- Series Information
- The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime
- List of Contributors
- Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
- Theoretical Perspectives on Organized Crime
- Searching for Organized Crime in History
- How to Research Organized Crime
- The Italian Mafia
- The Italian-American Mafia
- the Russian Mafia: Rise and Extinction
- Organized Crime in Colombia: The Actors Running the Illegal Drug Industry
- Mexican Drug “Cartels”
- Chinese Organized Crime
- The Japanese Yakuza
- Nigerian Criminal Organizations
- Gangs Another Form of Organized Crime?
- Opportunistic Structures of Organized Crime
- Organizing Crime: The State as Agent
- The Social Embeddedness of Organized Crime
- Protection and Extortion
- Drug Markets and Organized Crime
- Human Smuggling, Human Trafficking, and Exploitation in the Sex Industry
- Illegal Gambling
- Money Laundering
- Arms Trafficking
- Organized Fraud
- The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources
- Organized Crime Control in the United States of America
- U.S. Organized Crime Control Policies Exported Abroad
- European Union Organized Crime Control Policies
- The Fight Against the Italian Mafia
- Organized Crime Control in Australia and New Zealand
- Organized Crime “Control” in Asia: Experiences from India, China, and the Golden Triangle
- Finance-Oriented Strategies of Organized Crime Control
Abstract and Keywords
This essay discusses several topics related to human smuggling and human trafficking with a special focus on exploitation in the sex industry. Human smuggling and human trafficking are frequently confused. Human smuggling primarily relates to illegal immigration and the violation of immigration laws, whereas human trafficking primarily relates to exploitation. The essay successively elaborates upon human smuggling, human trafficking for sexual exploitation, policy measures and interventions, and pitfalls and progress in research.
Prof. Dr. Edward R. Kleemans is full professor at the Faculty of Law, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Chair: Serious and Organized Crime and Criminal Justice) and Head of the Crime, Law Enforcement and Sanctions Research Division (CRS) of the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), the Hague, the Netherlands. Since 1996 he has coordinated the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor (OCM), a systematic, continuing research programme into the nature of organized crime in the Netherlands, based upon intensive analysis of 150 large-scale police investigations.
Monika Smit, Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Ministry of Security and Justice, pb 20301, 2500 EH Den Haag, The Hague, the Netherlands
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