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date: 21 May 2019

(p. 753) Index

(p. 753) Index

10–20-Life Law (Florida), 184–185
100-to-1 law, 57, 59, 66, 79n4
18-to-1 rule, 66, 79n4
academic and vocational programs: adult-based education (ABE) and, 504
cognitive theories and, 499–500
distance learning and, 505–506
economic theories and, 500–502
education level among incarcerated population and, 493, 495, 502
effectiveness of, 493, 502–504
executive cognitive functioning (ECF) and, 500
general equivalency diploma (GED), 496, 504
history of, 494–495
impact on employment and, 500–501
implementation challenges and, 498
life skills and, 497, 506–508
mitigation of prison conditions and, 500
Pell Grants and, 505
postsecondary education (PSE) and, 505–506
recidivism and, 502, 504–506, 513
rehabilitation, 494–495
research challenges and, 513–514
variations in, 497–498
vocational education and, 508–509
Adachi, Jeff, 750
Adam Walsh Child Protection, 88, 550, 743, 744
Adoption and Safe Families Act, 88
Africa, 218–219, 432, 435, 454
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, 435, 454
African-Americans: arrest rates and, 55–56, 58–59, 64, 66–69, 71–72, 77
conviction rates and, 72–73
drug enforcement and, 9, 56–58, 63–68, 71–73, 77
drug trafficking and, 69–72, 74
drug usage rates and, 58, 67–69
incarceration rates and, 5–6, 28, 53–55, 57–62, 64, 67, 72, 74–76, 85, 88–89, 93
racial profiling and, 9, 56–58, 63, 66–67, 72–74, 76–77
racialized animus against, 39
sentencing and, 55–58, 61–63, 65–66, 73–74
violent crime and, 55, 58–59, 64, 65. See also racial disparities in punishment
Alaska, 264, 301
Alito, Samuel, 86
“All of Us or None,” 675
Almendarez-Torres v. United States, 325
American Bar Association (ABA), 83–84, 86, 95, 141, 157, 306, 441, 725–726, 728, 735
American Correctional Association (ACA), 394–395, 409–410, 419–421, 436, 439, 444
American Jail Association (AJA), 395, 410
Amity (California) Therapeutic Community prison study, 470, 474
Amy’s Law, 743–744
Andrews, Donald, 379–381
Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), 715, 729, 731
Apprendi v. New Jersey, 203–204, 323–325, 330n3
Argentina, 436, 452
Arizona, 31, 45, 46n4, 47n7, 286, 291n19, 356nn23, 397, 403, 631, 725
Arkansas, 114, 118, 285, 631, 729
Arpaio, Joe, 403
ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights, 454
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT), 526–527, 529
Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA), 419–420
Atkins v. Virginia, 171n54, 354, 708, 730
Attica prison rebellion, 436, 438
Auburn system, 393, 395, 496
Auglaize County (Ohio) Transition Program (A.C.T.), 401–402
Augustus, John, 364–365, 368
Australia: incarceration rates in, 41
parole and, 629
prison conditions in, 433
problem-solving courts in, 150, 155–156, 158–160, 164
restorative justice and: 220, 227, 229–231, 233–234, 238–239
victim impact statements and, 104, 110–113
Baldus study, 711–712, 718, 720–721
Barefoot v. Estelle, 201, 206
Barker, Vanessa, 30–31
Bauder v. Department of Corrections, 86
Bearden v. Georgia, 320
Beccaria, Cesare, 139, 141, 220, 342
Becker, Gary, 26
Bedford Hills Correctional Facility (New York), 421
Belgium, 33, 34, 37
Bentham, Jeremy, 139, 141, 395
Between Prison and Probation, 365, 368
Bird, Rose, 717
Blackmun, Harry, 17, 710, 719
Blackstone, William, 139, 141
Blakely v. Washington, 306, 312n7, 324, 325
Bonta, James, 377, 379–381
Bordenkircher v. Hayes, 320
Brady v. Maryland, 256
Brennan, William, 17
(p. 754) Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), 535, 537
Brimage guidelines, 255, 264
Brockway, Zebulon, 346, 494, 630
Brooks v. Commonwealth, 204–205
Brown v. Plata, 6, 456n9, 594
Buntion v. Quarterman, 731
Burger, Warren, 617
Bush, George H.W., 350
Bush, George W., 91, 622, 686
Calabrese, Alex, 155–156
California: death penalty in, 749–750
Determinate Sentencing Law and, 24, 36
judicial elections in, 717
life without parole in, 745–747, 749–750
mass incarceration in, 23–25, 30–31, 35–36, 42, 404, 456n9
neoliberal governance and, 42
parole and, 36, 203, 207, 348, 366, 470, 631, 633, 636–637
Proposition 8 (1982), 185–186
sex offenders and, 352, 354, 356n2, 549, 550, 552, 553, 555, 743
three-strikes law and, 29, 178, 189
Callins v. Collins, 710
Campbell Collaboration, 476
Canada: deterrence through severity approach in, 178–179, 182, 183
female prisoners and, 432–433
incarceration rates and, 41
prison condition regulations and, 445–446
problem-solving courts and, 150, 155–156, 158–160
restorative justice conferences and, 234
victims’ rights and, 104, 108–109, 111–116, 119
“what works” movement and, 379
Canadian Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI), 445–446
Canberra (Australia), 230–231, 233, 239
Capital Jury Project (CJP), 722–723
Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO), 662
Center for NuLeadership on Urban Solutions, 675
Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, 349
Chalmers, Iain, 225
Chicago (Illinois), 694
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 89, 96n9, 438
Civil Rights Act of 1968, 38
Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA), 397
Clemmer, Donald, 590
Clinton, Bill, 41, 613, 686
Clowers, Marsha, 421–422
cocaine and sentencing discrepancies, 29, 57, 66, 71, 79n4, 571
Code of Practice for Victims of Crime (England), 115
cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT), 531–532, 536
Coker v. Georgia, 708
collateral effects of imprisonment: communities and, 93–94
deportation and, 85–86
driving privileges and, 87
employment opportunities and, 84, 91
employment restrictions and, 87, 89, 91–92, 96n9
Europe and, 89–90
families and, 84, 85, 92–93
federal restrictions and, 86–88
health problems and, 92
housing and, 85, 87, 90, 93
parental rights and, 85, 87–88, 90
reform efforts, 94–95, 96n12
social service restrictions and, 87
state restrictions and, 88–89
voting restrictions and, 88–90, 93–94
Colloton, Pat, 7
Colorado, 277, 289n1, 348, 397, 631
Colson, Charles, 237
Commission on Accreditation for Corrections (CAC), 420
Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons, 437, 440
common law jurisdictions, 9, 104–109, 120, 139, 215, 220, 221, 247, 251, 740
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Abraham, 86
Community Corrections Act (CCA) and, 367–368
Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, 608, 631
Connecticut, 277–278, 289n1, 304, 343, 345, 348, 354, 475, 631, 633
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CROC), 437
Cook County Jail (Illinois), 397
Corrections Corporation of America (CCA), 410
corrections system reform: conservatism and, 350–352
death penalty and, 342–343, 354
deinstitutionalization and, 349
diversion and, 349
Enlightenment assumptions and, 342, 344
indeterminate sentences and, 346–347
less is better philosophy, 348–350
life without parole (LWOP), 351
mandatory minimum sentencing and, 351
offender reentry and, 355
parole and, 346–347
penitentiaries and, 344–345
prison overcrowding and, 343, 345, 351
probation, 346–348
Progressive movement and, 345–346
rehabilitative ideal and, 345–348
sex offender restrictions and, 353–354
supermax prisons and, 353
tough-on-crime political rhetoric, 350
Council of Europe, 209, 447, 454
Council of State Governments Justice Center, 522
Council of State Governments, 686
Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA), 104
Crown v. Makatuu Folaumoeloa, 234
Cunningham v. California, 324
Custis v. United States, 321
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 206
Davis, Kenneth Culp, 283, 288
de Waal, Frans, 218, 222
death penalty: ABA Guidelines and, 725–726, 728
aggravating factors and, 708–709, 711, 718, 721, 723–724, 739–740
arbitrariness of, 710, 718, 722
as symbolic reward to victims’ families, 742–744
(p. 755) categorization of homicides and, 738–741
compared to life without parole, 738, 744–748
counsel and, 714–715, 725–726, 730
degovernmentalization of, 744
diversion of legal resources and, 738–742, 748–750
DNA evidence and, 727–728
effect on substantive criminal law and, 737–741
Eighth Amendment and, 709, 712, 740–741
elected judges and, 717
elected prosecutors and, 716–717
eligibility criterion and, 721
erroneous convictions and, 713, 727–728
federal habeas review and, 729–732
Fourteenth Amendment and, 712
governors and, 718
guided discretion and, 709–711
inadequate constitutional regulation and, 707–715
inadequate resources and, 724–726
individualized sentencing and, 709–711
juries and, 722–724
legislatures and, 718, 721
mental retardation and, 729–730
mitigating factors and, 708–709, 711, 723, 739
politicization of, 715–718
race of victim and, 719–720
racial discrimination and, 711–713, 717, 719–722, 729
rape and, 719
Sixth Amendment and, 714–715, 730
Southern jurisdictions and, 719, 720–721
vigilante values and, 720
Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project, 725
Delaware, 356n2, 469–470, 480, 631
Denmark, 432
Department of Justice, 19n1, 256, 355, 397
Des Moines, Iowa, project, 349
deterrence through severity approach: California and, 185–186, 189
Canada, 178–179, 182, 183
continuing prominence of, 177–179
crime rates and, 184–187
empirical evidence about, 173–177, 190–191
habitual offender legislation and, 178
homicide rates and, 186–187
inconsistent application of, 189
intuitive nature of, 180–183
methodologically flawed research about, 183–188
potential offenders’ awareness of, 181–182
potential offenders’ evaluation of, 182–183
public opinion and, 179–181, 190
ramifications of, 174, 188–190
United Kingdom and, 178, 179
Deukmejian, George, 24
Dickson v. United Kingdom, 449
DiFransesco v. United States, 321
DiIulio, John, 613–614, 616
Dixon v. United States, 321
Doob, Anthony, 176–177, 186
Dorszynski v. United States, 321
drug enforcement, 9, 56–58, 63–74, 76–77. See also War on Drugs
Drug Treatment and Testing Orders (DTTOs), 155, 163
drug treatment in correctional settings: addressing multiple risk factors and, 478–479
aftercare and, 470–471, 473, 475, 482–483
chronic care approach and, 477–478
competing corrections missions and, 481
drug education, 467–468
economic benefits of, 474–475
effectiveness of, 469–474
evidence-based practices and, 476
future of, 481–483
illegal drug use among state prison inmates, 464–466
implementation challenges and, 479–481
medication-assisted treatment (MAT), 467, 477
post-release relapse and, 469–471, 474
principles of, 475–481, 483
recidivism and, 464, 471, 473–476
state prisons and, 463
therapeutic community (TC) model, 467, 469–474, 477, 482–483
utilization rates, 468–469
Duff, Antony 137
Durkheim, Emile, 37, 39, 43, 188
Eastern State Penitentiary (Philadelphia), 395
Eighth Amendment, 142, 318, 397, 438, 440, 449, 709, 712, 730, 740, 741, 750n3
Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals, 86
Elmira Reformatory, 346, 494, 630
England. See United Kingdom
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 89, 96n9
Equal Protection Clause. See Fourteenth Amendment
Estelle v. Smith, 321
European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT), 14, 435, 446–451, 454, 458n35
European Convention for the Prevention of Torture (ECPT), 447, 449
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), 96n10, 441, 446–449, 451
European Prison Rules (EPR), 449
Ex parte Johnson, 256
Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, 79n4
Fairfax County (Virginia) Adult Detention Center, 14, 394, 402
Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP), 417, 423, 505, 510
Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure, 251
Federal Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, 341
Feeley, Malcolm, 438–439
female offenders: African-Americans, 562–563, 570, 573
children and, 574–575
custodial institution model of corrections and, 568
drug offenses and, 563, 565–566, 570–571
drug use and, 572–573, 579
economic self-sufficiency and, 578
gender-specific needs of, 576–579
Hispanics, 562–563, 570, 571, 573
history of corrections for, 563, 566–568
history of victimization and, 570–573, 579
(p. 756) mental health and, 577
pathways to incarceration and, 562, 570–573
patriarchal control and, 569–570, 573
percentage of prison population, 561–562
physical health and, 576–577
pre-reform period and, 566–567
property crimes and, 563–564, 566, 570
prostitution and, 563, 565
re-entry into society and, 575–576, 578–579
reformatories and, 567–568
rehabilitation and, 567–568
reproductive health and, 577
role of relationships and, 573–578
societal gender arrangements and, 562–563, 569, 573, 575
victimization within corrections system and, 572
violent crimes and, 563–564, 566
War on Drugs and, 571
Fifth Amendment, 438
Finland, 178
Fletcher, David, 155–156, 161–162
Florida, 31, 45, 117–118, 151, 153, 162, 178, 184–185, 187, 354, 356nn23, 397–398, 407, 552, 553, 631, 723, 725, 746
Forensic Assertive Community Treatment (FACT), 527, 529
Forensic Intensive Case Management (FICM), 527, 529
Foucault, Michel, 37
Fourteenth Amendment, 204, 322, 711, 712
France, 31, 37, 104, 165
Frank v. Mangum, 729
Frankel, Marvin, 12, 289n2, 299–300
Frase, Richard 77
Freiberg, Arie, 160, 164
Furman v. Georgia, 708–709, 711–712, 719, 722–724, 738, 739, 740n2
Garland, David, 26–28, 31, 33, 37–38, 437
General Accounting Office (GAO), 157–158, 410
George Mason University Inmate Project, 402
Georgia, 115, 203, 289n1, 409, 635, 645, 650n24, 708, 712, 720, 721, 725, 726, 739, 745
Germany, 4, 31, 32–33, 37, 104, 121n2, 178, 257, 452, 531
Gingrich, Newt, 7, 614
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 164
Gladwell, Malcolm, 217, 238–239
Godfrey v. Georgia, 709
Gonzalez v. Quarterman, 204
Good News Jail, 401
Graham v. Florida, 210n3
Granholm, Jennifer, 694
Graterford State Correctional Institution (Pennsylvania), 422, 675
Gregg v. Georgia, 708–709, 711, 739
Gross, Samuel, 727
Grounds, Adrian, 597–598
Guidelines for the Appointment and Performance of Defense Counsel in Death Penalty Cases, 725
Harlan, John Marshal, 724, 739, 750n2
Harris County (Texas), 409, 716
Hart, H. L. A. 134, 136, 140
Hawaii, 275, 284, 289n1, 630
HCR-20, 199, 207
health care in prisons, 25, 394, 577
Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Prisons (HMCIP), 435, 436, 441–446, 448–451, 453–454, 456n20, 457nn2526
Herrera v. Collins, 713
Hispanics: arrest rates and, 56, 66–67, 72–73
demography and 53–54
drug trafficking and, 72–73
incarceration rates and, 5–6, 19, 28, 53–55, 59–62, 66–67, 79n2, 437, 562–563, 570
probation and, 366. See also racial disparities in punishment
Hofstra University, 612–613, 617
House v. Bell, 713
Howard, John, 393
Hudson v. United States, 326, 330n2
Human Rights Commission (New Zealand), 453
Idaho, 285, 289n1, 290n15, 348
Illinois, 354, 356nn23, 394–395, 397, 636, 688, 717–718, 746
Illinois Governor’s Commission, 718
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 391, 399, 410
India, 222
Indiana, 230, 231, 348, 356n2, 567, 631, 725–726
Indiana Reformatory for Women and Girls, 567
Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment (IDTT), 526
Inter-American Human Rights Commission, 435, 454
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 434, 437
International Criminal Court, 104, 436
International Institute of Restorative Practices, 238
Iowa, 78, 275, 276, 278, 289n1, 347–349, 356n3, 394, 555, 745
Israel, 96n10, 432
Italy, 158
Jacob Wetterling Act, 550, 743
jails: architecture of, 392, 395
Auburn system, 393, 395
collateral costs and, 408–409
compared to lockups, 389–390, 400
compared to prisons, 389
conditions of, 392–394, 396–397
costs of, 408–409
definition of, 390
direct supervision and, 396
excessive force in, 397–398
functions of, 391
future of, 409–410
history and development of, 391–398
holding offenders for other jurisdictions, and 391, 399
improvements of, 396–398
inmate litigation and, 14, 397
linear supervision and, 395–396
(p. 757) mentally ill offenders and, 406–408
overcrowding and, 14, 391, 404–406
parole and, 403–404
Pennsylvania system and, 393
philosophy of, 390
podular supervision and, 395–396
population in, 398–400
pre-trial detention and, 390, 401
privatization and, 410
programming and services in, 391, 400–402
public opinion and, 403
Reformatory era of, 393
regional variation in, 393–394
security threat groups and, 406
sexual misconduct in, 398
standards for, 393–395
substance abuse and, 399–401
substance abuse treatment and, 401
suicide in, 407–408
transition planning approach and, 401
violence in, 405
Jamieson, Ruth, 597–598
Japan, 4, 31, 41, 257, 261, 454
Jennings v. State, 257
Jessica’s Law, 743
Jones v. United States, 325
Jurek v. Texas, 205, 739
Kansas, 7, 264, 348, 356nn23, 552–553, 555, 631, 645, 650n23
Kansas Sex Offender Policy Board, 552, 553, 555
Kansas v. Hendricks, 204, 210
Kansas v. Marsh, 320, 325
Kant, Immanuel, 220–221
Kennedy v. Louisiana, 708
Kentucky, 289n1, 721
Kessler, Daniel, 173, 185–186, 190
Key-Crest program, 469–470, 474
Kumho Tire v. Carmichael, 206
Kyle New Vision, 471, 474–475
La Bodega de la Familia program, 667–668
Lady Justice, 161–162, 166
Legal Action Center H.I.R.E. Network, 92
Level of Service instrument, 199
Level of Services Inventory Revised (LSI-R), 280
Levels of Services Inventory (LSI), 535
Levels of Services Inventory/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI), 524
Levitt, Steven, 173, 176, 185–186, 190
Life after Lockup, 401
life without parole (LWOP): compared to death penalty, 17–18, 738, 744–748
increase in, 274, 351–352
racial disparities and, 62–63
reform proposals and, 748
risk assessment and, 198
Liverpool Community Justice Centre, 155–156, 161, 162
Livingston, Edward, 342, 344
Lockett v. Ohio, 709
Lockyer v. Andrade, 9
Logan, William, 550, 555
Los Angeles County Pitchess Detention Center, 405
Louisiana, 289n1, 409, 746
Lowenfield v. Phelps, 711
Luther, Dennis, 613
Luttrell v. Commonwealth, 204, 282
Lynch, Gerard, 283
Maine, 304, 343, 356n2, 631, 745
Malenchik v. State, 205
Marshall, Thurgood, 17
Maryland, 114, 378, 401, 635, 646, 688
mass incarceration: arguments for, 26
Arizona and, 31
California and, 23–25, 30–31, 35–36
civil rights movement and, 38–39, 43
concept of, 8, 27–28
crime control politics and, 42–44
criminology and, 37
death penalty and, 44
determinate sentencing and, 36
economic considerations and, 25, 27, 44
feminism and, 45
Fordism and, 40–41
globalization of, 31, 46
high anxiety societies and, 37–38
institutional factors and, 27, 32–37
legislatures and, 29, 32, 35
neoliberal governance and, 31–32, 37, 40–42
parole and, 35–36
political competition and, 33–34, 42
prosecutorial discretion and, 29, 35
racial disparities and, 28
racialized threat and, 38–39, 44
regional variation in, 24, 30–31
right-wing political parties and, 33–34
sentencing and, 29, 35–36
societal insulation from, 32–33
Southern states and, 24, 28, 43
spatial dimensions of, 26–27, 30–32
supermax prisons and, 29
temporal dimensions of, 26, 29–30
United Kingdom and, 27, 31–32, 36, 40–41, 46
Massachusetts, 289n1, 347–348, 356n3, 365, 405, 665, 718, 745
McCleskey v. Kemp, 205, 711–713, 719, 720, 721
McGautha v. California, 724, 738–739
Megan’s Laws, 743–744
Melbourne (Australia), 159
mental illness: as cause for criminal behavior, 522–526, 530
community considerations and, 538
court orders and, 523, 534, 536
crimogenic needs and, 524, 530–531, 534–535
evidence-based correctional practices and, 532, 536
evidence-based psychiatric treatment and, 525–526, 528–530
identifying the population, 535
increasing tolerance for, 530, 532–534
indirect risk for criminal behavior and, 525
institutional considerations and, 537–538
jail diversion and, 526–528
mental health courts and, 153–154, 528, 531
parole and, 522–524, 528, 532–533, 538
probation and, 522–523, 528, 537
psychiatric treatment and, 523, 526, 527, 534, 536
recidivism and, 527–530, 534–538
special housing units (SHU) and, 537–538
substance abuse and, 521
violence and, 533, 536
women and, 521
(p. 758) Mercer University, 609, 612–613
Mexico, 450–452
Michigan, 113, 276, 309, 343, 348, 393–394, 650n23, 694, 745, 746
Milwaukee (Wisconsin), 71–72, 91
Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines Commission, 10, 78, 145,
Minnesota, 10, 36, 77, 78, 108, 137, 145–147, 252, 288, 301–304, 348, 354, 356nn23, 471, 631
Mississippi, 256, 279, 285, 289n1, 356n2, 397, 631–632, 645, 650n21
Missouri, 202–203, 308–309
Mitchell v. United States, 321
Model Penal Code, 78–79, 141, 146, 209, 276, 277, 305, 306, 721, 733n1, 738–740
Monge v. California, 321
Montana, 114, 289n1, 348
Moore v. Dempsey, 729
Morris, Norval, 134–136, 141, 143, 146, 270, 281–282, 302, 365, 368–369, 613
Mount Pleasant Female Prison, 567
Murrell, Gay, 155, 162
NAACP Legal Defense Fund, 711, 739
National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, 93
National Association of Counties (NACo), 391
National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP), 165
National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC), 394, 409
National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL), 84, 95
National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey, 369, 371–372, 374
National Governors Association, 693
National Institute of Corrections, 440, 645
National Prison Association, 438
National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 68–69
Nebraska, 288, 289n1, 354
Netherlands, 34, 37, 41
Nevada, 31, 289n1
New Hampshire, 279, 289n1, 348
New Jersey, 114–115, 117, 119, 264, 275, 289n1, 313n37, 345, 348, 354, 356n3, 398, 421, 552, 632, 635, 645, 720, 746, 747
New Mexico, 279, 289n1, 308, 348, 354, 505–506, 631
New Orleans (Louisiana), 664
New South Wales (Australia), 116, 155, 159
New York City, 56, 66, 85, 93, 153, 329, 662
New York: death penalty and, 342, 354, 726
history of correctional system and, 343–346
incarcerations rates and, 30
indeterminate sentencing and, 271
“million dollar blocks” and, 93
misdemeanor sentencing and, 329
parole and, 278
prison accreditation and, 420
problem-solving courts and, 153, 155
recidivism and, 510
sentencing commission and, 304
Special Commission on Attica and, 436
New Zealand, 109, 113, 118, 217, 218, 220, 234–235, 453
Newgate prison, 343
Nichols, Brian, 726
No-Frills Prison Bill, 614
Nolan, Pat, 7
Norfolk County (Massachusetts) Correctional Center, 398, 405
North Carolina, 253, 288, 307–310, 356n2, 506, 508, 631, 721
North Dakota, 289n1, 347–348, 356n3
Northwestern Regional Adult Detention Center (Virginia), 403
Norway, 31, 150, 155, 456n14
O’Brien v. United States, 326
Obama, Barack, 44, 686
Offender Aid and Restoration, 401
Offender Notification Forums, 694
Oklahoma, 289n1, 553, 631
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, 38
Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT), 435, 437, 440, 441, 446, 448–455
Oregon, 203, 290n13, 348, 356n2, 631
overcrowding: corrections system reform and, 343, 345, 351
local jails and, 14, 391, 404–406
psychological effects of, 594–595, 600n3
sentencing commissions and, 303–304, 307
Padilla v. Kentucky, 85–86, 90
Pager, Devah, 91
Parker v. Ellis, 91
parole boards: decision-making process and, 634–636
diminution in authority of, 628–629, 631–634, 636–637, 644–645, 648n1
expansion in authority of, 645
formal parole guidelines and, 634–635
victim input and, 635
parole supervision: clinical parole, 639
conditions for release and, 636–637, 640
criticisms of, 630–632
determinate sentencing and, 628, 631–633
disciplinary parole, 639
economic pressures and, 643
growth of parole conditions and, 637–639
growth of parole population, 629–630, 637, 641
growth of prison population and, 642–643
historical context and, 627–632
indeterminate sentencing and, 627–628, 630–631
law enforcement capacity of, 639
management of violations and, 635, 640–641, 645–646
managerial parole, 639–640
mass incarceration and, 629, 637–638, (p. 759) 640, 642–644
prisoner re-entry and, 644–647, 650n20
recidivism risks and, 641–642
rehabilitative ideal and, 630–631
research-based principles and, 647
retribution and, 638–639, 643
risk assessment and, 639
Parole Violation Decision Making Instrument (PVDMI), 203, 208
Patterson v. State, 256
Payne v. Tennessee, 742, 750n3
Peers v. Greece, 448–449
Penn, William, 392, 393
Pennsylvania Act of 1791, 342
Pennsylvania system, 393, 395, 496
Penry v. Lynaugh, 709
People v. Callahan, 256
People v. Seaberg, 256
Performance-Based Standards for Adult Local Detention Facilities, 409
Petersilia, Joan, 598–599, 622, 666
Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, 393
Popovic, Jelena, 159
Portugal, 178
Powell, Lewis, 712
prison condition regulations: accreditations and, 436, 439, 444
autonomous inspection agencies, 440–444, 455–456
Canada and, 445–446
definition of, 433–434
Eighth Amendment and, 440, 449
Europe and, 446–449
existing mechanisms of, 435–436
global variation in, 432–435, 449–455
human rights provisions and, 435, 446–449
inspections and, 435, 440–444, 447–448, 455–456
judicial intervention and, 436, 438–439
national human rights institutions (NHRIs), 435
national preventive mechanisms (NPMs), 450–453
ombudsman offices and, 437–438, 444–446
Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture (SPT), 450–452
United Kingdom and, 441–446
United States and, 437–439, 440–441, 449
prison experience, first-person account of: adjustment strategies and, 610–613, 618, 620
criminal subculture in prison, 615
drug trafficking conviction, 606
education in prison and, 609–613, 616–617
family relationships and, 607, 610, 611, 616–617, 620–623
gangs and, 612, 615
interaction with other prisoners, 608–609, 612–613, 615–616, 619
interaction with prison personnel, 608–610, 612–614, 616, 617–619, 623
marriage and, 620–621
prison programs and, 623
prison transfers and, 607, 618
recidivism concerns and, 622
riots and, 618
suicide in prison, 607, 611
trial experience, 607
visits and correspondence, 613–614, 620, 622–623
violence in prison and, 606–607, 609, 611, 615–616
work in prison, 609, 610
writing and, 619–620
Prison Fellowship, 237
prison governance: budget concerns and, 423–424
court intervention in, 423–424
increasing controls and, 421–422
inmate programming and, 424–427
“Leadership-1” (downward leadership), 416–417, 420, 430
“Leadership-2” (outward leadership), 416–417, 422–430
organizational culture and, 418–421, 424–430
policymakers and, 416–417, 426–427
prison growth and, 15, 418–419
prison violence and, 15, 418–419, 424, 428
professional organizations and, 419–421
reentry concerns, 426–427
prison inspections, 435, 440–444, 447–448, 455–456
Prison Litigation Reform Act, 440
Prison Ministry, 401
prison privatization, 410, 426
Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), 398, 410, 423
Prison Reform Litigation Act (PRLA), 397
prisoner re-entry: civil disabilities and, 668
definitions of, 658
effective programs and, 696–699
employment and, 661–663, 691–692
family relationships and, 665–668, 690
female parolees and, 662, 665, 670, 691–692
fiscal and social consequences of, 686
hopelessness and, 670–671
housing and, 663–664, 691–692
interaction with former prisoners, 669, 673–674
mass incarceration and, 657, 684–685
mental health and, 691–692
mutual aid and, 673–674
obstacles to reintegration and, 660–665, 687, 689–692
parole supervision and, 671–673
parolees’ characteristics and needs and, 687–692
political mobilization and, 674–675
recidivism and, 657, 662, 665–666, 669–673, 685, 687, 696, 698–700
re-entry court and, 695
re-entry shock and, 659–660
social changes and, 659
state responses to, 687, 693–695
stigma and, 668–670
subjective changes and, 659
substance abuse and, 664–665, 690–692
Prisoner Reentry Initiative (PRI), 686, 693, 697
Proactive Community Supervision (PCS) Study, 378
Proactive Community Supervision model, 646
Proactive Resolutions, 238
probation: characteristics of offenders on, 366–367
collaborative behavioral management and, 377–378
community correctional model, 365, 368
conditions of, 363, 365, 370–371, 375
drug use and, 367
evidence-based practices and, 374
high-risk offenders and, 381
history of, 364–365
lifestyle changes and, 372–373
managing compliance and, 38
organization of services and, 367–368
prior convictions and, 373
probation officers and, 364–365, 374–375, (p. 760) 377–378
recidivism and, 373–375
rehabilitation and, 365
relationship-based models of supervision and, 375–377
sanctions and, 364–365, 368–369, 373
substance abuse treatment and, 365–366, 369–370, 372
success rates of, 371–373
supervision and, 366–367
treatment services and 368–371
War on Drugs and, 365
“what works” movement, 379–380
problem-solving courts: atmosphere of, 152, 163
community courts, 153, 155–157, 161–162
criticisms of, 160–161
deliberation of, 159
differences between countries, 150–151, 155–166
domestic violence courts, 153
drug courts and, 151–153, 155, 157–158, 162–163
effectiveness of, 157–158
harm reduction philosophy and, 158–159
judges’ role in, 151–152, 156–157, 160–163
mental health courts, 153–154, 528, 531
prostitution courts, 159
recidivism and, 157–158
therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ), 154–155, 161
Proffitt v. Florida, 739
Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) initiative, 694
proportionality: alternative-means proportionality, 9–10, 131–132, 138–139, 141–144, 146
crime control goals and, 137
defendant cooperation and, 135, 145
deserts and, 131–137, 143–146
deterrence and, 139–140
Eight Amendment and, 142
ends-benefits proportionality, 9–10, 131–132, 138–140, 142–143, 146
harms of crime and, 133
hybrid approaches to, 132, 142–146
incapacitation and, 139–140
indeterminate sentencing and, 144–145
interchangeable sanctions and, 143
mandatory-minimum sentences and, 141, 144
offender culpability and, 133, 140
parsimony and, 143–146
paternalistic theory and, 137
prior convictions and, 133, 145
public policy goals and, 141–142
rehabilitation and, 144
resource limits and, 135, 137
retributive, 131–138, 140, 144–146
sentencing uniformity and, 105, 136–138, 144
utilitarian, 131–132, 138–142, 146. See also retributive theory
psychological effects of imprisonment: age of rehabilitation and, 584
aggression and survival strategies, 591–592
coping with extremes and, 593–597
direct effects, 587–590
long-term isolation and, 595–597
methodological caveats concerning, 585–586
overcrowding and, 594–595, 600n3
post-prison consequences and, 597–599
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, 588–589, 596, 600n2
pre-existing conditions and, 589
pre-prison victimization and, 589
“prison masks” and, 592–593
“prisonization” and, 590–593
recidivism and, 599
sexual assault and, 17, 592
stage and duration of imprisonment and, 590–591
suicide and, 590, 595, 596
symptoms of distress and, 587–589
totality of control and, 591
transition to free world norms and, 593
victimization and, 591
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), 198–200
R. v. Clotworthy, 239
racial disparities in punishment: arrest rates and, 55–56, 58–59, 64, 66–69, 71–72, 77
conviction rates and, 72–73
criminal records and, 65, 77
death penalty and, 63, 64
demographic factors and, 53–54
drug enforcement and, 56–58, 63–74, 76–77
drug trafficking and, 69–72, 74
drug usage rates and, 58, 67–69
federal prisons and, 60–61
female prisoners and, 53, 60–61
incarceration rates and, 5–6, 19, 53–62, 66–67, 72, 74–76
jails and, 59–61
juveniles and, 62
life sentences and, 61–64
proposals to combat, 74–79
racial profiling and, 9, 56–58, 63, 66–67, 72–74, 76–77
sentencing and, 55, 57–59, 61, 64–66, 73–75, 78
socioeconomic factors and, 55
violent crime and, 55, 58–59, 64, 65. See also African-Americans; Hispanics
Racial Justice Act, 721
racial profiling, 9, 56–58, 63, 66–67, 72–74, 76–77
Ramsbotham, David, 443
randomized controlled trials (RCTs): cost-effectiveness and, 228–229, 232
crime harm index (CHI), 232
heterogeneous samples and, 226
meta-analysis of, 229–233
replication and, 227–228
statistical bias and, 223–225. See also restorative justice
Re-Entry Policy Council, 686, 693, 694
Reagan, Ronald, 41, 42, 350
recidivism: academic and vocational programs and, 502, 504–506, 513
drug treatment in correctional settings, 464, 471, 473–476
indeterminate sentencing and, 272, 282–283
mental illness and, 527–530, 534–538
parole supervision and, 641–642
prisoner re-entry process and, 657, 662, 665–666, 669–673, 685, 687, 696, 698–700
probation and, 373–375
psychological effects of imprisonment and, 599
restorative justice and, 222
risk assessment, 198, 201, 209
sentencing commissions and, 310
sex offenders and, 547, 549, 552
work programs and, 493, 504, 510–511
Red Hook Community Justice Center, 155–156, 165
reentry courts, 95, 154, 695
Rehabilitation Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT), 401
rehabilitation: academic and vocational programs and, 494–495
corrections system reform and, 345–348
female offenders and, 567–568
parole and, 630–631
probation and, 365
proportionality and, 144
risk assessment and, 196
sentencing commissions and, 300, 302
(p. 761) traditional determinate sentencing model and, 277, 282–283, 289
work programs and, 493, 501
Reno, Janet, 695
Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons, 437, 440
restorative justice: Australia and, 220, 227, 229–230, 233–234
before sentencing, 233
causal theories of, 216, 221–222
civil society organizations and, 237–238
cost-effectiveness and, 223, 228–229, 232–233
court referral and, 234–235
deontologism and, 220–221
historical precedents of, 218–219
instead of prosecution, 216, 233
life sentences, 216, 236
moral theories of, 216, 220–221
New Zealand and, 220, 234–235
primate behavior and, 218, 219
re-entry after prison and, 216, 235–226
recidivism and, 222
restitution and, 219
restorative justice conferencing (RJC) and, 216, 220–225, 227–240
sentencing and, 234–235
social movement and, 236–237
tipping point and, 217, 238–239
United Kingdom and, 228–233, 238–239
utilitarianism and, 220–221
victims and, 222. See also randomized controlled trials
restorative justice conferences, 216–218, 220–225, 227–240
Restorative Justice Consortium, 238
Restorative Solutions, 238
retributive theory: backup sanctions and, 136
deserts and, 131–137, 143–146
limits and, 132–136, 144–147
“not-undeserved” penalties and, 134–136, 143. See also proportionality
Returning Home study, 659, 688–690, 699
reverse deterrence, 140
Reynoso, Cruz, 717
Rhode Island, 117, 288, 289n1, 348, 745
Ring v. Arizona, 204, 318, 324
risk assessment: accuracy of, 200–201, 208
actuarial instruments and, 197–199, 201–203, 207–209
brain imaging and, 200
clinical, 198–199, 201, 207
constitutional issues and, 203–206
dangerousness, 196, 198
demographic variables and, 197, 203–205
diagnostic tests of, 198–200, 203, 205, 207–209
dynamic factors, 196, 199, 196
Fourteenth Amendment and, 204
methodological and evidentiary concerns, 207–209
parole and, 201, 203
recidivism and, 198, 201, 209
rehabilitation and, 196
sentencing and, 197–198, 201–203, 209
sex offenders and, 198, 202–204
Sixth Amendment and, 203–204
static factors, 196, 198–199, 206
types of, 198–200
Rita v. United States, 321, 324
Roberts, D.E., 573
Romney, Mitt, 718
Rompilla v. Beard, 714
Roper v. Simmons, 354, 708
Rudolph v. Alabama, 719
Rush, Benjamin, 344, 393
Russian Federation, 447–448, 450, 455, 458nn3536
Ryan, George, 717
Safe Streets Act (1968), 38, 349
Salient Factor Score, 280
San Antonio v. Rodriguez, 205
Sandhills Vocational Delivery System, 508
Sasquatch, 173, 190–191
Savelsberg, Joachim, 32–33
Scalia, Antonin, 171n54, 709–710
Schlanger, Margo, 438, 440
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 23–25
Scotland, 109–111, 160, 165, 463. See also United Kingdom
Seattle (Washington), 71, 606–607
Second Chance Act (2007), 83, 622, 643, 686, 695, 699
sentencing commissions: crime reduction and, 310
deterrence and, 302–303
efficiency of, 311
evaluations of, 309–312
evidence-based systems and, 311
federal, 305–306
guidelines and, 301–311
incarceration rates and, 304–305, 309–311
independence of, 307
judges and, 299–300, 310
lack of regulation of, 299–300
legislatures and, 13, 300–301, 303–304, 309, 312
Maine and, 304
Michigan, 309
Minnesota and, 301–304
Missouri, 308–309
New Mexico and, 308
New York and, 304
North Carolina and, 307–310
parole boards and, 299–300, 306–307
Pennsylvania and, 304
prison overcrowding and, 303–304, 307
recidivism and, 310
reducing disparity and, 311
rehabilitation and, 300, 302
retributive objectives of, 302
Utah and, 308
utilitarian objectives of, 303
Virginia and, 308, 310, 313n13
Washington, 304
sentencing discretion: balance of power among sentencing actors and, 259–260
charge bargaining, 250, 252–253
charge of conviction and, 252, 260
collection of evidence and, 249–250
common law jurisdictions and, 247
community prosecution, 263
constraints on, 261–265
criminal codes and, 250, 258, 261
defendants and, 248, 254–258
defense concessions and, 255–256
discovery rights and, 256
drug prosecutions and, 253–255
economic considerations and, 260–261
fact bargaining, 250, 253–254
judges and, 247–248, 251–252, 259, 262
legislators and, 258, 261–262
negotiation effects and, 258–260
prosecutors and, 247–249, 252–253, 255, 259–265
questions about accuracy and effectiveness, 258–259
selection of charges and, 250
sentence bargaining, 250–251
sentencing factors and, 248, 254
sentencing guidelines and, 247–248, 252–254, 258–260
size of trial penalty and, 257–258
waivers of pre-trial hearings, 256
(p. 762) sentencing procedures: aggravating facts and, 325
allocution and, 319–320
appeals and, 328
compared to trial procedure, 322–326
consecutive sentences and, 325–326
constitutional protections and, 317–322
counsel and, 319, 321
crime victims and, 327
double jeopardy and, 321–322
Eighth Amendment and, 318
evidentiary rules and, 320
executive branch and, 318–319
Fourteenth Amendment and, 322
judges and, 319–321, 324, 327–328
juries and, 319–320, 328–329
justifications for sentencing and, 320–321
legislatures and, 317, 319
mandatory minimum sentencing statutes and, 323
maximum-raising and, 323–324
misdemeanors and, 329
mitigating facts and, 325
modification of sentencing, 329
notice, 320
plea agreements and, 330
pre-sentencing reports and, 327–328
prior convictions and, 325, 328
procedure for sentencing facts and, 325–326
recidivism and, 328–329
Sixth Amendment, 318
state laws and, 324
statutory regulations and, 326–329
U.S. Supreme Court and, 317–318, 320, 322–324, 326
Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI), 686, 688, 690, 692, 697–699
sex offender management and treatment: community notification and, 550–551
community treatment programs and, 548–549
computer restrictions and, 554
crime trends and, 546–548
diversity among offenders, 547
economic considerations and, 549, 550
electronic monitoring, 553
feminist movement and, 545
future of, 554–555
history of, 544–546
juvenile offenders and, 547
medical interventions and, 548
mental health and, 547
pedophilia and, 546, 548
polygraphs and, 554
prison-based treatment and, 548–549
public opinion and, 547, 554–555
rape laws and, 545
recidivism and, 547, 549, 552
registries, 545, 547, 549–551
residence restrictions and, 551–552
sentencing policies and, 545–546, 548–549
sexual psychopathy laws and, 544–545
social control measures after release, 549–551
technological innovations, 553–554
victims and, 545, 552
sexual assault in prisons, 17, 398, 592
Sexual Violence Risk-20 assessment, 203
Shapland, Joanna, 228–229, 232, 239, 242
Shepherd, Joanna, 186–187
Sherman, Lawrence, 229
Sixth Amendment and, 85–86, 203–204, 306, 318, 319, 714–715, 730–731
Skeem, Jennifer, 526–529
Smith v. Alabama, 321
South Africa, 41, 96n10, 150, 156, 456n14
South Carolina, 187, 289n1, 356n3
South Dakota, 289n1, 348, 631
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (SMR), 437, 449, 451, 455n2
State of Prisons (1777), 393
State v. Vasquez, 264
Static-99, 203
Staying in Touch programs, 401
Step ‘n Out study, 377
Stephens, Lynn, 610
Stevens, John Paul, 17, 171n54, 326, 710–711
Strang, Heather, 229
Strickland v. Washington, 714–715
supermax prisons, 29, 353, 522
Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 665
Survey of Inmates of State Correctional Facilities, 464–466, 468
Swearingen, Van, 438–439
Sweden, 31, 432, 451, 453
Sycamore Tree Program, 220, 237–238
Sykes, Gresham, 421, 593
Tangney, Julie, 402
Tasmania, 115–116
Teague v. Lane, 730
Tennessee, 94, 278, 284, 395, 591, 717, 725
Texas, 6, 108, 109, 187, 271, 285, 289n1, 356n3, 378, 397, 409, 456n3, 471, 474–475, 498, 636, 646, 649n14, 660, 688, 716, 717, 739
Thatcher, Margaret, 41
therapeutic jurisprudence, 10, 154–155, 161
Thomas, Clarence, 710
three strikes laws, 9, 29, 57–58, 66, 140, 177–178, 187, 189, 274, 323, 351, 403, 546, 548, 743–744
Tonry, Michael, 32, 37, 64, 176, 181, 304–305, 365, 368–369
Tooley v. District Court, 262
Toronto (Canada), 155
“tough on crime” policies, 32, 38–39, 43–44, 183–184, 350–351, 517, 716
Townsend v. Burke, 320
traditional indeterminate sentencing model: compared to determinate sentencing systems, 273–274, 276, 287–288
criminal record and, 278, 280
definition of, 272
degrees of indeterminancy, 274–276
departments of corrections and, 275
Europe and, 286
goals of, 277–279
good-time credits and, 273, 275
growth of prison population and, 286–288, 291n20
incapacitation and, 271, 278
incarceration rates and, 272
judges, 270, 272
legislatures and, 272
lenity and, 286–288
oversight and, 285
parole boards and, 270–273, 275, 278–279, 283–285, 288
parole release formulas and, 274, 275
prisoners’ representation and, 283–284
procedural problems and, 272, 283–286
proportionality, (p. 763) 278
recidivism, 272, 282–283
rehabilitation and, 277, 282–283, 289
risk assessment and, 271, 277–282
sentencing guidelines and, 273–274, 289n7
sex crimes and, 278
Transition from Prison to Community (TPC) initiative, 645
Travis County (Texas) 378, 646
truth in sentencing laws, 273, 301, 309, 313n16, 315, 628, 645
Turkey, 447–448, 458nn3536
Turow, Scott, 718
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 59, 79n1, 355, 394, 399, 407, 642, 687
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 437
U.S. Congress, 29, 305–306, 440, 550, 609, 613, 622, 686
U.S. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967), 349, 627, 630
U.S. Sentencing Commission, 36, 631
U.S. Supreme Court: death penalty and, 708–715, 717, 719, 729–730, 739, 741, 749
Eighth Amendment and, 142, 709, 712
foreign law and, 164
Fourteenth Amendment and, 712
prison overcrowding and, 6, 456n9, 594
sentencing procedures and, 13, 201, 203–206, 306, 317–318, 320, 322–326
sex offender laws and, 354, 549
Sixth Amendment and, 85–86, 90, 204, 256, 306, 714. See also individual cases
UN Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (JDL), 437
United Kingdom: crime victims and, 104, 109, 111, 113–116, 121n7
deterrence through severity approach and, 178, 179
mass incarcerations and, 27, 31–32, 36, 40–41, 46
prison condition regulations and, 441–446, 448–451
prison system history and, 392–393
problem-solving courts and, 150, 155–156, 160–163
restorative justice and, 228–233, 238–239
United Nations Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT), 437, 447, 449, 454. See also Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
United States Attorney’s Manual, 264
United States Parole Commission, 631
United States Sentencing Commission, 305–306
United States v. Barnette, 210n2
United States v. Batchelder, 262
United States v. Bergman, 300
United States v. Booker, 204, 306, 312n7, 320, 325
United States v. Caceres, 249
United States v. Cronic, 715
United States v. Dunnigan, 320
United States v. Ruiz, 256
United States v. Shields, 206
United States v. Taveras, 204
United States v. Virginia, 204
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 434
University of Connecticut, 617, 623
Urban Institute, 401, 646–647, 688
Utah, 118, 279, 285, 308, 313n17, 348, 397
Vermont, 284, 289n1, 343, 348
victim impact statements (VIS): ancillary harm and, 109
collateral harm and, 108
contents of, 111, 115
criminal justice professionals and, 111–112
criticisms of, 107, 111–112
due process concerns and, 106, 111, 117–118
effect of, 118–119
frequency of, 109
parole and, 106, 113–120
reasons for, 105, 107, 110
victims’ understanding of, 107, 110–111. See also victims
victim personal statement (England & Wales), 116
victims: common law jurisdictions and, 104–108
expectations of, 110–111
France and, 104
parole and, 106, 113–120
sentencing and, 105–109, 111–112, 116, 118–120
status of, 107–108
United Kingdom and, 104, 109, 111, 114–116. See also victim impact statements
violence in prisons: first-person account of, 606–607, 609, 611, 615–616
prison governance and, 15, 405, 418–419, 424, 428
Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), 198–200, 205, 208–209
Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission, 308, 313n13
von Hirsch, Andrew, 134, 136, 143
Wainwright v. Sykes, 421
Walnut Street Jail (Philadelphia), 393
Walton v. Arizona, 709–710
War on Drugs, 8, 27, 59, 63, 67, 73, 76–77, 353, 365, 571, 573
Warren, Earl, 90–91, 730
Washington State, 30, 36, 145, 264, 274, 288, 304, 324, 348, 356n3, 506, 545, 548–550, 659–660
Washington, D.C., 347, 356n3, 438
Watts v. United States, 320, 321
Webb, James, 25, 622
Webster, Cheryl, 176–177, 186
West Virginia, 289, 396
Western Australia, 113, 433, 441, 456n17, 457n22. See also Australia
Wexler, David, 154, 161, 470
(p. 764) When Prisoners Come Home, 622
“Why Me?,” 238
Wiggins v. Smith, 714
Williams v. New York, 300, 320, 322–323, 325
Williams v. Taylor, 714
Wilson, James Q., 26, 418–419, 616–617
Winick, Bruce, 154, 161
Wisconsin, 262, 285, 348, 354, 356n2, 508, 553, 631, 649n14
Witte v. United States, 321
Wolfgang study, 719–720
women in prison. See female offenders
Women’s Prison Association, 675
Woolf and Tumim Report on Prison Disturbances, 436, 444
work programs: Auburn system and, 496
control theory and, 501
correctional industries and, 498, 509–510
economic aspects of, 498
effectiveness of, 493
history of, 496
impact on employment, 511
individual-level change and, 512
multicomponent programs and, 510–511
Pennsylvania system and, 496
purposes of, 496, 498–499, 501
recidivism and, 493, 504, 510–511
rehabilitation and, 493, 501
Wyoming, 289n1, 348
Zant v. Stephens, 722
Zimring, Franklin, 29, 32, 186, 720, 726, 742