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date: 18 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article investigates the influence of the expansion of mass-market visual culture in shaping literary meanings in the U.S.A. in the nineteenth century. It provides a transnational history of the Haymarket bombing and executions, and suggests that literary and cultural meanings in the late nineteenth century were crucially mediated and shaped by the expansion of the pictorial marketplace and the transformation of visual culture. The article discusses how José Martí and Lucy E. Parsons intervened in late-nineteenth-century practices of looking by reenvisioning iconic sentimental and sensational Haymarket scenes, and by raising questions about violence, the visual, and state power that connect world movements across space and time.

Keywords: visual culture, literary meanings, U.S.A., Haymarket bombing, José Martí, Lucy E. Parsons, violence, state power

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