives of, 265
History of, 256–258, 262
Internal organization of, 258–261
International ramifications of, 254–255, 258, 261, 263–265
Law enforcement action against, 264–265
Legislation against, 265
Membership of, 263
Promoting factors of, 255–258, 260
Recruitment policies of, 259–260
Relationship with government officials and representatives, 255–256, 259, 265
Research on, 260–263
Revenues of, 259
Rituals of, 259
Size of, 259
Social embeddedness of, 259, 262
Strategies of, 261–262, 264
Victims of, 262, 264
Women as actors in, 264
North Korea
As a source country of amphetamine, 240
Cybercrime in, 310, 489–490
Freezing assets of, 669
No party to UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime, 649
States crimes by, 309, 310
Offence of (membership in a) criminal association/organization, 546
In Australia, 620, 621, 628, 630, 630 note 4, 631 notes 14 and 15
In Canada, 553, 554, 557, 562–563
In China, 641–642
In the European Union, 22, 578, 581
In Hong Kong, 640, 642, 651 note, 17
In Italy, 20, 122–123, 125, 136, 594–595
In Japan, 242–243
In the United States, 536–538, 554–555
In international law, 304
In New Zealand, 620, 621
In Switzerland, 665
Opium,
Policies, plans or interventions targeting, 197, 199–203, 548, 644
Production of, 199–203, 361–362
Organized crime actors involved in the production and trafficking of, 57–59, 196, 201–203, 222, 640
Trafficking of,
In Afghanistan, 361
In China, 643
In Nigeria, 261
In Mexico, 200–203
In Myanmar, 361
In Thailand, 643
Use of, 199, 637
Organized crime
Ethnic embeddedness of, 44–46, 219, 329–333
History of, 53–87, 142–144,
In China, 56–61, 72
In the Dutch East Indies, 56
In Hong Kong, 58–60
In Italy, 33, 55, 62, 64, 66–69, 71, 77, 80, 81, 82–84, 85, 126
In Japan, 56–57, 59, 61, 80, 234–235,
In Northwestern Europe, 3, 62–67, 81, 82–83, 84–87
Jewish groups, 64
Gypsy groups, 64
In South East Asia, 55–61
In the United States, 60–61, 7, 81–86
Early Germany research on, 81–84
Early Dutch research on, 84–86
Jewish groups, 72–73, 81, 83, 84, 144, 292, 325, 530
Irish groups, 72–74, 80, 81, 83, 84, 144, 272, 331, 530
Japanese groups, 72
Chinese groups, 72, 530
History of the concept of, 13–26
And globalization, 4, 60, 87–88, 199, 206, 249–250, 258, 280–281, 381, 414, 433, 473, 495, 502–505, 551, 639, 647
Official definitions of, 1, 2, 6, 14, 15, 19, 21, 22–23, 24, 26 note 1, 54, 85–86, 98, 177, 485, 515, 521 note 45, 529–530, 541 note 2, 553, 557, 576–578, 580, 620–621, 625, 628, 630–631 note 9 631 note 12, 638, 641
Occupational embeddedness of, 327–329
Opportunistic structures of, 288–299
Policy and public debate about, 7–8, 13–26, 33–34, 36, 54, 80, 85–86, 134, 151, 187, 273, 382, 383, 384, 396, 529–531, 539, 541 note 2, 546–554, 556, 558–559, 594, 610 note 9, 612–614, 625, 635
Scientific definitions of (or lack thereof), 2, 13–26, 32, 54, 96, 100, 271, 282, 283, 283 note 1, 294, 359, 406, 475, 500, 515, 530, 539, 541 note 2
Social embeddedness of, 163–164, 321–324, 330–335
State crime as, 303–320
State impact on, 2–4, 154, 161, 246–248, 289–295, 313–316, 323, 329, 375–376
In China, 56
In Colombia, 191
In Northwestern Europe, 66
In Japan, 234, 235, 243
In Italy, 68, 69, 135, 347–348, 600, 605
In Russia, 161, 169
In the United States, 76–80, 205, 405
Theoretical perspectives on, 32–33, 48–49
Alien conspiracy, 33–34
Bureaucracy model, 34–35
Criminal careers, 42–44
Illegal enterprise, 35–36
Link between ethnicity and, 44–46
Logistic or situation approach, 41–42
Protection theory, 36–37
Social embeddedness, social capital, and criminal networks, 37–41, 295–298
Transit crime and mafia transplantation, 46–48
Women in, 106, 324–327, 335, 335 note 5
(p. 688) As perpetrators, 106, 223, 264, 324–327, 332, 388, 603
As drug users, 637
As prostitutes, 72, 109, 223, 327, 382, 387, 388, 391, 392, 396–397
As “property”, 3, 128, 132
As victims, 61, 88, 107, 109, 250, 254, 264, 332, 391, 392, 396–397, 580, 631, 637, 647
As witnesses, 136
Organized crime control policies
Americanization of, 85–87, 545–553
In Canada, 555–563
In Europe, 85–87
(In)effectiveness of, 5, 6, 87–88, 154, 373, 392, 394, 396, 411–412, 415, 433–439, 455–457, 492, 566, 577, 658, 666
In Australia, 624, 627–629
In China, 642
In Colombia, 191
In Japan, 234, 235, 243
In India, 639
In the Netherlands, 391, 407
In New Zealand, 624, 627–629
In Nigeria, 265
In Sweden, 391
In Southeast Asia, 647, 649
In United States, 76–80, 205, 539–541, 455–456, 530, 539–540, 545, 558, 559, 561, 564
Outlaw motorcycle gangs, 541,
In Australia and New Zealand, 25, 612–613, 617, 624, 626, 637, 628, 630 note 1
In connection to cybercrime, 486
In Japan, 237
In the United States, 19, 80, 293, 296, 530, 540
Pentiti, see witnesses
Podol’skaya, 164, 167
Pre-Accession Pact on Organized Crime, EU organized crime control policies
Pretrial detention
In India, 638
In Italy, 455
In the United States 535, 536
Prohibition in United States, 3, 4, 15, 72, 73, 75–76, 82, 87, 102, 142–144, 196, 199–200, 212, 331, 349, 355, 406, 566, 614
Prostitution
In Japan, 240
Networks, 105, 254, 387
Policies, 77, 240, 390–395
Protection
Involvement of Italian mafia groups in sale of, 36–37, 68, 125, 132, 304, 343–353, 593–598
Involvement of Yakuza in sale of, 239–240, 244–26
Practices of, 306–307, 344
Promoting factors of, 47, 315
Theory, 36–37
Provenzano, Bernardo, 129, 135, 606
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 17, 149, 151, 230, 246, 305, 466, 537–538, 554–558, 564
Civil law provisions, 538–539, 553
Criminal law provisions, 537–538
Exported to Canada, 554–555, 557,
Research methods, 96–111
Analysis of official data and documents, 98–100
Ethnography, 106–107
Historical and archival research, 102–104
Interviewing, 108–110
Network analysis, 104–106
Quantitative and economic analysis, 100–102
(p. 689) Revolutionary Armed Groups of Colombia (FARC), 179, 186–187, 282, 366, 455
Russia
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 168–169
Corruption in, 455, 466
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 159, 173, 450–451
Federal Security Service (FSB), 170
Cybercrime in, 309, 486, 489
Organized crime actors in, 152–154, 160, 163–164, 171, 172–174, 348,
Organized crime activities in, 86–87, 97, 163–169, 172–174, 282, 344, 351–352, 408, 424–425, 552
See also Russian mafia
Russian mafia
Activities of,
Drug trade, 176
Extortion and protection, 165–166, 166–168, 169, 170, 172–174
Illegal gambling, 176
Involvement in legal markets, 166, 173–174
Money laundering, 164
and the breakup of the Soviet Union, 161–162
Conceptual understanding of, 160–161
Corrupt relationships to government officials and representatives, 172, 173–174
Ethnic embeddedness of, 164
Decline of, 170–175
History of, 163, 168
Internal organization of, 163–164, 171
International ramifications of, 171
Law enforcement action against, 173–174
Membership of, 171, 173, 175
Notion of, 168
Promoting factors of, 161–164, 168–169, 175
Reasons for the decline of, 170–173, 174–175
Research on, 160–161, 170
Revenues of, 167, 174
Size of, 171, 173
Social embeddedness of, 174
Theoretical perspectives on, 160–161
Trials, 159, 164, 175
Sacra Corona Unita, 67, 125, 603
Schengen Agreement, see EU organized crime control policies
Sicilian Cosa Nostra, 1–3, 19, 21, 53, 122
Activities of,
Involvement in legal markets, 132–133, 345
Involvement in politics, 120–132
Culture of, 128
History of, 3, 53, 69–71, 126–129,
In film and literature, 1, 17
Internal organization of, 124, 127–129, 297–298, 601
International ramifications of, 601
Law enforcement action against, 124, 128, 135
Longevity of, 126–127
Membership of, 128–129, 603
Political dominion of, 126, 129, 132
Promoting factors of, 129–132
Recruitment policies of, 124, 134
Relationship with government institutions and representatives, 120–132
Research on, 71, 297–298
Rituals of, 69–70, 128,
Size of, 124, 603
Strategies of, 606–607
Social embeddedness of, 131
Victims of, 132, 593
Women’s involvement in 128, 326, 603
Sinaloa Cartel, 208–211, 366
Spain
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 174
Organized crime actors in, 264
Organized crime activities in, 430, 470
South Korea
Cybercrime in, 489–490
Standing Committee (COSI), see EU organized crime control policies
(p. 690) State crime
Actors of, 305, 308–311, 519
Definitions of, 303–311
History of, 304
Law enforcement action against, 304–305
Patterns of, 306–311, 314–316
Policies against, 311–317
Promoting factors of, 303–304, 310, 314–316
Research on, 306–311
Victims of, 317
Stockholm programme, see EU organized crime control policies
Street gangs, 270–284
History of, 16, 272–276, 290–291
Future perspectives of, 280–281
In relation to other criminal groups, 276–280
Organization of, 273–276, 293–294, 296, 299, note 1
In the United States, 16, 272–276, 290–291, 293, 294, 332, 530, 541
In and from Central America, 332, 540
In Australia and New Zealand, 25, 612–613, 614, 630 note 1
Prohibition of gang insignia, 626, 629
Sumiyoshi-kai, 235–236, 249
Taiwan
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 229–230
Corruption in, 227, 410
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 229
Organized crime actors in, 219–221, 224–229, 639
Links with Hong Kong and Chinese actors, 228, 651 note 14
Involvement in political life, 227
Organized crime activities in,
Extortion, 226
Illegal gambling and exploitation of prostitution, 226, 410, 414,
Production of amphetamine, 240
Underground banking and debt collection, 227
Thailand
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 645, 646, 649, 652
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime in, 455, 646–647
Organized crime activities in, 261, 410, 642, 644
Drug trafficking in, 261
Tambovskaya, 159, 174–175
Tampere programme, see EU organized crime control policies
Tijuana Cartel, 204, 206, 211
Transparency International, 378, 423, 467, 617, 650
Treaty of Amsterdam, see EU organized crime control policies
Treaty on the European Union, see EU organized crime control policies
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, see EU organized crime control policies
United Kingdom
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 405–406, 433–438, 452, 484, 546, 556, 656, 659, 664–665
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime
National Crime Agency, 472
National Criminal Intelligence Service, 97
Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA), 2, 22, 23, 486, 546, 659, 669
Organized crime actors in, 100, 102, 406, 487
Organized crime activities in, 348, 360, 363, 365, 371, 431, 463
Cybercrime, 461, 472
Fraud, 460, 468–469, 470, 475
Human trafficking, 383, 392
Research on organized crime in, 109, 461–462, 503
State crime by, 519
(p. 691) Undercover operations, 60, 151, 203, 229, 246, 466, 533, 535–536, 595, 621, 624, 623
United Nations
Relevant institutions
Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), 550
Division of Narcotic Drugs (DND), 550
Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC), 188, 211, 278, 362, 425, 619, 637
World Ministerial Conference on Organized Transnational Crime, 23–24
Relevant treaties
Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Vienna Convention) of 1988, 434, 551, 553, 657, 661–662
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 2000 (Palermo Convention), 2, 15, 24–25, 54, 55, 177, 434, 470, 476 note 5, 485, 493, 521 note 45, 546, 552–553, 562–563, 580, 620, 630–631 note 9, 642, 649, 651 note 21, 661–662
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, 180, 550
United States
Anti-organized crime laws and policies, 529–553
Criminal justice organizations targeting organized crime:
New York City Police Department, 531–532
U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD), 550, 566
U.S. Court of Appeals, 80
U.S. Department of Justice, 19, 79, 529, 532, 541
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 16, 111, 230, 455, 531, 547
U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 79, 230, 409, 491, 529, 547, 575
U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN), 201, 548–549, 566
U.S. Internal Revenue Service, 76, 102, 406, 531
U.S. President’s Commission on Organized Crime, 19, 80, 219, 419, 541, 657
Other public bodies dealing with organized crime
U.S. Senate Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce (Kefauver Committee), 3, 16–17, 33, 78–79, 145–146, 406
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission), 16, 75, 566
President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 79–80, 85, 146, 147–148, 530, 537, 541 note 2, 553, 554
President’s Commission on Organized Crime, 19, 530, 532, 558, 657
Vietnam
Anti-organized crime laws and policies in, 652
Organized crime activities in, 249–250
Vory v zakone, 44, 127, 163
Watanabe, 237, 248–249
Wiretaps, 17, 39, 41, 47, 104, 148, 151, 246, 260, 334, 369, 370, 489, 536, 546, 555, 557, 595, 598, 610 note 9, 620, 622, 629, 638, 639
Witnesses, 462
In Hong Kong, 640
In the United States, 17, 76–77, 80, 84, 142, 146, 148, 151, 351, 534, 536, 538, 540
(p. 692) Witness protection programs,
In Australia, 618, 622–623
In Brunei, 652
In the European Union, 580
In Italy, 135–136, 596
In India, 639
In Malaysia, 652
In New Zealand, 624, 625
In Singapore, 652
In Thailand, 646
In the United States, 79, 148, 534–535
World Bank, 420, 423, 440, 504, 508, 515, 617, 670
World War I, 57–58, 69, 83, 518
World War II, 3, 16, 57–59, 61, 80, 84–85, 97, 123, 130, 136, 178, 199, 201, 317, 325, 406–407, 462, 507, 546, 548–549, 615, 643
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 503, 517
Yakuza, 3, 7, 19, 34, 36, 44, 56, 59, 61, 127, 220, 228, 234–253, 321, 343, 348, 354, 432, 483, 485, 502, 552
Activities of,
Cybercrime, 485
Drug trade, 59, 239–240, 250
Exploitation of prostitution, 59, 235, 240, 245
Fraud, 244
Human trafficking, 240, 250
Illegal gambling, 239, 245
Involvement in legal markets, 241–242, 244, 246
Protection services, 239–240, 244
Violent intervention in civil affairs (minbō), 241–242
Anti-Yakuza politicians, 248
Countermeasures taken against, 243, 245
Culture of, 237–238
Diplomacy, 248–249
Film representations of, 238
Future perspectives of, 250–251
History of, 59, 80, 234–235, 247
Internal organization of, 235–237, 243
International network of, 61
Links between Chinese organized crime groups and, 61, 540
Links between the Russian Mafia and, 540
Membership of, 235, 237
Promoting factors of, 241, 246
Policies against, 243
Relationship with the government, 245–248
Relationship to other crime groups based in Japan, 249–250
Research on, 59, 161, 241, 245–246
Revenues of, 236–237, 239, 243–244
Rituals of, 236, 238
Size of, 235
Victims of, 242, 248
Women’s role in, 240
Yamaguchi–gumi, 56, 61, 235–239, 242–249
Zetas, 197, 208, 210–211