Abstract and Keywords
This article studies “invisible punishment” or the “collateral” consequences that follow convictions. It notes that these collateral consequences are sometimes caused by charges or arrests that do not result in conviction. It first studies the relevant legal consequences of being involved with the criminal justice system. It then tests the impact of incarceration and criminal-justice contact on the convicted person. The next section describes the research on how certain communities—and even democracy itself—are influenced by mass incarceration. This article ends with a study of a number of promising reform proposals on invisible punishment.
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