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date: 08 July 2020

(p. 917) Index

(p. 917) Index

A
Aaker, J., 60–1
Aarts, H., 245, 246, 483, 484, 486–7, 603, 646
Abele, A.E., 61, 65
Abelson, R.P., 42, 131
Abramowitz, J.S., 422, 426
Abramson, L., 106
abstract information
imagery in representing, 161–3
abstractness
levels of
comprehension in, 267–9
abuse
substance
thought suppression and, 427
accentuation, 562–4
acceptance
interpersonal
self-esteem and, 540–2
accessibility
defined, 463
knowledge, 807
motivated
from relevance, 465–6
selective
in consumer information processing, 811–12
accountability
visual perception and, 344–5
accuracy
question of
Cronbach and, 59
accuracy motivation, 854–5
achievement-related emotion
in cultural congruency, 776–7
Ackerman, J.M., 181, 183, 661
action(s)
adaptive
cognition for, 645–8
expressions in, 173–4
required
immediacy of, 345
activity(ies)
joint
described, 730–1
actor vs. observer differences, 105
Adair, S.A., 369
Adams, R.B., 182, 183
Adams, R.B., Jr., 174–5
adaptive action
cognition for, 645–8
adaptive social cognition
accuracies and biases of, 672
Adaval, R., 808, 816, 818
additivity hypothesis, 286
adjustment
in judgment, 385–6
adolescence
life story development during
childhood amnesia and, 520–1
Adolphs, R., 178
Adorno, T.W., 855
affect
attention and, 447–9
cognition and, 435–62
defined, 436
described, 436, 643
incidental, 437
as information, 435–62
future directions in, 452–5
information processing style and, 449–55
integral, 437
judgment and, 436–45, 817
memory processes and, 445–7
motivational influences on judgments, 817
perception and, 447–9
in social cognition, 905, 906f
affect-as-information (AAI) approach, 437, 443, 444, 446, 448, 450, 452, 453
affect heuristic, 391–2
affect-infusion model (AIM), 446
Affect-Misattribution Procedure (AMP), 83
affective assimilation, 405–6
affective cognition, 882–4
negative expectations and, 882
optimism and, 883–4
positive beliefs and, 882–3
affective contrast, 405–6
affective forecasting, 410–11
debiasing of, 411
affective influences
in miscalibrated self-evaluation, 539–40
affective responses to faces
in social neuroscience, 714–15, 715f, 716f
affordance value
evaluation of, 662–9
age
in evolutionary social cognition, 663–4
time perspective related to, 343
Agnoli, F., 556
AirPhotosLive, 339
Akmal, N., 753
Albright, L., 59
Algom, D., 211
Allais, M., 377
Allais paradox, 377
Allan, K., 361
Allen, F.J., 358
Allport, F.H., 55
Allport, G.W., 7, 26, 48, 75–6, 335, 739, 789, 790, 793, 797
Alonso, A., 884
Alony, R., 268
Alparone, F.R., 557
Alter, A.L., 444
Altman, G.T.M., 469
Alzheimer’s disease
self in, 522–3
Amari, A., 555
Ambady, N., 174–5, 182, 185–6, 345, 507, 557
ambiguity
in environment
visual perception and, 344
American Heritage Dictionary, 11
American Idol, 538
American Psychologist, 895
Amit, E., 211
amnesia, 522–3
anterograde, 522
childhood
(p. 918) described, 520
development of life story in adolescence related to, 520–1
self in, 520–1
retrograde, 522
amnesic(s)
intact self in, 525–6
Amodio, D.M., 85, 228–9, 556, 702, 713–17, 721
amygdala, 704
analogical reasoning, 838–9
analogue representations
symbolic representations vs., 210–11
analysis(es)
in consumer information processing
level of, 809–10
fundamental, 914
anchoring/adjustment heuristic, 107
in judgment, 385–6
anchoring effects
in consumer information processing, 811–12
anchoring processes
production effects on, 265–6
Andersen, S.M., 63, 201, 598
Anderson, A., 733–4
Anderson, C.A., 60, 408
Anderson, J.R., 278, 590
Anderson, M.C., 418–19, 428–9
Anderson, N.H., 57, 63–4, 121, 818
Anderson, R.C., 19, 465, 471, 473
Andrade, E., 391
antecedent thinking
consequential thinking vs.
determinants of, 208–10
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 246, 251, 710–11, 719–20
in prejudice control, 85
anterograde amnesia, 522
anticipated emotions, 390–1
Antoinette, M., 100
Antony, M.M., 426
appraisal tendency
emotions in, 393
approach(es)
social cognition as, 10–12, 28–30
critiques of, 46–8
approach–avoidance
social cognition and, 884
aptitude-by-treatment interactions (ATI), 796
Arcuri, L., 741
argument(s)
communicative, 174
egocentric function, 174
Aristotle, 110, 147, 161, 435
Arndt, J., 684–9, 691
Aron, A., 505
Aronson, E., 46, 47
Aronson, J., 858
artifact(s)
cultural
processes serving clear conceptions of, 691–2
“artificiality”
meaning of
toward greater understanding of, 46–8
Asch/Anderson methodological paradigms, 35
Asch, S.E., 26, 27, 95–6, 197
focus on traits, 57–8
recent extensions of, 58–9
Ashburn-Nardo, L., 85
Ashton-James, C., 411
Aspinwall, L.G., 884
assimilation
affective, 405–6
contrast and, 131–2
assimilation effect
in consumer information processing, 810–11
associated systems theory (AST), 228
association process
theory-based processes vs.
in child’s development of concepts, 549–50
associationism
in person memory, 356–7
associative memory networks, 61–2
associative network models
of mental representation, 222t, 223–4, 223f
associative processing
rule-based processing vs., 296
associative–propositional evaluation (APE) model, 129
assumption(s)
processing, 259–60, 259f
psychological
structural, 258–9, 259f
Atkins v. Virginia, 840
Atran, S., 772
attachment(s)
in relationships, 596–7
attachment theory, 596–7
attention
affect and, 447–9
“cold” and “hot” sides of, 313–28
consciousness and
relation between, 247–8
described, 245–6, 314
emotional signals guiding, 319–20
eye gaze in directing, 176
eye movements in allocation of, 320
facial structure in, 170–3
future directions in, 325
goals and
nonconscious operation of, 483–4
relation between, 245–7
to information organized hierarchically
powerful mind in, 580–1
introduction, 313–14
joint, 317–18
orienting of, 315–16, 315f
selective, 242, 448
anchoring processes effects on, 265–6
selective deployment of
people’s actions influencing, 317–19
social orienting of, 317–19
special allocation of, 314–20, 315f, 316f
sustained
behavioral measures of, 321–2, 322f
in lab and in life, 320–5, 322f
and mind wandering, 323–4
and mood, 323
self-report measures of, 322–3
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
SART Errors in persons with, 322
Attention-Related Cognitive Errors Scale (ARCES), 323
attentional control
power in, 579–80
attentional preference
in face perception, 168–9
attentional scope, 447–8
attenuation hypothesis, 285–6
attitude(s), 8
defined, 134
development of
since mid-1970s, 122–7
in goal pursuit
nonconscious operation of, 484–5
health
social cognition and, 877–8
social cognition and
as social psychological siblings, 118–43
traditional research on
backdrop of, 119–20
attitude change
dual and multiple process theories of, 124–5
traditional research on
backdrop of, 119–20
attitude formation
dual and multiple process theories of, 124–5
attitude–behavior relations
(p. 919) models of, 286–7
dual attitude model, 287
MODE model, 286–8
“Attitudes Can Be Measured,” 119
attraction
interpersonal, 8
attractiveness
facial structure in, 170
halo effects of
trait judgments affected by, 170
attribute(s)
of target, 86–7
attribute judgment, 277, 277t
attribution(s), 8, 198
application of social neuroscience to, 111–12
bias in, 100, 104
causal
Kelley’s covariation approach to, 102–4
classic, 100–6
defined, 95
described, 95–6
dispositional
distress-maintaining, 594
as gateway to social cognition, 95–117
inspiration and pioneering ideas from Heider, 97–100
introduction, 95–7, 96f
stage models of dispositional inference, 106–9
systematic theory, findings, and applications, 100–6
of mind, 110–11
of psychological capacities, 110
relationship-enhancing, 594
self-, 103–4
timeline of evolution for, 96, 96f
Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior, 95
attribution theory
of cognitive social psychology, 22–3
attributional model of memory, 234–5
attunement
perceptual, 185–6
Au, E.W.-M., 767, 910
augmentation effect, 103
autobiographical memories
components of, 518
construction of, 519–20
differential activation of self during, 527–8
processes occurring after, 528–9
self in, 519–20
described, 518
development of
no self required for, 526–7
episodic memory vs., 518
essential properties of
reliance on self of, 518–19
influence on self
factors controlling, 527–9
involuntary, 523–4
relevance and, 472–3
retrieval of
hierarchical process in, 519
self and, 517–33
as independent entities, 524–7
automatic behavior activation, 260–2
habits in, 261–2
productions in, 260–1
automatic biases
malleability of, 86–8
automatic-controlled continuum
social cognition as, 29–30
automatic evaluation
production effects on, 266
automatic processes, 44
in intergroup bias, 79–80
research on, 902
in social neuroscience, 708–10
automaticity, 239–56
control and, 283
definitional issues, 243–4
four horsemen of, 77, 84
introduction, 239–40
of perceptual miserliness, 335–6
research on
foundations of, 240–3
in stereotyping and prejudice, 74–94
in the 1980s, 77–9
in the 1990s, 79–83
in the 2000s, 83–6
automaticity-dominating process dissociation model, 303–4
availability
in judgment, 384–5
awareness, 807
Azam, O.A., 81, 358
Azpiroz, A., 884
B
babyfacedness
facial structure in, 170–1
Bachmann, M., 339
background information, 732
Baer, J.S., 65
Baird, A.A., 179
Baker, S.M., 820
balance theory
of cognitive social psychology, 21–2
Balcetis, E., 329, 343, 483, 860, 904
Baldwin, D.A., 753, 756
Baldwin, M.W., 598
Banaji, M.R., 79, 82, 84, 85, 129, 667
Banaji, R., 180
Bandura, A., 263–4, 490, 788, 790–1
Bar-Hillel, M., 864
Bargh, J.A., 28, 66, 68, 79, 84, 208, 221, 224, 242, 244, 245, 249, 263–6, 419, 479–80, 482, 484, 487, 490–1, 499, 640, 641, 646, 710, 793
Barnier, A.J., 425
Barrata, P., 377
Barreto, 61
Barsalou, L.W., 41, 229, 642
Bartlett, F.C., 18–19, 789
basal ganglia, 704
base-rate fallacy, 742
base rate neglect, 384
Baumeister, R.F., 54, 65, 488, 854
Bayesian statistics, 378
Beach, K., 637
Beall, S., 885
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI–II), 323
Beck, G., 339
Becker, D.V., 656, 661, 665, 667, 672
Becker, E., 681, 683, 696
Becquart, E., 180
Beer, J.S., 708
behavior(s)
everyday interdependence and, 601–3
in evolution–person memory link, 365–6
eye gaze in signaling, 176
others’ behavior effects on, 602–3
presence of others effects on, 601–2
production-mediated
desirability effects on, 266–7
in shaping one’s environment, 799–800
traits and, 198
unconscious influences of productions on, 265–7. see also production(s), unconscious influences on behavior
utilization, 250
behavior biases
reconciling of
variability and, 585–6
behavior identification, 112
behavioral categorization, 291
behavioral confirmation, 799–800
behavioral confirmation processes, 594–5
behavioral exemplars
abstraction of traits vs., 207
behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 83
behavioral interdependence
self-control and, 603–4
behavioral measures
of sustained attention, 321–2, 322f
behavioral mindsets
in deliberative goal-directed processing, 273–6
bolstering and counterarguing mindsets, 273–6
counterfactual mindsets, 273–4
prevention and promotion mindsets, 274–5
uncertainty avoidance mindsets, 275
variety-seeking mindsets, 275–6
(p. 920) behavioral representations
traits vs.
construal of, 196–8
behaviorism
described, 16
as root of social cognition, 16–18
Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes (BIAS) map, 60
Beike, D.R., 517, 908
belief(s)
about causes, 879–80
about control, 880–1
about illness, 879
about relationships, 594–5
about what is real
learning about, 760–2
internalized
in cultural influence, 771–2
natural
acquisition of, 760–1
positive
affective cognition and, 882–3
preexisting
self-interest motivation in preserving, 856–8
supernatural
acquisition of, 760–1
factors affecting, 761–2
Belief in a Just World Scale, 865
Bem, D.J., 103, 796
Bennett, M., 554
Benton, J., 441
Berger, P.L., 681
Berinsky, A.J., 867
Berman, L., 65
Bernoulli, D., 377
Bernstein, M.J., 180–2
Berntsen, D., 529
Berntson, G.G., 702
Berscheid, E., 209
Bessenoff, G.R., 80
Betz, A.L., 361
Beukeboom, C.J., 450
bias(es). see also specific types
of adaptive social cognition, 672
in attention and early evaluation of faces, 177–9
in attribution, 100, 104
automatic
malleability of, 86–8
behavior
reconciling of, 585–6
cognitive
message framing and, 878–81
confirmation
in judgment, 388–9
correspondence, 104–5, 291
explanation, 408
in facial expressions’ perception, 184–6
false consensus, 106
group-serving
effect of education on, 863
hindsight, 404
in judgment, 389–90
hostile media, 106
intergroup. see intergroup bias
in interpretation, 184–6
in judgment, 382–7
partisan
in political cognition, 858–9
prospective speculations effects on, 408–10
self-enhancement, 105, 768
self-serving
effect of education on, 863
self-affirmation in overcoming, 858
status quo
in political cognition, 864
stereotype consistency, 743–5
visual
moderators of, 344–5
bias blind spot, 104
bias hypothesis, 286
biased hypothesis testing model, 854
biased interpretation
in political cognition, 861
biased perception
in political cognition, 860–1
Bieri, J., 56
Biernat, M., 128
Bigler, R.S., 551, 556
Bijleveld, E., 245, 249
Bill of Rights, 845–6
biological self-regulation
visual perception serving, 340–1
Birch, S.A.J., 750, 753, 754
Birmingham, E., 320
Birrell, P., 25–6
Bishara, A.J., 44, 306
Blader, S.L., 68
Blagov, P.S., 857
Blair, I.V., 82, 86, 172
Blake, A., 319
Blaney, P.H., 509
blindness
change, 242, 324
inattentional, 242, 324
“blindsight,” 162
Bloch, M.N., 757
Blumberg, S.J., 410
Blumer, H., 789
Boatright, P., 812
Bodenhausen, G.V., 80, 82, 184–5, 299
bodily experiences
power and, 582–3
bodily harm
legal protection from, 841
body image
perceptual monster and, 338
Boerger, E.A., 761–2
Bogardus, E.S., 75
bogus stranger attraction paradigm, 46
Boksem, M.A.S., 583
Boland, J.E., 339
bolstering mindsets, 273
Bond, R.N., 264
Bongers, K.C.A., 489–91
Boon, L.B., 424
Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS), 323
Borghi, A.M., 642
Borkenau, P., 64
Boroditsky, L., 550, 644
Botvinick, M.M., 710
Bourdain, A., 344
Bouvrette, A., 542
Bower, G.H., 445, 498
Bowers, J.S., 226
Bowers, K.S., 795
Brackett, M.A., 411
brain
anatomy of, 703–5, 705f
brain mapping approach
to social neuroscience, 705–6
Brain, P.F., 884
brainstorming, 627
brainstorming tasks, 620
Braly, K., 75
Brambilla, M., 61
brand(s)
in consumer information processing, 813–14
brand extension(s)
in consumer information processing, 813–14
Brandstätter, V., 489
Branscombe N.R., 403
Bransford, J.D., 19
Bratslavsky, E., 65
Brauer, M., 580
Brédart, S., 180
Brennan, S.E., 734
Brewer, B., 172
Brewer, M.B., 24–5, 64, 79, 104–5, 199, 290, 290f, 772
Brewin, C.R., 425
Briley, D.A., 274, 275
Brinol, P., 132, 582
Broadbent, D., 19
Bromley, S., 77
Brosseau-Liard, P.E., 754
Brown, 323, 908
Brown, C.M., 497, 505, 510
Brown, J.D., 878
Brown, P., 737
Brown, R., 741
Bruckmueller, S., 61, 65
Brugger, P., 334
Brugger, S., 334
Bruner, J.S., 61, 224, 225, 332, 482, 499, 565, 855
Brunhart, S.M., 884
Brunner, T.A., 820
Brunswik, E., 234
(p. 921) Bryan, C.J., 759
Brycz, H., 64
Bryner, S.M., 860
Buckhour, R., 360
Budziak, J., 860
Bullock, J.G., 861–2, 866
bundling
in consumer information processing, 819
Burklund, L.J., 887
Burns, J.W., 424
Burrows, L., 242–3, 263, 641
Burton, T., 641
Bush, G.W., Pres., 685, 862
Busigny, T., 367
Byrne, D., 46, 57
C
C-system, 112, 298
Cacioppo, J.T., 125, 232, 284–5, 284f, 640, 702
Cadinu, M., 557
Cai, F., 266
Caldara, R., 181
Calder, B.J., 809
Cameron, C.D., 9, 220, 902
Campbell, A., 859
Campbell, D.T., 202–3, 560
Campos, J., 749
cancellation effects
in consumer information processing, 820
Cantor, N., 24, 63, 200, 792
Carey, S., 552
Carlsmith, J.M., 46, 47
Carlston, D.E., 3, 7, 10, 16, 27, 63, 64, 67, 108, 135, 197, 228, 272, 355, 362, 365, 894, 897
Carraro, L., 555
Carrell, S.E., 598
Carriere, J.S.A., 322, 323
Carroll, J.M., 184
Cartwright, D., 20
Caruso, E.M., 860
Carver, C.S., 477, 481, 509
Cassanto, D., 643
Cassavetes, J., 681
Castelli, F., 717
Castelli, L., 555–6, 744
Castro, F., 104
“catchiness” factor
in methodological approach to social cognition, 36–7
categorical assimilation
in face perception and recognition, 180
categorical perception
of other people, 334–5
categorical responses to faces
in social neuroscience, 715–16
categorization
breadth of, 211–12
categorization processes
in consumer information processing, 813–14
Cattell, R.B., 790
causal attribution
Kelley’s covariation approach to, 102–4
causal inferences, 815
of perceivers, 97–9
causal interaction
expectations about, 98
causal relationships
construal of, 207–10
causality
dimensions of, 106
implicit, 740
judgments about, 439
personal vs. impersonal, 98–9
for social behavior, 106
cause(s)
beliefs about
social cognition and, 879–80
inferences about, 208
invariant
preferred by perceivers, 98
Ceccarelli, R., 743
Center for Group Dynamics
at MIT, 20–1
Centerbar, D.B., 442
Cesario, J., 232
Chabris, C.F., 242, 629
Chaiken, S., 60, 285
Chaio, J.Y., 178
Champion, H., 753
Chandler, M.J., 754
Chang, L.J., 366
change blindness, 242, 324
Chapleau, K.M., 172
Charbis, C.F., 324
Chartrand, T.L., 66, 67, 242, 263, 264, 479–80, 485, 486, 793
Chasteen, A.L., 45
cheater(s)
memory for, 368
chemical substances
memory effects of, 368
Chen, M., 79, 224, 242–3, 263, 484, 641
Chen, S., 640
Chen, Y.-R., 772
cherished memories, 517–33
Cherubini, P., 61
Cheyne, J.A., 322, 323
Chiao, J.Y., 713
Childers, T.L., 270, 272, 809
childhood amnesia
described, 520
development of life story in adolescence related to, 520–1
self in, 520–1
children
beliefs about supernatural entities and forces
factors affecting, 761–2
essentialist thinking in, 552–5
social cognitive development in, 749–66. see also social cognitive development
source reasoning in
limitations of, 755
stereotypes among, 555–9
development of, 540–60
vs. adult stereotypes, 558–9
thinking process in, 549–55
words, concepts, and categories development in, 549–55
Chiu, C-y, 767, 910
Cho, H.J., 815
Chomsky, N., 17
chronically accessible productions, 269–70
chronicity
self-schematic knowledge and, 499
Chua, H.F., 339
Chun, W.Y., 58, 294
Chung, C., 181
Cialdini, R.B., 808
Cioffi, D., 424
Citrin, J., 856
Claparède, E., 42–3
Clark, A.E., 640, 648, 744
Clark, H.H., 734, 739
Clark, J.K., 126
Claypool, H.M., 183, 272
Clinton, B., Pres., 408, 862
Clore, G.L., 406, 437, 441, 442, 446, 448, 816, 817
co-acting subsystems, 36
from mental representation to, 42–6
coalition categorization, 666–8
Coan, J.A., 604
Cobb, L., 407
cognition. see also specfic types and social cognition
for adaptive action, 645–8
affect and
relationship between, 435–62
affective, 882–4
aim of, 584
“cold”
attention and, 313
cultural
in political cognition, 864
described, 3, 6
embodied, 133–4
culture as, 774–5
in deliberative–automatic interface, 264
(p. 922) everyday interdependence and, 600–1
in General Social Interaction Cycle, 787–8, 787f
group, 616–33. see also group cognition
“hot”
attention and, 313
implicit
culture as, 774–5
interpersonal, 590–615. see also interpersonal cognition
in Lewin’s grand truism, 792–3, 792f
mortal, 680–701. see also terror management
nature in, 657–9
neural and physiological functioning and, 886–7
in personality, 788–92
political, 851–75. see also political cognition
power and, 576–7
relationship
individual differences in, 595–7
as scaffolded, 648–9
selection problem and, 577–8
in shaping one’s environment, 800–1
situated
culture as, 773–4
described, 637–8
power in, 584–6
in social psychology, 789
socially situated, 637–55. see also socially situated cognition
cognitive activities
encoding-driven
person memory in context of, 357–9
cognitive biases
message framing and, 878–81
cognitive consistency
in cultural congruency, 776
cognitive dissonance theory
of cognitive social psychology, 22
cognitive effects
communication-related, 742–5
cognitive efficiency, 807
perceived group coherence as source of, 565–6
stereotype abstraction and, 565
stereotypes as, 564–6
cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), 295–6
Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ), 322–3
cognitive influences
in miscalibrated self-evaluation, 539
cognitive infrastructure of meaning
cognitive interdependence, 600–1
cognitive manager, 330
cognitive mediation, 122
cognitive miser, 330
cognitive models of collective search, 621–2
cognitive monster, 330
cognitive perspective
on social interaction, 786–7
cognitive process(es), 29
cognitive structure and, 29
death-related thought activating
sequence of, 683–8
defined, 135
in face perception, 168–9
situational influences on, 645–8
Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior, 895
cognitive psychology
development of, 18–20
dual-processing models in, 19
imagery in, 155–6
judgment heuristics in, 19–20
schema concept in, 18–19
Cognitive Psychology, 18
cognitive revolution, 852–3
aftermath of, 852–3
cognitive social psychology, 21–3
attribution theory of, 22–3
balance theory of, 21–2
cognitive dissonance theory of, 22
cognitive structure(s), 29
cognitive process and, 29
in emergence of social cognition, 24–5
cognitive transformations, 791
Cohen, A.R., 65
Cohen, C.E., 25
Cohen, D., 779
Cohen, G.L., 858
Cohen, J.D., 250
Colby, S.M., 427
cold
warm vs., 58
“cold” cognition
attention and, 313
Cole, S.W., 329, 598, 904
Coleman, N., 860
collaborative memory, 624–5
collective induction, 621
collective information search and distribution (CISD) model, 616–33. see also group cognition
of motivation and cognition in groups, 617–18, 618f, 620
collective search
cognitive models of, 621–2
Collins, E.C., 625
Collins, M.A., 171
commitment
in moderating relationship maintenance strategies, 607
commitment calibration model, 607
common coding theory, 640
common ground, 731
cognitive mechanisms underlying use of, 735–6
commonality assessment in coordinating, 735
in communication
evolution of, 733–5
in message formation, 735–6
Common Intergroup Identity Model, 182
commonality assessment, 735
in coordinating common ground, 735
communication, 729–48
common ground in, 731–3
conceptualizing of
implications in, 733
consequences of, 737–45
cognitive effects, 742–5
context of, 736–7
described, 730–1
expressions in, 173–4
goals related to, 736–7
grounding in, 731–73
information potentially grounded in, 732–3
introduction, 729–30
processes and mechanisms of, 730–7
social
grounding model of, 730–7
communication norms, 807
communicative argument, 174
communicative configuration
of expressions, 174–5
comparative effects
in self-evaluation, 544
comparison
direction of
in consumer information processing, 820
comprehension
described, 267
higher order, 812–13
productions in, 267–72, 271t
level of abstractness, 267–9
relational thinking, 269–72, 271t
comprehension processes
in consumer information processing, 808
comprehension strategies
visual vs. verbal, 270–2, 271t
conceptual filters, 333–4
conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), 643
Cone, J., 476
confession(s)
in trial evidence, 832–3
confidence
in judgment, 387–8
(p. 923) power and, 582
confirmation
behavioral, 799–800
expectancy, 800
perceptual, 800
confirmation bias
in judgment, 388–9
conflict(s)
monitoring of
in social neuroscience, 710–11
realistic
stereotypes and, 568
conjunction errors, 519
connectionist models
of mental representation, 222t, 225–8, 226f, 227t
Conrey, F.R., 81, 304, 305f, 358, 630
conscious goal pursuit
aspects operating nonconsciously, 482–5
conscious/nonconscious dichotomy
dispelling of, 482–7
conscious thoughts
death-related, 685–7
consciousness, 250–2
attention and, 247–8
decomposition of, 481–2
flexibility without, 248–50
functional role of, 487–93
after failures, 489–90
in sequential planning, 487–9
in simulation, 492–3
as troubleshooting device, 489–91
when goals conflict, 491
when regular means of pursuit become invalid, 490–1
goals and, 476–96
lack of
in goal pursuit, 481–2
nonconscious goal pursuit seeping into
aspects of, 485–7
consequence(s)
inferences about, 208
consequential thinking
antecedent thinking vs.
determinants of, 208–10
construal(s). see also mental representation(s)
of causal relationships, 207–10
generalized, 210–12
of groups, 202–5
entitativity and, 202–3
group vs. individual representations, 202–5
perceptions of group structure and balance, 205
levels of
perspective on, 194–219
psychological distance and, 195–6
traditional distinctions map onto, 196–210
of people, 196–210
prototypes vs. exemplars, 200–1
stereotyping vs. individualization, 198–200
trait vs. behavioral representations, 196–8
of self, 205–7
schematic vs. aschematic representations, 205–7
of social relationships and support, 886
temporal
effects of, 268
construal level dimensions
associations among, 212–13
construal level theory (CLT), 195–9, 201–2, 207, 209–11, 213
of effects of psychological distance, 58–9
construct accessibility
memory and, 581–3
construct use
power and, 582
constructive alternativism, 790
consumer information processing, 806–28
anchoring effects in, 811–12
assimilation and contrast in, 810–11
categorization processes in, 813–14
brands and brand extensions, 813–14
country of origin in, 814
comprehension processes in, 808
decision processes in, 819–21, 821t
cancellation effects, 820
decoy effects, 820–1, 821t
direction of comparison, 820
mindset in, 821–2
higher order comprehension in, 812–13
inference processes in, 814–16
integration processes in, 818–19
bundling, 819
endowment effects, 819
stock trading, 819
valence effects, 818–19
introduction, 806–8
level of analysis in, 809–10
narratives and stories in, 809
relational thinking in, 810
selective accessibility in, 811–12
subjective experiences in
effects of, 818
subjective reactions in, 816–17
visual and verbal encoding in, 808–9
content
rating of perceptions and
distinctions between, 127–8
in social cognition, 12–13
content-neutral pathways, 406
content-specific pathways, 406
context
in effects of mood on judgment, 438–9
of target, 86–7
continuum model
of impression formation, 288–90, 289f
contrast
affective, 405–6
assimilation and, 131–2
contrast effect
in consumer information processing, 810–11
control, 248
attentional
power in, 579–80
automaticity and, 283
beliefs about
social cognition and, 880–1
exercising, 81–3
implementation of
in social neuroscience, 711–12
in stereotyping and prejudice, 74–94
in the 1980s, 77–9
in the 1990s, 79–83
control-dominating process, 301–3, 302f
control theory, 420
controlled processes
implicit/automatic processes vs., 129–30
in social neuroscience, 710–12
conversational maxims, 736
conversational rules, 736–7
Cook, A., 684
Cook, J., 641
Coombs, C.H., 378
Cooper, M.L., 542
coping
emotional approach, 885
social cognition and, 884–5
Corneille, O., 176, 180, 181
correction
in effects of mood on judgment, 438
Correll, J., 172, 178, 558
correspondence
defined, 102
correspondence bias, 104–5, 291
correspondent inferences
about dispositional characteristics
determinants of-2, 101
Jones and Davis theory of, 100–2
Corriveau, K.H., 751, 754
Cosmides, L., 365–6, 657, 659–60, 669
Cottrell, G.W., 174
Couillard, N.L., 756
counterarguing mindsets, 273
counterfactual(s)
upward and downward, 404–5
counterfactual mindsets, 273–4
counterfactual thinking
alternative paths and
imagining of, 402–3
effects on judgments, 403–4
hindsight bias and, 404
country of origin
in consumer information processing, 814
Cox, C.R., 688
Craik, F.I.M., 712
Cralley, E.L., 744
(p. 924) Crandall, C.S., 864, 866
Crawford, L.E., 643
Crawford, M.T., 68, 203, 554, 566
Creighton, L.A., 282, 902
Creswell, J.D., 885
Crocker, J., 542, 696
Cronbach, L.J., 7, 35, 56, 60, 796
question of accuracy and, 59
Crosby, F., 77
“cross category effect,” 182
Cross, S.E., 601
Crowne, D.P., 57
Crutchfield, R.S., 789
cue(s)
in social cognitive development, 752
cueing
gaze, 318
part-list, 625
cultural artifacts
in terror management
processes serving clear conceptions of, 691–2
cultural cognition
in political cognition, 864
cultural congruency
achievement-related emotion in, 776–7
cognitive consistency in, 776
principle of, 776–7
self-enhancement in, 776
self-regulation in, 776
cultural constructs, 770–1
cultural context priming, 769
cultural differences, 768
in personal causality for social behavior, 106
cultural identities
multiple
management of, 780
cultural influence
future directions in, 779–81
mechanisms of, 771–5
implicit and embodied cognitions, 774–5
internalized values and beliefs, 771–2
intersubjective representations, 772–3
situated cognition, 773–4
moderators of, 775–9
principle of cultural congruency, 776–7
principle of culture as security provider, 778
principle of normative tuning, 777
on self, 511
cultural knowledge activation
principles of, 769–70
cultural neuroscience, 780–1
cultural processes
experimental studies of, 768–70
cultural knowledge activation, 769–70
culture priming, 768–9
cultural worldview
in terror management, 681
culture
defined, 770
described, 770–1
evolution of, 780
forms of, 779
as implicit and embodied cognitions, 774–5
as security provider
principle of, 778
social cognition and, 767–85
visual perception and, 343–4
culture priming, 768–9
Cunningham, W.A., 35, 84, 178
Custers, R., 245, 246, 484, 486
CVC nonsense syllables, 17
Czopp, A.M., 85
D
da Vinci, L., 240
Dangerfield, R., 33
Dante, 240
Danthiir, V., 366
Daood, C., 368
Darley, J.M., 65, 66, 787–9, 787f
Darwin, C., 173, 175, 442
Das, E., 685
Dasgupta, N., 440
Davies, P.G., 172, 178
Davis, C.G., 403
Davis, D.W., 863
Davis, J.H., 621
Davis, K.E., 22–3, 100–4
Dawkins, R., 487
Dawson, M., 367
De Bruin, E.N.M., 65
De Dreu, C.K.W., 617–18, 630
de Liver, Y., 276
De Soto, C.B., 57
DeAmicis, L., 555–6
death-related thought
cognitive processes activating
sequence of, 683–5
conscious and nonconscious, 685–7
terror management research related to, 687–8
deception
recognition of
failing to act on it, 755–6
Dechesne, M., 58
Deci, E.L., 480
decision(s)
emotional, 390–4
decision making
evolutionary social cognition in, 669–70
history of, 376–9
imagery and, 158–9
introduction, 375–6
judgment and, 375–401
dual systems of, 394–6
jury, 623
by message senders, 737–8
prospect theory in, 379–82. see also prospect theory, in decision making
sequential
in deliberative goal-directed processing, 276–7, 277t
values, frames, and reasons in, 379
decision processes
in consumer information processing, 819–21, 821t
declarative knowledge
procedures in
representation of, 258–60, 259f
DeCoster, J., 296
decoy effects
in consumer information processing, 820–1, 821t
DeDea, C., 555
Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false recognition paradigm, 61
default network, 324
Define + Recall Task, 203
Degner, J., 555
dehumanization
defined, 720
deliberate attitude–behavior process, 286
deliberation
detrimental, 395–6
deliberative goal-directed processing
generalization of plans in, 272–7, 277t
in sequential decision making, 276–7, 277t
deliberative mindsets
implemental mindsets vs.
in sequential decision making, 276–7
deliberative–automatic interface, 262–5
embodied cognition in, 264
mimicry in, 263–4
overview of, 264–5
perception–behavior link in, 263
unconscious goal activation in, 263
Denes-Raj, V., 295
depression
thought suppression and, 427
Descartes, 435
Describe + Recall Task, 203
desirability
effect on production-mediated behavior, 266–7
DeSteno, D., 440, 441
determinism
reciprocal
in Lewinian framework, 797, 797f
detrimental deliberation, 395–6
Deutsch, R., 258, 262, 298
Deval, H., 815
development
developmental intergroup theory, 556
Devine, C.J., 860
Devine, P.G., 4, 10, 34, 38, 42, 78–9, 81–2, 287–8, 296, 419, 716
DeVries, P., 483
DeWall, C.N., 579, 586
Dhar, R., 277, 821
diagnosticity
defined, 64
Dialect Theory, 185–6
Diallo, A., 83, 345
Diener, E., 33
Dienes, Z., 250, 469, 471
Diesendruck, G., 759
Dijksterhuis, A., 239, 240, 243, 443, 483, 489–91, 743
Dijkstra, K., 643
directed forgetting, 418
disclosure
writing and, 885
“discomfort” factor, 38
discounting principle, 103
“discrepancy-reducing loop,” 509
disidentification
defined, 507
stereotype threat and, 507
displacement hypothesis, 855
disposition(s)
chronic, 274–5
dispositional attribution
models of, 291–4, 292f
three-stage model, 291–2
two-stage model, 292–4, 292f
dispositional characterization, 291
dispositional inference
stage models of, 106–9
STI, 107–8
dissociation(s)
memory, 43–4
process, 44–6
dissociation model
of prejudice and stereotyping, 287–8
dissonance reduction
visual perception in, 343
distress-maintaining attribution, 593–4
Ditto, P.H., 853–4
DNA evidence, 830–3
Doctine of Reciprical Determinism, 797, 797f
doctrine of interactionism, 794–7, 797f
doctrine of situationism, 793
doctrine of traits, 793
Doherty, G., 734
dominance
facial, 171
Donahue, E.M., 206
“Donald paradigm,” 37
Donders, N.C., 178
Dostoevsky, F., 417
Dovidio, J.F., 77, 243, 640
Drake, J.T., 643
DRM false recognition paradigm, 61
dual attitude model
of attitude–behavior relations, 287
dual process models, 36
in cognitive psychology, 19
of impression formation, 290–1, 290f
methodologies used to test, 42–4
dual process theories, 282–312
automaticity and control, 283
described, 282
formalized, 301–7, 302f, 305f
automaticity-dominating process dissociation model, 303–4
control-dominating process, 301–3, 302f
criticism of, 306–7
quadruple-process model, 304–5, 305f
generalized, 295–301
APE model, 299–300
associative vs. rule-based processing, 296
CEST, 295–6
criticism of, 300–1
reflection–reflexion model, 297–8
RIM, 298–9
System 1 and System 2 processing, 296–7
introduction, 282–3
models vs. theories, 307
outlook for, 307–8
phenomenon-specific, 283–95
attitude–behavior relations, 286–7
criticism of, 294–5
dispositional attribution, 291–4, 292f
impression formation, 288–91, 289f, 290f
persuasion, 284–6, 284f
prejudice and stereotyping, 287–8
Dudukovic, N.M., 362
Duff, M.C., 42–3, 526
Dull, V., 24–5
Dunbar, R.I.M., 369, 619
Dunn, E.W., 411
Dunning, D.A., 343, 464, 483, 542–4
Dunton, B.C., 80, 81
Durkheim, E., 616
Duval, T.S., 509
Dweck, C.S., 510, 566, 759, 760
dyadic reciprocity, 592
Dyczewski, E.A., 402
E
Eastwood, J.D., 319
Ebbinghaus, H., 17
Eberhardt, J.L., 172, 178, 713
Eberhart, R.C., 622
Ebert, J.P., 667
Ebner, N.C., 181
Echterhoff, G., 470–2, 742
education
effect on self- and group-serving bias
in political cognition, 863
Edwards, K., 439
Edwards, W., 378
efficiency
cognitive, 807
egocentric function argument, 174
egocentrism, 100
Ehrenberg, K., 358–9
Eibach, R.P., 9, 147, 382, 901
Eidelman, S., 864
Einstein, A., 240, 851
Eisenberg, N., 757
Eisenberger, N.I., 886, 887
Eitam, B., 463, 467
Ekman, P., 173
elaboration, 125
elaboration likelihood model (ELM), 123–5, 126, 129, 131, 134
multiple-roles hypothesis of, 285
of persuasion, 284–5, 284f
Elfenbein, H.A., 185–6
Elizaga, R., 406
Ellard, J.H., 403
Ellemers, N., 61
Ellis, A.L., 620, 621
Ellsworth, P.C., 56, 439
Elway, J., 333
embodied cognition, 133–4
in deliberative–automatic interface, 264
embodied cognition models
of mental representation, 222t, 229–31
embodied experiences, 442–3
embodiment
grounding abstract concepts in, 643–5
grounding concrete concepts in, 641–3
in social psychology
early demonstrations of, 640–1
in socially situated cognition, 640–5
Emde, R.N., 749
emotion(s)
achievement-related
in cultural congruency, 776–7
anticipated, 390–1
in appraisal tendency, 393
communication of
by message senders, 738
facial expressions of, 173–5
imagery and, 157–8
incidental, 392–4
as information, 392–3, 439, 451–2
in valence and processing depth, 393–4
emotional approach coping, 885
emotional decisions, 390–4
emotional expressions
egocentric functions of, 175
emotional judgments, 390–4
emotional signals
attention guided by, 319–20
(p. 926) empathic accuracy
in relationships, 593–4
empathy
defined, 719
in social neuroscience, 719–20
emphasis effects
in self-evaluation, 543–4
empirical evidence, 212–13
encoding
in person memory, 356–7
verbal
in consumer information processing, 808–9
visual
in consumer information processing, 808–9
end(s)
means vs., 212
Endler, N.S., 795
endocrine systems
in social neuroscience, 722–3
endowment effect
in consumer information processing, 819
in prospect theory, 380–1
energy expenditure
visual perception and, 340–1
Engel, A.D., 61
entitativity
mental construal of groups and, 202–3
perceptions of
factors affecting, 203–5
entity theory, 510
entrenchment(s), 554
environment(s)
ambiguity in
visual perception and, 344
shaping of, 798–801
evocation in, 798
manipulation in, 799–800
selection in, 798–9
transformation in, 800–1
environment of evolutionary adaptiveness (EEA), 657
epigenetics
in social neuroscience, 722
episodic memories
autobiographical memories vs., 518
relevance and, 472–3
episodic self-knowledge, 524–5
Epstein, S., 295–7
Epstude, K., 406
equifinality, 99, 259
Erber, R.E., 419
error-related negativity (ERN)
of ERPs, 710–11
Erskine, J.A.K., 424
Escalas, J.E., 809
Escape from Freedom, 855
essentialist reasoning, 758–60
essentialist thinking
in children, 552–5
Etcoff, N.L., 26, 355
European Association for Social Psychology, 56
evaluation(s)
eye gaze in, 176
in goal pursuit
nonconscious operation of, 484–5
implicit, 86
as information, 442, 452
memory in, 130–1
evaluative primes, 443–4
Evans, L., 544
Evans, N., 77
event processing
effects on person memory, 359–60
event-related potentials (ERPs), 324, 335–6
ERN of, 710–11
in social neuroscience, 708
everyday interdependence
behavior and, 601–3
others’ behavior effects on, 602–3
presence of others affecting, 601–2
cognition and, 600–1
in relationships, 599–604
evidence
DNA, 830–3
empirical, 212–13
evocation
in shaping one’s environment, 798
evolution
in person memory, 364–9
evidence for, 365–8
faces in, 366–8
evolutionary social cognition, 656–79
affordance value in
evaluation of, 662–9
age categorization in, 663–4
broad issues related to, 670–2
coalition categorization in, 666–8
in decision making, 669–70
disease categorization in, 668–9
in evolutionary social cognition, 668–9
functional specialization in
domain-specific mechanisms, 670
information acquisition in, 659–62
introduction, 656–7
in judgment, 669–70
nature and nurture in, 670–2
processes in, 659
sex categorization in, 664–6
exemplar(s)
behavioral
abstraction of traits vs., 207
prototypes vs.
construal of, 200–1
exemplar retrieval
prototype retrieval vs.
determinants of, 201
expectancy confirmation, 800
expectation(s)
about relationships, 594–5
negative
affective cognition and, 882
self-efficacy, 788
experience(s)
bodily
power and, 582–3
embodied, 442–3
multicultural
effects of, 779
personal
processes serving coherent conceptions of, 693–4
social
in social cognitive development, 756
subjective
effects of, 818
experiencer(s), 740
experiential information
reliance on, 582–3
experimental social psychology
“founding fathers” of, 20–1
Experimental Social Psychology, 55
expertise
of informant
in social cognitive development, 753–4
explanation(s)
debiasing effects of, 408–10
explanation bias, 408
explicit memory paradigms, 38–9
expression(s)
appearance of
reasons for, 174–5
communicative configuration of, 174–5
emotional
egocentric functions of, 175
eye gaze in, 175–7. see also eye gaze
functions of, 173–4
top-down effects in, 177–87
external validity, 47
“extravert”
traits of, 200
Eyal, T., 58
eye gaze, 175–7
in directing attention, 176
in engaging social cognition, 176–7
in evaluation, 176
in signaling future behavior, 176
eye movements
in attention allocation, 320
eyewitness identification
in trial evidence, 830–2
eyewitness testimony
in trial evidence, 832
F
face(s). see also face perception
affective responses to
in social neuroscience, 714–15, 715f, 716f
attention to
(p. 927) biases influence on, 177–9
categorical responses to
in social neuroscience, 715–16
dominance projected by, 171
early evaluation of
categories bias attention to, 177–9
in evolution–person memory link, 366–8
feature-based stereotyping of, 171–3
information extracted from, 167
in social cognition, 167–93, 901–2, 901f
structure of
in inferences and attention, 170–3
trustworthiness of, 171
visual perception of
in social neuroscience, 713–14, 714f
face encoding
motivated
memory and, 180–4
processes in, 181
face individualization
motivation in
categories, 181–2
non-category target characteristics, 182–3
situationally induced, 183
face memory
motivated, 180–4
face perception. see also face(s)
bottom-up effects in, 169–77
building blocks of, 168–9
categorical assimilation in, 180
FFA in, 169, 178
OFA in, 169
prosopagnosia effects on, 168–9
in social cognition, 167–93
face recognition
categorical assimilation in, 180
“Faces Are Central to Social Cognition,” 9
facial cues
overgeneralization of, 177
facial expressions, 442–3
biased perception of, 184–6
of emotions, 173–5
facilitation, 314
failure
awareness of
in nonconscious goal pursuit, 485–6
consciousness after, 489–90
fairness
judgments about, 439
fallacy
base-rate, 742
Fallman, J.L., 172
false consensus bias, 106
Fano, E., 884
Fawcett, C.A., 757
Fazio, R.H., 80, 81, 86, 130, 223, 286, 296, 443, 787–8, 787f
Fearon, R.P., 550
feature-driven inference, 662–9
feedback-congruent self-evaluation, 537, 537f
Fein, D., 367
Fein, S., 79
Feinstein, C., 367
Feinstein, J.S., 42–3
Ferguson, M.J., 249, 466, 476
Fernald, A., 749
Ferrari, E., 744
Ferreira, M.B., 67
Festinger, L., 22, 56, 536
Fetherstonhaugh, D., 159
Fiedler, K., 741, 759
field theorist, 795
Fifth Amendment, 836, 842
filter(s)
conceptual, 333–4
perceptual, 333–4
Finch, A., 786
Finkel, E.J., 505
Finkenauer, C., 65
Fischer, G.W., 382
Fischhoff, B., 404, 408
Fischle, S.T., 863
Fish, D., 741
Fishbach, A., 58, 248, 249, 454
Fiske, S.T., 10, 26, 36–8, 60, 66, 78, 199, 203, 288, 289f, 290, 294, 355, 365, 578, 717–18, 720
Fitzsimons, G.M., 590
Fletcher, P.C., 717
flexibility, 250–2
in methodological approach to social cognition, 36
power in, 579–80
without consciousness, 248–50
fluency
perceptual
metacognitive experiences of, 444
Foa, E.B., 426
focal information, 732
focus, 250–2
Foerster, J., 249
folk psychology
perception of intentionality and, 110–11
Fonagy, P., 550
Fong, G.T., 464
forecasting
affective, 410–11
forensics
in trial evidence, 833
Forever Today, 522
Forgas, J.P., 421–2, 446
forgetting
directed, 418
Foroni, F., 642–3
Förster, J., 210, 268, 466, 640, 811
forward inference, 707
Fosterling, F., 740
Fourth Amendment, 836, 842
framing effects
in prospect theory, 380
Frampton, K.L., 753
Frank, J., 838
Frankel, A., 293–4
Franken, A., 860
Frazier, M.A., 880
Freeman, J.B., 345
Freitas, K., 859–60
Frenkel-Brunswick, E., 855
frequency, 807
frequency judgments, 814
Freud, S., 242, 418, 855
Freudian psychoanalytic theory, 790
Frey, K., 442
Friedman, M., 688
Friedman, R.S., 248, 691
Friedrich, J., 159
Friesen, V., 173
Frieze, L., 95
Frischen, A., 313, 318, 319, 904
Frith, C.D., 717, 721
Frith, U., 717
Fritz, A.S., 754
Fromm, E., 855
Frost, L.A., 80
Fu, G., 756
Fuchs, C., 530
Fujita, K., 58, 198
Fulero, S., 25–6
functional/evolutional approach to person memory, 368–9
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 719, 722
MVPA approach to, 717
in social neuroscience, 708, 714–15, 716f, 717
fundamental analysis, 914
fundamental attribution error, 98, 291
Funder, D.C., 672, 794, 796
fusiform face area (FFA)
in face perception, 169, 178
fusiform gyrus, 704
Fussell, S.R., 735
future selves
legal protection related to, 843–4
G
Gabbert, F., 361
Gable, P.A., 448
Gabrieli, J.D.E., 178, 713
Gaby, A., 644
Gaertner, S.L., 78, 182
Gage, N.L., 56
Gailliot, M.T., 684, 688
Gaines, B.J., 861
Galarraga, A., 346
Galdi, S., 557
(p. 928) Galinsky, A.D., 274, 407
Gallese, V., 639
Gammage, J., 336
Gannon, K., 357
Garcia-Marques, L., 61, 551
Garcia-Marques, T., 551
Gardner, H., 791
Gardner, W.L., 505
Garrett, R.K., 866
Garrido, M.V., 637, 644, 646, 901, 911
Garrod, A., 733–4
Gasper, K., 448
Gaunt, R., 112
Gavanski, I., 403, 404
Gawronski, B., 48, 233, 282, 299, 304, 305f, 902
gaze cueing, 318, 319
Gee, C.L., 754
Gelman, S.A., 549–53, 555, 557, 559, 758–9, 761
General Social Interaction Cycle
cognition in, 787–8, 787f
generalizability, 47
generalized anxiety disorders (GAD)
thought suppression and, 426
generalized reciprocity, 592
genetic(s)
molecular
in social neuroscience, 722
George, A.L., 855
George, J.L., 855
George Washington Social Intelligence Test, 791
Georgiou, G.J., 424
Geraerts, E., 425
Gerrig, R.J., 735
Gerritsen, C., 319
Gestalt Completion Task (GCT), 210
Gestalt principles
in organizing impressions, 99–100
Gestalt psychology, 795
described, 16
as root of social cognition, 18
Giambra, L.M., 324
Gibson, J.J., 232, 640
Gibson, J.L., 863
Giessner, S.R., 644
Gifford, R.K., 26, 27, 561
Gigone, D., 624
Gilbert, D.T., 108–9, 112, 291–3, 296, 410, 419
Gilbert, S.J., 717
Gilbert’s three-stage model
of dispositional inference, 109
Gilligan, S.G., 498
Gilovich, T., 405
Giménez, M., 761
Glaser, J.T., 858, 867
Glenberg, A.M., 642
global processing
local processing vs., 268–9
local visual processing vs., 210
global workspace theory, 251
Go/N-Go Task, 418
goal(s)
accessibility of, 454
attention and, 245–7
communication, 736–7
consciousness and, 244–5
defined, 476
described, 476–7
evaluating progress in, 509–10
in impression formation, 65–8. see also impression formation, goals in
of mental states, 111
pursuit of, 476–96, 509–10. see also goal pursuit
self-awareness, 508–9
self-regulatory, 508–9
goal activation
unconscious
in deliberative–automatic interface, 263
goal-directed processing
deliberative
generalization of plans in, 272–7, 277t. see also deliberative goal-directed processing
goal orientations
in relationships, 597
goal pursuit, 476–96, 509–10
conscious, 476–96
aspects operating nonconsciously, 482–5
lack of consciousness in, 481–2
nonconscious
seeping into consciousness, 485–7
Goethe, 240
Goff, P.A., 178
Goffman, E., 668, 737
Golby, A.J., 178, 713
Gold, D.B., 423
Goldstone R.L., 622
Goleman, D., 791
Gollin, E.S., 58
Gollwitzer, P.M., 66, 82, 248, 276, 406, 466, 489, 493
Gonsalkorale, K., 85
Goode, A., 469
Goodman, C.C., 332, 482
Goodman, N., 554
Google Scholar, 95
Gordon, H.L., 421
Goren, P., 862
Gosselin, F., 174
gossip, 625–6
Gould, R.L., 354
Gramzow, R.H., 465
Grant, M.G., 755
Gray, A., 172
Gray, K., 68
Green, C., 418
Greenberg, J., 682–4, 686, 687, 689–91, 696, 854
Greenwald, A.G., 33, 80, 118, 129
Grice, H.P., 736, 812
Groll, S., 471, 742
Groom, C.J., 304, 305f, 358
grounded information, 731
grounding model, 730
of social communication, 730–7. see also communication
group(s)
CISD model of motivation and cognition in, 617–18, 618f, 620
construal of, 202–5. see also construal(s), of groups
impressions of, 68
inclusion in self, 506
information sharing in, 623–4
legal issues related to, 845–6
stereotypes of
by children, 555–8
group balance
perceptions of, 205
group cognition, 616–33
in decision-making tasks, 623–6
collaborative memory, 624–5
impression formation, gossip, and stereotyping, 625–6
information sharing, 623–4
jury decision making, 623
motivational issues, 626
future directions in, 629–30
in idea generation tasks, 626–8
motivational issues, 627–8
motivation and, 617–20, 618f
in problem-solving tasks, 620–3
cognitive models of collective search, 621–2
collective induction, 621
motivational issues, 622–3
social decision scheme theory, 620–1
socially shared metacognition, 628–9
group coherence
perceived
as source of cognitive efficiency, 565–6
group decision-making tasks, 620, 623–6
group idea generation tasks, 620, 626–8
group problem-solving tasks, 620–3
group representations
individual representations vs.
construal of, 202–5
group-serving bias
in political cognition
effect of education on, 863
group-serving motivation
in political cognition, 858–63
biased interpretation, 861
biased perception, 860–1
effect of education on self- and group-serving bias, 863
evaluation of politicians, 862–3
partisan bias, 858–9
(p. 929) selective exposure, 859–60
selective memory, 861–2
group stereotypes
among adults
cognitive processes in acquisition of, 560–4
among children, 555–8
group structure
perceptions of, 205
group tasks
role of, 620
Gruber, K.L., 862–3
Gruenewald, T., 885
Guardians of the Secret, 692
Guilford, 791
Guilmet, G.M., 757
Guinote, A., 575, 580, 581, 585–6
gyrus(i), 703
fusiform, 704
H
Haberstroh, S., 736
Habets, P., 425
habit(s)
in automatic behavior activation, 261–2
Hahn, K.S., 859
Haider-Markel, D., 863
Haidt, J., 441
Haines, E.L., 865
Hala, S.M., 754
Halbeisen, G., 211
Halberstadt, J., 563, 738
Halberstady, J.B., 184
Halim, M.L., 556
Hall, C.S., 790
halo effects of attractiveness
trait judgments affected by, 170
Ham, J., 67
Hamann, S., 857
Hamill, R., 852
Hamilton, D.L., 4, 16, 26, 27, 34, 37, 58, 62, 66–8, 202, 204, 355, 554, 561, 566
Hamlin, C., 426
Hammer, E.Y., 744
Han, J., 181
Han, S., 780
Handbook of Social Cognition, 4, 5, 122
Handel, S., 57
Hansen, J., 209, 685
Happe, F., 717
Hardin, C., 79
Harenski, K., 857
harm(s)
nontangible
legal protection from, 842
Harmon-Jones, E., 448, 708
Harnden, J.L., 424
Harris, L.T., 717, 720
Harris, P.L., 750, 751, 761, 763
Harris, V.A., 104
Hart, A.J., 178
Hartwick, J., 815
Harvard University, 65
Harvey, S., 441
Harvey, W., 220
Hasmi, N., 629
Hassin, R.R., 208, 249–50, 490–1
Hastie, R., 26–7, 38, 62, 208, 355, 356, 566, 624, 837
Hastorf, A.H., 56
Haubl, G., 695, 696
Hauck, M., 367
Hauk, O., 643
Hauser, S.T., 540
Hayes, A.F., 544
Hayes, J., 683
Hazan, C., 596
He, Y., 181
health
social cognition and, 876–93
affective cognition, 882–4
future directions in, 888–9
health attitudes, 877–8
health behavior change, 877–8
illness representations, 881–2
interventions, 887–8
introduction, 876–7
message framing and cognitive biases, 878–81
social interactions and, 885–6
health attitudes
social cognition and, 877–8
health behavior change
social cognition and, 877–8
health outcomes
self and, 884–5
Heatherton, T.F., 421
Heckler, S.E., 270, 809
Hedberg, P.H., 466
Hedden, T., 270
hedonic relevance, 102
Hehman, E., 182
Heider, F., 21–2, 56, 96–102, 104, 106–8, 110, 131, 205, 717, 792, 895
inspiration and pioneering ideas from, 97–100
Gestalt principles organize impressions, 99–100
naïve psychology matters, 97
perceivers draw causal inferences, 97–9
Heier, H., 295
Helgeson, V.S., 883
Henderson, M.D., 198, 204, 276
Henderson, Z., 625
Hendriks, M., 646
Hennes, E.P., 851, 865
Heppen, J., 594
Hernik, M., 550
Herr, P.M., 811
Hervitz, E.F., 408
Herzman, G., 366
Hess, U., 185
heuristic(s)
affect, 391–2
anchoring/adjustment, 107
judgment, 382–7
in cognitive psychology, 19–20
heuristic processing, 285
heuristic systematic model (HSM), 123, 125, 129, 131
of persuasion, 285–6
Heyman, D., 551
Heyman, G.D., 559, 749, 754–6, 758–9
Higgins, E.T., 24, 38, 61, 206, 249, 274, 463, 464, 466–7, 470, 471, 502, 508, 739, 742, 818
Higgins, T., 897
higher order comprehension
in consumer information processing, 812–13
Hilmert, C.J., 887
Hilton, J.L., 65, 66
hindsight bias, 404
in judgment, 389–90
Hirschberger, G., 693
Hirschfeld, L.A., 557–8
Hirt, E.R., 274, 409, 465
Hitler, A., 20
Hodges, S.D., 820
Hoffman, C., 65, 566, 567, 740
Hofmann, W., 233, 234
Holland, R.W., 176, 246, 646
Hollander, M.A., 559
Holloway, J., 424
Holmes, J.G., 739
Holt, K., 854
Holtgraves, T.M., 730, 733, 737, 740, 741
Holtzworth-Munroe, A., 593–4
home(s)
legal protection related to, 842–3
homo economicus, 55
Hong, S., 814
Hoover, G.M., 58
Horberg, E.J., 441
Horton, W.S., 735, 736
hostile media bias, 106
“hot” cognition
attention and, 313
hot/cold empathy gap, 410
Houston, D.A., 820–1
Houston, M.J., 270, 809
Hovland, C.I., 21, 119, 129, 730
Howard, J., 25–6
Hromarko, I., 661
Huart, J., 180
Huber, J., 277, 821
Hudson, S.M., 423
Hugenberg, K., 9, 167, 175, 180–6, 304, 305f, 901–2, 914
Hughes, C., 885
Hullian learning theory, 790
(p. 930) human nature
natural history of, 54–5
humanization
defined, 720
in social neuroscience, 720
Hung, I.W.P., 809, 812
Hunsinger, M., 453
Hunt, J.M., 795
Hurst, N., 566, 567
Hussein, S., 861
Hutchins, E., 648
hyperscanning
of interpersonal and intergroup interactions
in social neuroscience, 722
hyperthymesia, 522–3
hyperthymestic syndrome, 522
hypothesis testing approach
to social neuroscience, 706
I
Ichheiser, G., 97
identification
behavior, 112
identity(ies)
multiple cultural
management of, 780
ideological asymmetries
in motivated political cognition, 865–7
ignorance
pluralistic, 104
Ijntema, R., 424
IJzerman, H., 646
illness(es)
beliefs about
social cognition and, 879–80
illness representations
social cognition and, 881–2
illusion of freedom, 104
illusory correlation, 560–4
image(s)
perceptual qualities of
representing concrete, perceptual information, 155–9
representing direction of motion, 152–3
representing visual and psychological content of events, 153–5
variation in, 150–5
visual perspective, 152
vividness, 151–2
imagery
current predominant view on, 149–50
defined, 147
described, 147–8
functional role of
in cognitive psychology, 155–6
on decision making, 158–9
on emotion, 157–8
on judgment, 158–9
legitimacy of, 150–5
limitations of, 155–9
on persuasion, 156–7
in representing abstract information, 161–3
in social cognition, 156–9
history of, 148–9
legitimacy of, 149–50
mental
history of, 147
impersonal causality
personal causality vs., 98–9
implemental mindsets
deliberative mindsets vs.
in sequential decision making, 276–7
implicit
defined, 221–2
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 80, 84, 128–9, 179, 230, 304, 555, 557, 594, 714, 717, 902
personalized, 84
implicit/automatic processes
controlled processes vs., 129–30
implicit causality, 740
implicit evaluation, 86
implicit measures, 128–9
explicit measures vs., 128
implicit memory
motivational relevance and, 467–9
implicit processes
in social cognition, 902
in social neuroscience, 708–10
Implicit Psychology, 63
implicit social cognition, 838
mental representation and, 220–38. see also mental representation(s)
implicit stereotyping, 86
implicit theories, 807
implicitness
defined, 221
of mental representation
emerging themes and new perspectives on, 233–5
impression(s)
formation of. see impression formation
memory in, 130–1
organization of
Rosenberg on, 60–3
impression formation, 7, 625–6
dual process approaches to, 125–6
early research on, 55–6
in emergence of social cognition, 26, 27
future of, 68–9
goals in, 65–8
impressions without goals, 66–8
nonconscious goals, 66
models of, 288–91, 289f, 290f
continuum model, 288–90, 289f
dual process model, 290–1, 290f
people as moral agents and objects in, 68
of persons and groups, 68
research on
before social cognition, 56–7
social cognitive studies of
topics in, 63–8
social cognitive transference in, 68
theory and research on
history of, 53–73
updating enduring research traditions from pre-1970, 57–63
impulsive system (IS), 298–9
impulsive trust, 605–6
inattentional blindness, 242, 324
Inception, 407
incidental affect, 437
incidental emotions, 392–4
Inclusion of Other in Self (IOS) scale, 646
incongruity
in person memory, 356–7
incongruity paradigm
in person memory, 356–9
incremental theory, 510
incubation
unconscious thought and, 240–1
independence
person–situation, 793–4
“independent self-schematics,” 38
indirect (implicit) measures, 128–9
individual(s)
inclusion in self, 505–6
individual differences
in relationship cognitions, 595–7
individual representations
group representations vs.
construal of, 202–5
individualization
stereotyping vs.
construal of, 198–200
induction
collective, 621
industrious
lazy vs., 58
inference(s)
causal, 815
correspondent
about dispositional characteristics, 101
Jones and Davis theory of, 100–2
dispositional
stage modes of, 106–9
facial structure in, 170–3
feature-driven, 662–9
forward, 707
mental state
in social cognitive development, 752–3
reverse
to social neuroscience, 706–7
spontaneous trait, 66–8, 107–8, 196–7
inference processes
in consumer information processing, 814–16
inferring intentions, 101
(p. 931) influence(s)
affective
in miscalibrated self-evaluation, 539–40
cognitive
in miscalibrated self-evaluation, 539
described, 576
unconscious, 76
informant
expertise of
in social cognitive development, 753–4
information
abstract
imagery in representing, 161–3
affect as
future directions in, 455
new directions for, 452–4
background, 732
desirable qualities of
in social cognitive development, 756–7
distortion or concealment of
in social cognitive development, 754
emotions as, 392–3, 439, 451–2
evaluations as, 442, 452
experiential
reliance on, 582–3
focal, 732
grounded, 731
holding onto, 659–62
moods as, 437–9, 450–1
potentially grounded in communication, 732–3
seeking
learning by, 758
social, 319–20
information-elicited productions, 272
information processing, 8–10, 852
early stages of
valence differences in, 64–5
stages of
in social cognition, 902–4, 903f, 904f
information processing model
in social cognition, 902–5
information processing style
affect and, 449–555
information sharing in groups, 623–4
ingroup homogeneity
perceiver motives leading to, 183–4
inhibition, 314
inhibition of return (IOR) effect, 315–16
initiation
priming and, 242–3
Innes-Ker, A.H., 184
“Institute of Personality Research,” 646
insula, 704
integral affect, 437
integration, 808
integration processes
in consumer information processing, 818–19
intellectual property
legal protection related to, 842–3
intelligence
social
personality and, 791–2
intent participation, 757
intention(s)
inferring, 101
in perceiving others, 844–5
intentionality
perception of
and folk psychology, 110–11
interaction(s)
aptitude-by-treatment, 796
intergroup
hyperscanning of, 722
interpersonal
hyperscanning of, 722
person–situation, 786–805
interactionism
doctrine of, 794–7, 797f
statistical view of, 795–7, 795f
interdependence
behavioral
self-control and, 603–4
cognitive, 600–1
interdependence theory, 599–600
interface(s)
deliberative–automatic, 262–5
intergroup bias
automatic processes in, 79–80
implicit
targeted interventions for reducing, 88
implicit measures of, 80–1
linguistic, 742–3
new implicit measures of, 83–6
intergroup interactions
hyperscanning of
in social neuroscience, 722
intergroup judgments, 439–40
intergroup stereotypes
in collective effects, 742–5
International Social Cognition Network, 4
interpersonal acceptance
self-esteem and, 540–2
interpersonal attraction, 8
interpersonal cognition, 590–615. see also relationship(s)
behavior and
strategic maintenance, 604–7
in maintaining relationships, 599–607
everyday interdependence, 599–604. see also everyday interdependence
in seeking relationships, 591–3
social cognition vs., 590–1
in understanding relationships, 593–9
beliefs, 594–5
empathic accuracy, 593–4
expectations, 594–5
individual differences, 595–7
perspective taking, 593–4
relational self, 597–9
theories, 594–5
interpersonal interactions
hyperscanning of
in social neuroscience, 722
interpersonal judgments, 439–40
intersubjective representations
in cultural influence, 772–3
introspective abilities
poor, 241
intrusive memories, 523
involuntary memories, 523
Inzlicht, M., 185
Iowa Gambling Task, 491
ironic process theory, 427
Isbell, L.M., 435, 438, 446, 451, 452, 905
Isen, A.M., 445, 817
Ito, T.A., 177–8, 716
Iyengar, S., 852, 859
J
Jabobson, N.S., 593–4
Jackson, J.R., 80, 81, 95–7, 96f
Jacobson, G.C., 861
Jacoby, L.L., 44, 45, 68, 84, 87, 234–5, 301–6, 302f, 359
James-Hawkins, L., 60
James, L., 344
James, W., 19, 148, 155, 241, 242, 331, 332, 436, 442, 540, 578, 640, 688, 696
Jarcho, J.M., 709
Jaswal, V.K., 752–4
Jelicic, M., 425
Jemel, B., 367
Jenkins, C., 172
Jensen, C., 25–6
Ji, L.J., 736
Ji, M.F., 261
Jiang, Y., 270, 809, 818
Jimerson, D.C., 424
John, O.P., 64–5
Johnson, A.L., 203
(p. 932) Johnson, K.L., 345
Johnson, M.K., 19, 181
Johnson, S.L., 172
Johnson, S.M., 159
Johnston, L., 423
joint activity
described, 730–1
joint attention, 317–18
Jonas, E., 684
Jones, A., 622
Jones and Davis theory of correspondent inferences, 100–2
Jones, C.R., 24, 61, 443–4
Jones, E.E., 22–3, 56, 58, 65, 66, 95, 100–5, 787–8, 787f, 792
Jongh, A.D., 424
Joordens, S., 324
Jordan, A.H., 441
Jordan, M., 364
Joslyn, M., 863
Jost, J.T., 12, 851, 858, 865, 867
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 55
Journal of Experimental Psychology/Learning, Memory, and Cognition (JEP/LMC), 41
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), 23, 39, 40, 118, 382, 897, 905, 909, 913
Joyce, J., 680
Judd, C.M., 4, 60, 81, 172, 580, 739
judge(s)
as determiners of fact, 836
juries vs., 836–7
law and, 837–9
roles of, 836–9
judgment(s)
about causality and fairness, 439
affect and, 436–45
anchoring and adjustment in, 385–6
attribute, 277, 277t
availability in, 384–5
biases in, 382–7
confidence in, 387–8
confirmation bias in, 388–9
counterfactual thinking effects on, 403–4
decision making and, 375–401
dual systems of, 394–6
emotional, 390–4
evolutionary social cognition in, 669–70
frequency, 814
heuristics in, 382–7
hindsight bias in, 389–90
history of, 376–9
imagery and, 158–9
intergroup, 439–40
interpersonal, 439–40
introduction, 375–6
likelihood, 440–1, 814
mood effects on
moderators of, 437–9
morality-based, 441
motivational influences of affect on, 817
overconfidence in, 387–8
perceptual, 447
person
exemplar-based, 200
preference, 277, 277t
representativeness in, 383–4
risk, 440–1
social
fundamental dimensions of, 60–1
trait
halo effects of attractiveness in, 170
judgment heuristics
in cognitive psychology, 19–20
Jung, C.G., 796
juror(s)
jury decision making vs., 835–6
tasks and competency of, 833–5
described, 835
evaluating witnesses, 834
instructions and instructions to disregard, 834–5
jury(ies)
judges vs., 836–7
jury decision making, 623
jurors vs., 835–6
trial evidence and, 830–6
justice
“restorative,” 840–1
justification
system
stereotypes and, 568–9
K
Kagan, Justice, 11, 837, 838
Kahan, D.M., 864, 867
Kahn, J.H., 422
Kahn, U., 277, 821
Kahneman, D., 19–20, 296–7, 378, 382, 402–4, 741–2, 811, 819, 864
Kaiser, C.R., 185
Kalven, H., Jr., 835
Kandinsky, 692
Kang, D.K., 814
Kant, I., 155
Kardes, F.R., 12, 274, 806, 815
Kaschak, M.P., 642
Kashima, Y., 60, 729, 730, 732, 737, 739, 743–4
Kasimatis, M., 442
Katz, 355
Katz-Braly method, 75, 76
Katz, D., 75
Katz, L.B., 27, 62
Kawakami, K., 243, 640
Kay, A.C., 865
Keegan, T., 382
Keele, S.W., 200
Keil, F.C., 550, 753, 755
Kelley, H.H., 22, 95, 100, 102–5, 799
covariation approach to causal attribution of, 102–4
Kelley, W.M., 365, 421, 712
Kelly, A.E., 422
Kelly, G., 37–8, 789–90
Kelov v. City of New London, 843
Keltner, D., 439, 865–6
Kennedy, J., 622
Kennedy, Justice, 840
Kenny, D.A., 59, 60
Kenrick, D.T., 656
Keren, G., 301
Keysar, B., 736
Khan, S.K., 45
Kiewier, D.R., 863
Kihlstrom, J.F., 498, 500–1, 703, 786, 792
Killen, M., 555
Kilts, C., 857
Kim, A., 557
Kim, H.M., 813
Kim, J.K., 821
Kim, K., 269
Kim, Y., 810
Kinder, D.R., 852, 856, 863
Kinzler, K.D., 558, 757
Kirk, E.R., 66
Kirker, W.S., 498
Kitayama, S., 767–8
Klatzky, R.L., 63
Klauer, K.C., 85, 358–9
Kleck, R.E., 174–5
Klein, A.A., 427
Klein, J., 65
Klein, S.B., 62, 203, 207, 365–6, 498, 500–1, 702–3
Klinnert, M.D., 749
Knee, C.R., 594
Knippenberg, A., 243
Knobe, J.M., 110
knowledge
accessibility of, 807
declarative
representation of procedures in, 258–60, 259f
in perceiving others, 845
procedural
in generalizability of social behavior, 257–81
self-, 524–5
self-schematic
chronicity and, 499
structure of
construal level perspective on, 194–219. see also construal(s)
Koenig, M.A., 750, 751, 763
Komorita, S.S., 378
Kondrad, R.L., 753
Koole, S.L., 428
Kopko, K.C., 860
Kosloff, S., 696
(p. 933) Kosslyn, S.M., 11, 147–8, 155–6
Kozak, M., 421, 422
Krage, M., 368
Krauss, R.M., 735
Kray, L.J., 407
Krech, D., 789
Kressel, L.M., 53, 68, 899
Krosnick, J.A., 859, 868
Kruglanski, A.W., 58, 248, 258, 259, 294–5, 854, 858
Krull, D.S., 109, 292
Kruschke, J.K., 562
Kubrick, S., 697
Kuethe, J.L., 57
Kühnen, U., 269, 736, 810
Kuiper, N.A., 498
Kukla, A., 95
Kumar, P.A., 26–7, 38, 62, 355, 356
Kunda, Z., 357, 464, 853–5, 858
Kunina, O., 366
Kurzban, R., 666
Kuschel, S., 268, 811
Kwan, L., 469
L
Labroo, A.A., 454
Lair, E.C., 435, 905
Lajya, 54
Lakens, D., 643, 644
Laland, K.N., 617
Lalwani, N., 509
Lambert, A.J., 33, 45, 87, 913
Lan, Y., 729
Landau, M.J., 685, 688, 690–4, 696
Lane, J.D., 423
Lane, R.E., 852–3, 855, 867–8
Langer, E.J., 27–8, 880
language
in child’s development of concepts, 550–2
introduction, 729–30
in social cognition, 729–48
Larsen, R.J., 442
Larson, J.J., 540
Larson, J.R., Jr., 627
Lasane, T.P., 860
Lasswell, H., 855
Latane, B., 789
lateral
defined, 703, 704f
Lau, H.C., 245
Lau, R.R., 208, 852
Lau, T., 641
Laughlin, P.R., 620, 621
Lavie, N., 169
Lavine, H., 851, 859–60
law
judges and, 837–9
of large numbers, 897
social cognition and, 829–50. see also specific components, e.g., trial evidence
groups and society, 845–6
intention, 844–5
introduction, 829–30
judges’ roles, 836–9
juror vs. jury decision making in, 835–6
jury decision making, 830–6
psychological assumptions of, 839–46
trial evidence, 830–6
trial procedure, 833–5
substantive
psychological assumptions of, 839–46. see also substantive law, psychological assumptions of
Yerkes-Dodson, 897
Lazarus, R.S., 436, 879
lazy
industrious vs., 58
le Bon, G., 220
Leach, C.W., 61
Leander, N.P., 485, 603
learning processes
social, 757–62, 791
acquiring systems of beliefs about what is real, 760–2
learning from others, 758–60
participation, 757–8
seeking information, 758
Leary, M.R., 534
Leary, S.P., 860
LeBon, G., 616
Ledgerwood, A., 865
Lee, A.Y., 80
Lee, H.J., 786, 819
Lee, K., 756
Lee, S.W.S., 645
legal realism, 838
Legare, C.H., 749, 755, 758–9, 761
Lehman, B.J., 887
Lehman, D.R., 403
Leibold, J.M., 500
Leirer, V.O., 27, 62, 355
Lench, H.C., 442
Lenton, A.P., 86
Lepinasse, V., 243
Lepper, M.R., 56, 408, 856
Lerner, J.S., 884–5
Lerner, M., 692
Les Halles, 344
Levesque, C., 480
Levin, D.T., 180, 550
Levin, K., 425
Levine, J.M., 616
Levinson, D.J., 855
Levinson, S., 737
Levy, B.J., 418–19, 428–9
Levy, S.R., 566
Lewicki, P., 200
Lewin, K., 20, 33, 56, 792–5, 792f, 797, 797f
Lewinian framework
reciprocal determinism in, 797, 797f
Lewinsky, M., 863
Li, P., 66
Libby, 901
Libby, L.K., 9, 147
Liben, L.S., 551, 556
Liberman, N., 9, 58–9, 194, 198, 210, 211, 249, 268, 811, 901
Libet, B., 245
Lichtenstein, S., 378
Lieberman, M.D., 112, 297–8, 702–3, 709, 738, 793, 887
Life Orientation Task (LOT-R), 883
Lifton, R.J., 685
likelihood judgments, 440–1, 814
Likert, R., 55
Liljenquist, K., 243, 644
Lillard, A., 54
Lin, M., 290
Lindberg, M.J., 407
Lindsay, D.S., 303–4
Lindzey, G., 790
linguistic category model (LCM), 741
linguistic intergroup bias (LTB), 742–3
Linton, S., 450, 452
Linville, P.W., 206, 382, 503, 690–1
Lippmann, W., 75–6, 79–80
literature search methodology
Littman, M.L., 735
Liu, D., 752, 755
Liviatan, I., 212
Livingston, R.W., 172
Llewellyn, K.N., 838
Loach, D., 318
local processing
global processing vs., 268–9
visual
global processing vs., 210
Lodge, M., 852, 855, 857, 859–60
Loewenstein, G., 410
Loftus, J., 62, 203, 207
Lofus, E.F., 472
Lombardi, W.J., 264
London, M., 57
London, O., 57
loneliness, 507–8
long-term self, 520
Lopez, D.F., 598, 853–4
Lord, C.G., 856, 858
Luchins, A.S., 58
Luckmann, T., 681
Luhrmann, T.M., 152
Luhtanen, R.K., 542
Lui, L., 24–5
Lutz, D.J., 753
Lybarger, J.E., 74
Lydon, J.E., 607
(p. 934) Lyons, A., 744
Lyubomirsky, S., 738
M
Ma, D.S., 172
Maass, A., 567, 741, 743
MacCoun, R.J., 866
Mack, A., 324
MacLeod, A.K., 465
MacLin, O.H., 180, 182
Macrae, C.N., 80, 82, 177, 182, 420, 421, 423, 625, 641
Maddox, K.B., 172
Made to Stick, 36
Madey, S.F., 405
Maglio, S.J., 211
Maher, A., 425
Majid, A., 209
Major, B., 185
Malle, B.F., 105, 110
malleability
affect as information and, 452–4
Malloy, T.E., 59
Malone, T.W., 629
Malpass, S., 180, 182
Maltby, N., 367
Mandisodza, A.N., 865
Maner, J.K., 182–4, 665–7
Mania, E.W., 182
Maniar, S.D., 404
Manifest Anxiety Scale, 425
manipulation
in shaping one’s environment, 799–800
Manis, M., 202
Mann, T., 885
Mantel, S.P., 815
Mao, H., 814
Marcel, A., 234
Margolies, S.M., 643
Margolin, J., 184
Marien, H., 486
Markman, A., 761–2
Markman, K.D., 274, 402, 405–7, 409
Markson, L., 757
Markus, H.R., 25, 205, 498, 499, 502, 508, 767–8
Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, 425
Marlowe, D., 57
Marsh, A.A., 174–5
Marsh, E.J., 362
Marsman, J.G., 740
Martin, L.L., 438, 442, 489
Masicampo, E.J., 488
Mason, W.A., 622, 630
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Center for Group Dynamics at, 20–1
Masuda, T., 338
Mata, A., 551
Mather, M., 473
Mauduit, S., 176
Maurer, K., 202
Mays, W., 362
Mazze, K., 65
McCarthy, R.J., 58–9, 68, 352, 904, 911
McClelland, G., 375, 378, 904
McClelland, J.L., 296
McConnell, A.R., 203, 497, 500, 504, 505, 510, 511, 908
McDonald, H.E., 465
McDougall, W., 66, 616
McDowell, N.K., 884–5
McFarland, C., 403
McGhee, D.E., 80
McGlothlin, H., 555
McGovern, 862–3
McGraw, K.M., 868
McGregor, I., 739
McGuire, W.J., 815
McKee, C.B., 757
McKercher, D.A., 754
McKoon, G., 208
McLaughlin, J.P., 78
McMillan, D., 357
McMullen, M.N., 405, 406
McNally, R.J., 424
Mead, G.H., 616, 729
Mead, N.L., 860
Meadows, J.C., 367
Mealey, L., 368
mean(s)
ends vs., 212
meaning
cognitive infrastructure of
measurement
in social cognition, 33–52
medial
defined, 703, 704f
medial PFC, 712, 717–20, 718f
mediation
cognitive, 122
Medvec, V.H., 405
Meehl, P.E., 35
Meier, B.P., 174, 643
Memon, A., 361
memory(ies)
attributional model of, 234–5
autobiographical
relevance and, 472–3
cherished, 517–33
collaborative, 624–5
construct accessibility and, 581–3
episodic
autobiographical memories vs., 518
relevance and, 472–3
in evaluations and impressions, 130–1
face
motivated, 180–4
implicit
motivational relevance and, 467–9
intrusive, 523
involuntary, 523
motivated face encoding and, 180–4
motivation and, 464–5
overgeneral, 519
person, 352–74. see also person memory
power and, 581–3
procedures in
representation of, 258–65
selective
in political cognition, 861–2
self-defining, 521–2, 528–9
self in, 498–9
structure of, 354
treasured, 517
working, 661
memory dissociations, 43–4
Memory Failures Scale (MFS), 323
memory paradigms
explicit, 38–9
person, 38–9
priming paradigms vs., 39–41, 40f
memory processes
affect and, 445–7
memory systems model (MSM), 228
mental accounting
in prospect theory, 381
mental activation
motivational relevance and, 467
mental imagery
history of, 147
mental life
representation of
source reasoning and, 752–4
mental representation(s), 8–10, 795, 801. see also construal(s)
defined, 194
described, 194, 221
highs and lows of, 194–219. see also construal(s)
implicit social cognition and, 220–38, 838
implicitness of
emerging themes on, 233–5
new perspectives on, 233–5
levels of construal and psychological distance in, 195–6
models of, 222–33, 222t
associative network models, 222t, 223–4, 223f
connectionist models, 222t, 225–8, 226f, 227t
embodied cognition models, 222t, 229–31
multiple format models, 222t, 228–9
schema models, 222t, 224–5
(p. 935) situated cognition models, 222t, 231–3
shift to co-acting subsystems, 42–6
theories of, 220
mental simulation, 402–16
defined, 402
described, 402
mental simulation mindsets, 406–7
mental state(s)
perception of, 111
mental state inferences
in social cognitive development, 752–3
mentalizing
in social neuroscience, 717–20, 718f
Merckelbach, H., 424, 425
Merikle, P.M., 324
Merkin, 894
Merton, R.K., 789, 799, 800
Mesoudi, A., 369
message formation
common ground in, 735–6
message framing
cognitive biases and, 878–81
beliefs about causes, 879–80
beliefs about control, 880–1
beliefs about illness, 879
Message Learning Approach, 119, 125
meta-representations, 733
metacognition, 132–3
in decision-making groups, 628. see also socially shared metacognition
socially shared. see socially shared metacognition
Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire (MCBQ), 426
metacognitive experiences of perceptual fluency, 444
metaphor(s)
theories of
mental representation as, 220
methodology
in social cognition
“catchiness” factor in, 36–7
critical tests, 35–6
flexibility in, 36
introduction, 33–4
qualities of good method, 34–7
relevancy of, 34
strong theoretical leverage in, 35–6
in testing dual processing models, 42–4
Metzler, J., 148
Meyers-Levy, J., 269
Michael, T., 470
Michel, C., 181
Michotte, A., 97
microsystem(s)
modeling of, 722
Miele, D.B., 463
Mikulincer, M., 596
Miles, L.K., 625
Milgram obedience studies, 46
Milgram, S., 55, 97, 789
Miller, D.T., 403, 404, 539
Miller, G.A., 19, 27
Miller, J., 183
Miller, P.J., 274
Miller, S.L., 667
Mills, C.M., 755, 758
Mills, J.S., 102
Milne, A.B., 80, 82
mimicry
in deliberative–automatic interface, 263–4
Min, K.E., 67
mind
attribution of, 110–11
in motivation, 476–96
power effects on, 577–81. see also powerful mind
theory of, 369
Mind, Self, and Society, 729
mind wandering
sustained attention and, 323–4
Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), 323
mindful motivation, 477–8
mindless motivation, 478–81
mindset(s)
behavioral, 273–6. see also specific types and behavioral mindsets
in decision processes, 821–2
mental stimulation, 406–7
minimal group paradigm, 46, 567
Miranda, C., 343
mirror neurons, 318, 720
Mischel, W., 24, 63, 65, 200, 791, 794, 796
miser(s)
perceptual, 330, 333–6
miserliness
perceptual
automaticity of, 335–6
Mitchell, J.P., 421, 720
Mitchell, P., 753
Miyamoto, Y., 338
Moberly, N.J., 465
modality switch cost design, 642
MODE model, 86, 130, 223, 296
of attitude–behavior relations, 286–8
model(s). see also specific types
theories vs., 307
moderator(s), 122
of cultural influence, 775–9. see also cultural influence, moderators of
of effects of mood on judgment, 437–9
of visual biases, 344–5
Mogilner, C., 60–1
molecular genetics
in social neuroscience, 722
Monteith, M.J., 74, 82–3, 85
Monti, P.M., 427
mood(s)
effects on judgment
moderators of, 437–9
as information, 437–9, 450–1
sustained attention and, 323
morality-based judgments, 441
Moreland, R.L., 543
Morgain, R., 152
Morgan, G.S., 583, 864
Morgenstern, O., 377
Morris, J.P., 857
Morris, M., 275
Morrison, K.R., 602
Morsella, E., 244
mortal cognition, 680–701. see also terror management theory (TMT)
future directions in, 695–7
Mortensen, H., 880
Moser, R., 688
Moses, L.J., 756
Moshinsky, A., 864
Moskowitz, G.B., 66, 82, 248, 274, 466, 483
Mosteller, F., 377, 378
motivated accessibility
from relevance, 465–6
motivated attention allocation
power in, 578–9
motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model, 617–18
motivated political cognition, 855–67
ideological asymmetries in, 865–7
self-aggrandizement in, 855–6
self-gratification in, 855–6
self-interest motivation in, 856–8
self-serving, 855
motivated reasoning, 851
motivated remembering, 463–75
motivation(s)
accuracy, 854–5
cognition in groups and, 617–20, 618f
in groups
CISD model of, 617–18, 618f, 620
for idea generation tasks
issues related to, 627–8
in political cognition, 858–63
for high-demonstrability tasks
issues related to, 622–3
for low-demonstrability tasks
issues related to, 626
memory and, 464–5
mind in, 476–96
mindful, 477–8
mindless, 478–81
other than attaining desired outcomes, 466–7
perceivers’
(p. 936) role of, 102
self-enhancing
visual perception in, 342
self-interest
in political cognition, 856–8
in social cognition, 905–6, 907f
system-serving
types of, 464
motivation and opportunity as determinants (MODE) model. see MODE model
motivational influences
of affect on judgments, 817
motivational relevance
implicit memory and, 467–9
mental activation and, 467
motive(s)
of mental states, 111
motor resonance, 641
Mottron, L., 367
Motyl, M.S., 685
Moynihan, D.P., 868
Mozart, 240
Mueller, C.M., 760
Müller-Lyer illusion, 18
multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) approach
to fMRI, 717
multicultural experiences
effects of, 779
multifinality, 259
multiple format models
of mental representation, 222t, 228–9
multiple inference model (MIM), 111
multiple-roles hypothesis
of ELM, 285
Multiple Self-aspects Framework (MSF), 504–6, 504f
multiple selves, 501–5, 502t, 504f
beyond self-complexity, 503–5, 504f
early perspectives on, 501–2
self-complexity of, 502–3, 502t
Mumme, D.L., 749
mundane realism, 46
Munro, G.D., 860
Muris, P., 424
Murphy, G.L., 55, 739
Murphy, L.B., 55
Murphy, M.E., 643
Murphy, S.T., 443
Murray, D.M., 780
Murray, H.A., 795
Murray, S.L., 605–6
Mussweiler, T., 641, 811–12
Muthukrishnan, A.V., 275
Muzzatti, B., 556
Myrdal, G., 857
N
Nahmias, E., 55
naïve psychology, 22, 97
naïve realism
defined, 106
naïve realist, 100
Najmi, S., 417, 422
NARAL Pro-Choice America, 862
narrative(s)
in consumer information processing, 809
National Academy of Sciences, 833
National Adult Reading Test (NART-2), 425
natural
defined, 760
natural beliefs
acquisition of, 760–1
Navon Task, 210, 213, 448
Nawara, S.P., 860
Neal, D.T., 260–2
need for closure (NFC), 689
Neely, L.A., 752
negative expectations
affective cognition and, 882
negativity
effects of, 63–5
generality of, 65
personality domain effects of, 64
processing differences in, 64–5
neglect
base rate, 384
omission, 815–16
Neisser, U., 18
Nelson, C.A., 57, 671
Nesdale, D., 555
Nesse, 667
Nestler, S., 404
Neuberg, S.L., 78, 199, 288, 289f, 290, 294, 656
neural functioning
cognition and, 886–7
neural networks
modeling of, 722
neural structures
in face perception, 168–9
neuroanatomy
of social cognition, 703–5, 704f, 705f
neurobiology
of power, 583
neuroimaging
in social neuroscience, 707–8
neuron(s)
mirror, 318, 720
neuroscience
cultural, 780–1
social
applied to attribution, 111–12
of social cognition, 702–28. see also social neuroscience
New, J., 659–60
New Look, 332–3, 342, 346, 447, 482
Newcomb, T.M., 789
Newman, L.S., 854
Newsweek, 862
Ng, S.S.-L., 767, 910
Niedenthal, P.M., 184, 404
Nieuwenhuis, S., 710
Nind, L.K., 625
Nisbett, R.E., 28, 95, 105, 233, 241, 270, 338, 339, 793
Nixon, R., Pres., 862–3
Nogee, P., 377
nonconscious goal pursuit
seeping into consciousness
aspects of, 485–7
nonconscious processing
in emergence of social cognition, 27–8
nonconscious thoughts
death-related, 685–7
nonsense syllables
CVC, 17
nontangible harms
legal protection from, 842
noos, 54
Nordgren, L.F., 241
Norenzayan, A., 646
Norman, W.T., 60
normative tuning
principle of, 777
Northoff, G., 780
Nunes, J.C., 812
Nurius, P., 502, 508
Nurmsoo, E., 753
Nussbaum, S., 58, 198
Nyhan, B., 866
O
Obama, B., Pres., 867, 868
object–context relations, 768
objective self-awareness theory (OSA), 508
O’Brien, L.T., 866
observer vs. actor differences, 105
obsession(s)
synthetic, 425
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
thought suppression and, 426
occipital face area (OFA)
in face perception, 169
occipital frontal cortex (OFC), 712
Ochsner, K.N., 702–3
Oettingen, G., 411, 485, 492
Ofan, R.H., 714
(p. 937) O’Farrell, K.J., 744
O’Heeron, R.C., 885
Ohio State
Social Cognition Research Group at, 119
Olsen, N., 601
Olson, J.M., 403
Olson, M.A., 443
Olsson, A., 667
omission neglect, 815–16
“On Social Cognition,” 895
Ontario Symposium, 63
Oosterhof, N.N., 61, 171
operation span with words (OSPAN) task, 425
Opinions and Personality, 855
Oppenheimer, D.M., 444
optimism
affective cognition and, 883–4
Orehek, E., 58
orientation
power in, 579–80
Orne, M.T., 789
Orwell, G., 464
Osborn, A.F., 627
ostracism, 507–8
Ostrom Award for Lifetime Contributions to Social Cognition, 14
Ostrom, T.M., 4, 5, 62, 118–22, 127–8, 361, 702, 723
other race effect (ORE), 180–3
Ottati, V.C., 438
Overbeck, J.R., 581
overconfidence
in judgment, 387–8
overgeneral memory, 519
Oyserman, D., 269, 736, 810
Ozer, D.J., 794, 796
P
P-O-X model, 22, 23
Pacini, R., 295
Packer, D.J., 178
Pahl, S., 359
pain
suppression of, 424
Paivio, A., 148, 155, 162
Pak, H., 492
Paletz, S., 866
Palfai, T.P., 427
Palin, S., 339
Palma, T., 637, 911
“paper rules,” 838
paradigm(s). see specific types
Parducci, A., 57
Park, B., 4, 81, 566, 581, 739
Park, D.C., 270
Park, J.W., 810, 821
Parker, M.T., 452
part-list cueing, 625
participation
intent, 757
learning by, 757–8
partisan bias
in political cognition, 858–9
Paskewitz, J.R., 202
Pasquini, E., 751
Passingham, R.E., 245
Passini, F.T., 60
Pasupathi, M., 362
Pattershall, J., 864
Pauker, K., 182, 183
Pavan, G., 744
Payne, B.K., 9, 44, 45, 48, 83, 84, 87, 220, 306, 902
Pecher, D., 642
Pelletier, L.G., 480
Peng, K., 204
Pennebaker, J.W., 885
Pentland, A., 629
perceiver(s)
causal inferences drawn by, 97–9
invariant causes preferred by, 98
motivations of, 102
state and situation of, 87
perception(s)
affect and, 447–9
biased
in political cognition, 860–1
defined, 331
described, 331–2
of entitativity
factors affecting, 203–5
face. see face perception
in goal pursuit
nonconscious operation of, 482–3
of intentionality
folk psychology and, 110–11
introduction, 329–31
of mental states, 111
of others
in legal issues, 844–5
self-evaluations effects on, 542–4
person, 7
rating of
vs. content, 127–8
as subjective process, 346
visual. see visual perception
perception–behavior link
in deliberative–automatic interface, 263
perceptual attunement, 185–6
perceptual confirmation, 800
perceptual experience, 329
perceptual filters, 333–4
perceptual fluency
metacognitive experiences of, 444
perceptual judgments, 447
perceptual manager(s), 330, 331, 339–44
operating in parallel with perceptual misers and perceptual monsters, 345–6
perceptual miser(s), 330, 333–6
automaticity of, 335–6
categorical perception of other people, 334–5
conceptual filters, 333–4
operating in parallel with perceptual monsters and perceptual managers, 345–6
perceptual filters, 333–4
perceptual monster(s), 330–1, 336–9
body image, 338
operating in parallel with perceptual misers and perceptual managers, 345–6
personality traits, 337–8
psychological disorders, 337–8
stereotypes, 337
visual ecology, 338–9
perceptual symbol systems (PSS), 642
perceptual symbol systems (PSS) theory, 229–31
Percy, E.J., 548, 551
Perfect, T.J., 359
Perie, M., 464
persistence, 807
person(s)
conceptions of
diversity of, 54
construal of, 196–210. see also construal(s), of people
elements of
in person memory, 353
impressions of, 68
main effect of, 796
as moral agents and objects
in impression formation, 68
person judgments
exemplar-based, 200
person memory, 352–74
associationism approach to, 356–7
alternative views and problems related to, 357
biology of, 354
for cheaters, 368
chemical substances affecting, 368
elements of person in, 353
in emergence of social cognition, 26, 27
encoding in, 356–7
event processing effects on, 359–60
evolution in, 364–9
evidence for, 365–8
faces in, 366–8
facets of, 353–4
in full context of encoding-driven cognitive activities, 357–9
functional/evolutional approach to, 368–9
incongruity in, 356–7
(p. 938) incongruity paradigm in, 356–9
informant’s
post-event activities influence on, 362–4
introduction, 352–3
post-event activities affecting, 364
post-event influence of others on, 361
post-event processing and, 360
processing and, 353–4
research and theory related to
illustrative themes and threads in, 356–9
self-hancement and, 363–4
social cognition and
ascent of, 355–6
social discourse and, 362–3
in social psychology
ascent of, 354–5
storage in, 354
structure of, 354
Person Memory, 63
Person Memory: The Cognitive Basis of Social Perception, 355, 895
Person Memory label, 9
person memory paradigm, 38–9
PERSON model
of Kenny, 59
person perception, 7
in social neuroscience, 713–17. see also social neuroscience, person perception in
personal causality
impersonal causality vs., 98–9
for social behavior
cultural differences in, 106
personal construct(s), 790
personal construct theory, 789–90
personal experience
in terror management
processes serving coherent conceptions of, 693–4
personal need for structure (PNS), 689
personalism, 102
personality
cognition and social cognition in, 788–92
in Lewin’s grand truism, 792–3, 792f
social cognition and, 801
social intelligence and, 791–2
social learning theories of, 790–1
personality trait(s)
defined, 793
perceptual monster and, 337–8
personalized IAT, 84
person–situation independence, 793–4
person–situation interaction, 786–805. see also personality; specific components, e.g., cognition
perspective taking
in relationships, 593–4
persuasion
imagery and, 156–7
models of, 284–6, 284f
ELM, 284–5, 284f
HSM, 285–6
Pessiglione, M., 245
Peters, M.D., 852
Petrova, P.K., 808
Pettersen, P., 641
Petty, R.E., 118, 124, 125, 132, 284–5, 284f, 640, 908
Pham, L., 411
Phelps, E.A., 85, 179, 667
Phillips, W., 550
Phills, C.E., 640
physiological functioning
cognition and, 886–7
Piaget, J., 559, 640
Pichert, J.W., 465, 471, 473
Pickel, K.L., 360
Pickering, M.J., 735
Pinel, E.C., 410
Pinker, S., 55
Pittinsky, T.L., 507, 557
Plato, 239, 435
Platten, L., 550, 553, 555
pluralistic ignorance, 104
Pohl, M., 865
Poincare, H., 240
politeness theory, 737
political cognition
“hot,” 851–75
self-serving motivation in, 855
system-serving motivation in, 863–5. see also system-serving motivation, in political cognition
Political Ideology, 855
politician(s)
evaluation of
in political cognition, 862–3
Posavac, S.S., 815
positive beliefs
affective cognition and, 882–3
positron emission tomography (PET), 712, 717
Posner, M.I., 200
post-event activities
effects on person memory, 364
post-event influence of others
effects on person memory, 361
post-event processing
person memory and, 360
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
thought suppression and, 426
Postema, S., 424
posterior parietal cortex (PPC), 246
Povinelli, D., 521
power
in attentional control, orienting, and flexibility, 579–80
bodily experiences and, 582–3
cognition and
relation between, 576–7
confidence and, 582
construct use of, 582
described, 576–7
effect on mind, 577–81. see also powerful mind
functions of, 576–7
memory and, 581–3
in moderating relationship maintenance strategies, 606–7
in motivated attention allocation, 578–9
neurobiology of, 583
in processing strategies and situated cognition, 584–6
situated focus theory of, 577, 578
social
cognition and, 575–89
social psychology and, 575
Power and Personality, 855
powerful mind, 577–81
in attention to information organized hierarchically, 580–1
in attentional control, orienting, and flexibility, 579–80
in motivated attention allocation, 578–9
in selection process, 577–8
powerless individuals
described, 579
pragmatics
in receiver effects, 741–2
Pratto, F., 64–5
Preacher, K.J., 84
preconscious processing, 242
prediction(s)
in social cognition, 902, 906f, 907, 907f
in social cognition research, 896
preference judgment, 277, 277t
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 246, 250–1, 711–12
functions of, 112
Preissler, M.A., 552
prejudice
automaticity and control in, 74–94
control of
ACC in, 85
early approaches to, 75–6
historical overview of, 75–6
model of, 287–8
from social cognitive perspective, 76
prejudiced associations
measuring of, 77–8
(p. 939) preoccupation model of secrecy, 423
Preston, M.G., 377
prevention mindsets, 274–5
Price, J., 522–3
prime(s)
evaluative, 443–4
priming
in emergence of social cognition, 24
initiation and, 242–3
priming paradigms, 37–8
functional applications of, 37–8
memory paradigms vs., 39–41, 40f
“Princeton trilogy,” 75
principle of cultural congruency, 776–7
principle of culture as security provider, 778
principle of normative tuning, 777
Prinz, W., 640
privacy
legal protection related to, 842
private representations, 771
Probst, P., 355
procedural knowledge
in generalizability of social behavior, 257–81
procedural view, 43
procedure(s)
in declarative knowledge
representation of, 258–60, 259f
described, 257
in memory
representation of, 258–65
process(es). see also memory processes; specific types, e.g., anchoring processes
automatic
in social cognition, 902
in social neuroscience, 708–10
categorization
in consumer information processing, 813–14
of communication, 730–7
controlled
in social neuroscience, 710–12
cultural
experimental studies of, 768–70
decision
in consumer information processing, 819–21, 821t
in evolutionary social cognition, 659
implicit
in social cognition, 902
in social neuroscience, 708–10
inference
in consumer information processing, 814–16
integration
in consumer information processing, 818–19
learning
social, 757–62
self-validation, 454
in social cognition, 899–900, 900f
process dissociation, 44–6
process dissociation procedure (PDP), 45, 84
process-pure assumption
challenges to, 44
process theory, 420
processing
emotions in, 393–4
nonconscious
in emergence of social cognition, 27–8
person memory and, 353–4
preconscious, 242
processing assumptions, 259–60, 259f
processing strategies
situated, 584–6
processing view, 43
production(s)
accessibility of
situational vs. chronic differences in, 271–2, 271t
in automatic behavior activation, 260–1
chronic, 270–1
chronically accessible, 269–70
in comprehension, 267–72, 271t. see also comprehension, productions in
information-elicited, 272
situationally activated, 269
unconscious influences on behavior, 265–7
anchoring processes, 265–6
automatic evaluation effects, 266
verbal overshadowing, 266
production-mediated behavior
desirability effects on, 266–7
promotion mindsets, 274–5
Pronin, E., 206
property
legal protection related to, 842–3
prosopagnosia, 168–9
prosopagnosics, 367
prospect theory
in decision making, 379–82, 864
endowment effect, 380–1
framing effects, 380
mental accounting, 381
reason-based choice, 381–2
value function, 379
weighting function, 379–80
prospective speculations
biasing effects of, 408–10
prospective thinking
functions of, 411–12
prototype(s)
exemplars vs.
construal of, 200–1
prototype retrieval
exemplar retrieval vs.
determinants of, 201
Przeworski, A., 426
psuche, 54
psychological assumptions
psychological capacities
attribution of, 110
psychological disorders
perceptual monster and, 337–8
psychological distance
construal levels and, 195–6
effects of
CLT of, 58–9
psychological realism, 46–7
Psychological Review, 19
psychological self-regulation
visual perception serving, 341–3
psychology
cognitive. see cognitive psychology
folk
perception of intentionality and, 110–11
Gestalt, 16, 18, 795
naïve, 22, 97
social
social cognition and, 10–11
Psychology and the Behaviorist View, 895
psychopathology
of thought suppression, 425–7
Psychopathology and Politics, 855
PsycINFO, 895–915
Public Opinion, 75
Purdie-Vaighns, V.J., 172
Purdie, V.J., 178
Purdon, C.L., 426
Pylyshyn, Z., 148
Pyszczynski, T., 685, 689, 854
Q
quadruple process model (QUAD), 84–5, 87, 88, 304–5, 305f
quality-of-processing model, 854
quantity-of-processing model, 853–4
Quattrone, G.A., 109
Queller, S., 203
R
Radvanski, G.A., 84, 87
Radvansky, A., 156
Raichle, M.E., 488
Ratcliff, N., 181
Ratcliff, R., 208, 260
Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI), 295
Ratner, K.G., 702, 713
Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices task, 425
Raymond, S., 740
(p. 940) reaction(s)
subjective, 807–8
reaction times (RTs), 315–17, 315f, 316f
Reagan, R., Pres., 862
realism
mundane, 46
naïve, 106
psychological, 46–7
realist(s)
naïve, 100
realistic conflicts
stereotypes and, 568
realistic threats
stereotypes and, 568
reality
shared
establishment of, 470–1
reason-based choice
in prospect theory, 381–2
Reason, J.T., 321, 323
reasoning
analogical, 838–9
essentialist, 758–60
motivated, 851
source, 752–4
rebound effect, 421
suppression-related, 422
recall
truth relevance effect on, 469–70
receiver effects
communication-related, 739–42
pragmatics, 741–2
semantics, 739–41
syntax, 741
recency, 807
reciprocal determinism
in Lewinian framework, 797, 797f
reciprocity
dyadic, 592
generalized, 592
Reed, L., 95
Reeder, G.D., 64, 95, 104–5
Reeves, K., 57
reflection–reflexion model, 297–8
reflective system (RS), 298–9
reflective–impulsive model (RIM), 298–9
Reid-Arndt, S.A., 688
Reifler, J., 866
Reis, H.T., 601
rejection sensitivity
in relationships, 595
relational schema theory, 598
relational self, 597–9
relational thinking
comprehension in, 269–72, 271t
in consumer information processing, 810
relationship(s). see also specific types
attachment in, 596–7
causal
construal of, 207–10
goal orientations in, 597
interpersonal cognition and, 590–615. see also interpersonal cognition
maintaining
interpersonal cognition in, 599–607. see also everyday interdependence; interpersonal cognition
rejection sensitivity in, 595
seeking
interpersonal cognition in, 591–3
self-esteem in, 595–6
social
construal of, 886
understanding
relationship-enhancing attributions, 594
relevance
autobiographical memories and, 472–3
episodic memories and, 472–3
hedonic, 102
motivated accessibility from, 465–6
motivational
implicit memory and, 467–9
mental activation and, 467
truth
effect on recall, 469–70
in saying is believing memory effects, 471–2
relevance of activated representations (ROAR). see ROAR
relevance theory, 736
remembering
motivated, 463–75
reminiscence bump, 521–2
Remote Associates Test, 490
Rendell, L., 622
Reno, J., 831
representation(s). see also specific types
group
individual representations vs., 202–5
illness
social cognition and, 881–2
intersubjective
in cultural influence, 772–3
mental, 795, 801
source reasoning and, 752–4
private, 771
self-concept
early models of, 500–1, 501f
in social cognition, 899–900, 900f
verbal
in social cognition, 900–1
visual
in social cognition, 900–1
representativeness
in judgment, 383–4
repression, 418
reproduction
visual perception in,