- Series Information
- The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime
- List of Contributors
- Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
- Theoretical Perspectives on Organized Crime
- Searching for Organized Crime in History
- How to Research Organized Crime
- The Italian Mafia
- The Italian-American Mafia
- the Russian Mafia: Rise and Extinction
- Organized Crime in Colombia: The Actors Running the Illegal Drug Industry
- Mexican Drug “Cartels”
- Chinese Organized Crime
- The Japanese Yakuza
- Nigerian Criminal Organizations
- Gangs Another Form of Organized Crime?
- Opportunistic Structures of Organized Crime
- Organizing Crime: The State as Agent
- The Social Embeddedness of Organized Crime
- Protection and Extortion
- Drug Markets and Organized Crime
- Human Smuggling, Human Trafficking, and Exploitation in the Sex Industry
- Illegal Gambling
- Money Laundering
- Arms Trafficking
- Organized Fraud
- The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources
- Organized Crime Control in the United States of America
- U.S. Organized Crime Control Policies Exported Abroad
- European Union Organized Crime Control Policies
- The Fight Against the Italian Mafia
- Organized Crime Control in Australia and New Zealand
- Organized Crime “Control” in Asia: Experiences from India, China, and the Golden Triangle
- Finance-Oriented Strategies of Organized Crime Control
Abstract and Keywords
To a great extent, international law enforcement has been “Americanized” in recent decades. This essay traces the significant part that the U.S. government’s efforts to establish a global drug prohibition regime played in the export of organized crime control policies, before more closely examining the process as it played out in Canada. Three key responses to organized crime: the Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act, Currency Transaction Reporting mechanisms (CTRs), and Criminal Associations Legislation can be traced directly to a deliberate initiative by the United States to export to Canada and to the wider international community specific policies, legislation, and bureaucratic machinery. It traces the route by which the U.S. model became the international model and briefly examines with what consequences. The essay concludes with a brief account of the export of administrative approaches to organized crime.
Keywords: international law enforcement: drug prohibition, organized crime control policies, Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act: currency transaction reporting mechanisms (CTRS), criminal associations legislation, administrative approaches
Dr. Margaret Beare is Professor of Sociology and Law at York University, Toronto. She served within the Department of the Solicitor General Canada as Director of Police Policy and Research before joining the University where she was the Director of the Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption at Osgoode Hall Law School. Her publications include 6 books related to organized crime and policing issues.
Michael Woodiwiss is a senior lecturer at the University of the West of England. His publications include Crime, Crusades and Corruption: Prohibitions in the United States, 1900-1987(1988), Organized Crime and American Power: A History (2001) and Gangster Capitalism: The United States and the Global Rise of Organized Crime (2007).
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