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date: 19 June 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Ever since authorities decided to restrict gambling, criminals have offered the opportunity to play illegally. Since the end of the nineteenth century, illegal gambling also became one of the classic activities of organized crime. Nowadays, opportunities for organizing illegal gambling vary considerably between countries owing to differences in gambling laws and gambling cultures. In countries that regulate all or most types of gambling, such as the member states of the European Union, criminal operators remain active only in market niches. In the United States and Asia, specific types of gambling, such as casinos and sports betting, remain relatively restricted. Here, gambling continues to be an important source of income for organized crime groups. Until fairly recently, illegal gambling operations were largely organized locally or regionally. Since the mid-1990s, however, the Internet globalized (illegal) gambling and related crimes such as match-fixing. Online gambling substantially reduced the effectiveness of existing regulatory regimes and presented new opportunities to criminals, although the extent to which they are actually the beneficial owners of gambling websites is unknown.

Keywords: cybercrime, gambling, match-fixing, organized crime, regulation

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