Abstract and Keywords
Cognitive and motor behavior either can be mediated by conscious decisions about how to attain an objective to which it is relevant or can occur automatically without awareness of either the goal to which the behavior is relevant or even the behavior itself. These effects may be governed by different cognitive systems. A conceptualization of these systems and how they interface is used as a framework for reviewing the role of procedural knowledge at several stages of information processing, including attention, comprehension, evaluation, response generation, and decision making. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of goal-directed behavior at one point of time on behavior that is later performed in a quite different situation in pursuit of a goal that is unrelated to the first. In this context, a distinction is made between mindsets, which govern sequences of behavioral decisions without consciousness of the reason for making these decisions, and cognitive productions, which elicit behavior automatically and often without awareness of the behavior itself.
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