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date: 18 November 2019

(p. 615) Index

(p. 615) Index

A
Abhidhamma, 328, 330
Abhidharma, 308–309
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), 336
cognitive fusion and, 336
experiential avoidance and, 336
RFT and, 336
accommodative approaches, to psychotherapy, 262
spiritually accommodative, 263
Achterberg, Jeanne, 543
active imagination, 290
adolescence, religious development during. See also girls; positive youth development; social-ecology approach, to religious development
among African Americans, 156
children's theology as influence on, 162
cognitive-developmentalism and, 161
conscientiousness and, 161
construct methodology for, 153
cultural anthropology for, 162
definitions for, 152–153
through expressive writing, 161
individuative-reflective stage, 183–184
as intuitive, 153
during intuitive-projective stage, 183
James on, 153
during literal stage, 183
literature on, 151
parental religious conflicts and, 160
parents as spiritual ambassadors, 154
peer influences during, 156–157
prosociality and, 159
qualitative studies for, 161
relational consciousness and, 153
religious prejudice in, 158
research study methodology for, 161
sanctification and, 153
spiritual emissaries and, children as, 154
during synthetic conventional stage, 183
well-being from, 158
affluence
commitment technologies and, 433
hedonic treadmill effect with, 433
positive psychology and, 432–434
self-control and, 433, 434
African Americans
Black theology movement, 202
cultural consciousness among, 201–202
double consciousness of, 201
racial liberation for, spirituality as influence on, 202
religious development in children for, 156
spirituality among, 197
womanism among, 202–203
age, religiousness and, 87
agent of action, in prayer, 537–539
aggressive retaliatory behaviors, 92–93
agreeableness, religion and, 90–91
altruism compared to, 141
as self-reported trait, 90–91
as self-reported value, 91
spirituality and, 93–94
Aharonov, Yakir, 54–55
Aharonov-Bohm effect, 54–55
A'Kempis, Thomas, 186
Alara Kalama, 345
Alcoholics Anonymous, 401
Alexander, Franz, 329
Allport, Gordon, 12, 40, 96
psychology of religion for, 398
altruism
agreeableness compared to, 141
in animal kingdom, 141
biological explanations for, in humans, 141–142
in Buddhism, 138
in Christianity, 138
conceptual development of, 139
definitions of, 140–142
empathy and, 143, 143
empirical perspectives on, 142–144
future research perspectives for, 145–146
in Judaism, 138
in maternal instinct, 143
moral reasoning and, 143–144
negative effects of, 146
paradox of, 141
prosocial acts compared to, 141
psychological research on, 142–143
religion and, 144–145
as social evolutionary mechanism, 142
in Sufism, 138
in theistic integrative psychotherapy, 241
altruistic love, 128
religious advocacy of, 132–133
altruistic moral judgment, 143
Altruria, 139
American Catholic Psychological Association, 7
American Psychological Association (APA), 154
Buddhist influences on psychotherapy and, guidelines for, 333
client autonomy guidelines, 259–260
Division 36, 7–8
religious diversity and, ethical criteria for, 251
spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy competency guidelines, 231
American Psychological Society, 17
American Society for Psychological Research, 17
American Sociological Association, 141
amygdala activation, 493
during meditation, 493–494
analytic third, 275
animism, 199
Annas, Julia, 429
anthropic principle, 66–69
Big Bang theory and, 66
foundations of, 66
physical constants and, 66
(p. 616) anti-homosexual prejudice
in intrinsic religiousness, 98
in RF, 97
anti-psychiatry movement, 412
Aquinas, Thomas (Saint), 212, 313, 315, 429
theological virtues for, 441
Araya, Tom, 131
Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 37
Aristotle, 292
artificial intelligence, paradox of, 600
Asian Americans, spirituality among, 197–198
ancestral acknowledgment in, 200
Aspect, Alain, 601
Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) Scale
applications for, 108
clinical applications of, 119–120
construct validity for, 114–115
convergent validity for, 112–113
criteria predictability in, 114–115
cross-cultural results with, 118–119
cross-faith results with, 118–119
cross-observer convergence in, 112
development of, 105–108
discriminant validity for, 113–114
facet scales in, 105
factor structure for, 110–111
FFM for personality and, 105, 116–117
flexibility of, 121
form correlations in, 113
incremental validity for, 115–117
internal consistency for, 111–112
joint factor analysis in, 113
normative data for, 109–110
psychological measures in, 114
psychometric information from, 108–118
psychosocial variables in, 115
purpose of, 104, 120–121
religious sentiment component in, 105, 107–108, 109–110, 111
research applications for, 118–120
SEM modeling for, 108, 120
sentiments compared to motives in, 107–108
short form psychometric properties in, 117–118
spiritual transcendence component in, 105
STS and, 105–106, 109
assimilative approaches, in psychotherapy, 261–262
Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC), 231
attachment processes, religiousness and
early, 88–90
EBRS for, 89
emotional compensation hypothesis for, 89
gender influences, 90
insecure, adult religiousness and, 89
PBRS model for, 88
religious drifting, 89
secure, adult religiousness and, 88–89
self-esteem in, 88–89
spirituality and, 89–90
sudden conversion to religion and, 89
attention, self-awareness and, 74, 76
attraction-aversion distraction cycle, 76
attunement, in psychoanalysis, 281–282
Augustine of Hippo (Saint), 313, 315
authoritarianism
in psychology of religion, 14
in religion, prejudice from, 11
The authoritarian personality, 11
autonomous nervous system, changes in, 493–494, 495
Ayurvedic practices, 364
B
Bateson, Gregory, 73, 603
levels of learning for, 73–74, 75–76
Batson, Daniel, 143
Beauregard, M., 71
Becker, Ernest, 331
Beebe, John, 418
Beecher, Henry, 541
behavior genetics, religiousness and, 87
age as influence on, 87
external factors, 87–88
internal factors, 87–88
mediating factors for, 87–88
behaviorism, religion and, 39
Behavior Therapy, 224
Bell's Theorem, 64, 283
Bem, Daryl, 537
Benson, Herbert, 531, 542
Bergson, Henri, 510
Bernard of Clairvaux, 186
Bethea, Charles, 541
Beyond God and Father (Daly), 188
Bhakti Hinduism, 316
Bhaskar, Roy, 30
Big Bang theory, 65
anthropic principle and, 66
creation of matter in, 577–578
dark energy and, 66–67
Dirac theory of matter creation as replacement for, 577–579
singularity problem in, 66
Biko, Stephen Bantu, 202
biological systems, quantum effects in, 69–71
at DNA level, 70
in ecological-developmental biology, 70–71
emergent perspectives for, 69–70
evolutionary theory and, 69
photosynthesis, 70
The Biological Universe (Dick), 49
biology, 53. See also biological systems, quantum effects in
ecological-developmental, 70–71
evolutionary theory in, 53
new technologies in, 361
sense of wonder in, 53–54
small-scale, 53
Bipolar Adjectives Rating Scale (BARS), 190
black holes, 68–69
The Black Hole Wars (Susskind), 68–69
Black Madonnas, 201
Black theology movement, 202
Bleuler, Eugen, 288
Blustein, David, 465
Bohm, David, 54, 67, 460
Bohr, Neils, 52, 464
on consciousness and quantum physics, 63–64, 65
brain functions, during RSMEs, 490
amygdala activation, 493–494
autonomous nervous system changes, 493–494, 495
with Buddhist meditation, 310–311
with Christian meditation, 314–315
cingulate cortex activation, 490–491
consciousness and, 55–57
future research applications for, 496
hippocampal activation, 493
hypothalamic activation, 493–494
neuroimaging of, for measurement of spirituality, 372–373
neuroplasticity in, 72
prefrontal cortex activation, 490–491, 494–495
PSPL deafferentation, 492–493
segregation principle and, 510
serotonergic activity, 495–496
thalamic activation, 491–492
brain scanning, 42
Braud, William, 533, 534, 537
Brief Resilience Scale, 446–447
Brill, A. A., 289
broaden-and-build theory, 440
Buddhism. See also psychotherapy, Buddhism and; Zen Buddhism
Abhidhamma as influence on, 328, 330
adaptability of, 327–328
altruism in, 138
anthology of scriptures in, 328
body as concept in, 365
chakras tradition in, 213
classification of, as religion, 327–328
duhkha in, 308
early, 344
as Eastern model of spiritual development, 212
eightfold path in, 308, 347
(p. 617) emptiness as concept in, 280
evil as concept within, 129
four noble truths in, 308, 346–347
Gautama as founder of, 327–328
Mahayana, 327
moral virtue in, 308
Motherhood of God in, 186
Padmasambhava and, 328–329
Pali Canon in, 328
Siddhārtha as founder of, 307–308, 327–328
spirituality within, 244
Ten Ox-Herding Pictures in, 213
Theravāda, 327, 365
Tibetan, 327–328
Vajrayāna, 327, 365
Vinaya in, 328
wisdom in, 308
Buddhist meditation, 307–312
attainment of calm in, 309
attainment of insight in, 309
brain functions and, 310–311
for depression, 311
dhyānas in, 309
duhkha in, 308, 328
foundations of, 307–308
future applications for, 311–312
Gautama and, 307–308
Judaism and, 318
mindfulness as aim in, 310, 319, 320–321, 334
as psychotherapeutic application, 311, 319, 326–327
purification process in, 309
seven books of Abhidharma as influence on, 308–309
as treatment intervention, 311
Byrd, Randolph, 536, 605
C
calm, in Buddhist meditation, 309
Calvin, John, 312
Campbell, Joseph, 294, 416
Candomblé, 198
healing through, 203
career
counseling, 457
definition of, 457
development, perspectives on, 460–462
family spirituality and, 459–460
therapy, 457–458
career development
for mentally challenged, 463–464
perspectives on, 460–462
for physically challenged, 463–464
programs, 461–462
religious practices and, imposed limitations from, 463
for single parents, 463
transitions in, 464
for women, 462–463
care giving, 401–402
Care giving Self-Efficacy Scale, 402
Carlsen, Mary Baird, 457
Carnap, Ruolf, 23
The Carthusian Order, 314
Carus, Paul, 345
Cayce, Edgar, 592
central nervous system (CNS), 372
chakras tradition, 213
Chalmers, David, 600
Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Peterson/Seligman), 228
chemically-facilitated mysticism, 15–16
with psychedelic drugs, 16
childhood, religious development during. See also girls; social-ecology approach, to religious development
among African Americans, 156
children's theology as influence on, 162
cognitive-developmentalism and, 161
conscientiousness and, 161
construct methodology for, 153
cultural anthropology for, 162
definitions for, 152–153
through expressive writing, 161
as intuitive, 153
during intuitive-projective stage, 183
James on, 153
during literal stage, 183
literature on, 151
parental religious conflicts and, 160
parents as spiritual ambassadors, 154
peer influences during, 156–157
prosociality and, 159
qualitative studies for, 161
relational consciousness and, 153
religious prejudice in, 158
research study methodology for, 161
sanctification and, 153
spiritual emissaries and, children as, 154
during synthetic conventional stage, 183
well-being from, 158
children's theology, 162
Chopra, Deepak, 605
Christianity. See also Protestant Christianity
altruism in, 138
evil as concept in, 129, 131
general practices, 312
meaning of work in, 456
NDEs and, 521–522
sacraments in, 312
spirituality within, 244
as Western model of spiritual development, 211–212
Christian meditation, 312–315
brain functions with, 314–315
contemplative practices in, 312–314
foundations of, 312
future applications for, 315
role of God in, 314
Christian Orthodox Church, 312
Christiansen, Guannar, 413
Chrysostom, John, 186
The Church and the Second Sex (Daly), 188
cingulate cortex, activation of, 490–491
through meditation, 490–491
clairvoyance, 272
Clark, Anna Lee, 434
classical mechanics (CM) paradigm, 558–559
Clay, Sally, 412
Clement of Alexandria, 186
clients, in psychotherapy
across-faith issues for, with psychotherapists, 266–267
autonomy for, 259–260
faith disclosure by psychotherapists, 266
multiple role relationships for, with psychotherapist, 265
psychotherapist influence on, 260, 265
same-faith issues for, with psychotherapists, 265–266
welfare of, 257–259
client affirmations, 250
clinical psychology, 44
cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs), 334
cognitive-developmentalism, 161
cognitive dissonance theory, 11–12
failed prophecy in, 11–12, 15
James’ endorsement of, 11
in psychology of religion, 15
cognitive fusion, 336
cognitive psychology, religion and, 38
cognitive revolution, 223–224
cognitive therapy, 224
mindfulness-based, 319, 320
cohabiting heterosexual unions, 173–175
formation of, 173–174
maintenance of, 174–175
religious participation declines and, 174
Coles, Robert, 161
collaborative approaches, to psychotherapy, 262
colored spirituality. See people of color, spirituality among
Comas-Diaz, L., 192
commitment technologies, 433
communities
positive youth development within, 475–476
religion within, benefits for, 393
shamanism within, as path of service, 211
compassion, as evolutionary response, 394–395
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 203
under postmaterialist scientific perspective, 602
(p. 618) Comte, Auguste, 23, 139
confrontation with the unconscious, 290
Confucianism, family concept within, 168
spirituality within, 244
conjunctive faith stage, of faith development, 184
female conflicts with patriarchy during, 184
female role model search during, 184
Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RSC), 446
conscientiousness, 94–95, 428
childhood religious development and, 161
spirituality and, 96
consciousness. See also anthropic principle; self-awareness; survival of consciousness
ablation of brain as evidence of, 586
brain states and, 55–57
with content, 351
content-less states of, 351–354
core states in, 56
cortical relationships and, 57
created in brain, 586–587
definitions of, 273, 344
enlightenment without residue and, 355
enlightenment with residue and, 354–355
as experiential process, 584–585
through external information, 587
feedback loops and, 71
four levels of, 227–228
future research directions for, 355–356
Gödel's theorem for, 71
healing and, applications for, 593–595
implicate order and, 67
mass energy, 565–566
mass energy information, 566
MEG imaging, 56–57
mental processes for, 273
modern physics and, 54–55
neuronal activity in, 56
objective, 65
as observable phenomena, 55–57
pedagogy and, 72–79
positive psychotherapy and, 231
in postmaterialist science, 601
psychology and, 71–79
quantum effects on, 71, 71–72
quantum physics and, 63–64, 65–66
recorded evidence of, 586
reentrant pathways in, 56
relational, 153, 153
simulation evidence of, 586
spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy and, 227–228, 231
states of, 347–355, 350
terminology for, 74
thought and, creation of, 67
TNGS and, 56
universal features of, 67
WBT and, 231
consciousness, religion and, 39–40
academic criticism of, 39
for James, 39
Mysticism Scale, 40
theory of emotional experience and, 40
two-factor theory for, 40
consciousness-related anomalies, 283. See also psi phenomena
Conservative Protestants, 170
consumer movement, spirituality in, 411–413, 418–419
anti-psychiatry movement as, 412
content-filled states of consciousness, 351
content-less states of consciousness, 351–354
contentment, 444
conversion, religious experience and, 8–9
insecure attachment and, in adults, 89
for James, 9
to Protestant Christianity, 9
in psychology of religion, 14–15
spiritual development and, 208
coping strategies, religion and, 14, 38
diversity in spirituality and, 239
for physical health issues, 382
with positive emotions, 445
prejudice attitudes and, 98–99
resilience and, 442
for SMPs, 414–415
in spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy, 226
TEACH questionnaire, 459–460
Cottingham, John, 430
countertransference, 281
Crawford, Cindy, 543
Creative Personality Inventory (CPI), 192
creativity
CPI for, 192
definition of, 192
Motherhood of God and, 187
WomanSoul and, 192
for women, 191–192
crises of faith, 226–227. See also spiritual struggles
cross-cultural psychology, 322
cultural consciousness, 200–203
among African Americans, 201–202
divergent thinking from, 202
cultural imperialism, 198
through Western religions, 199–200
cultural psychology, religion and, 38
cultural resilience
through adaptation, 201
double consciousness from, among African Americans, 201
through revision, 201
spirituality and, 200–201
through subversion, 201
curanderismo, 198
healing through, 203
cycle of existence. See samsara
D
Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), 444–445
Dalai Lama, 313
Daly, Mary, 188, 188
dark energy, 52
Big Bang theory and, 66–67
in Dirac theory of matter creation, 577
Darwin, Charles, 69
inclusive fitness for, 141
Dass, Ram, 332
data, for psychology of religion, 41–43
with brain scanning, 42
through experimental approaches, 42
from first-person perspectives, 43
grounded theory methods for, 42–43
laboratory approach to, 42
qualitative, 42–43
through questionnaires, 41–42
social constructionism as influence on, 43
Davies, Paul, 67
Dawkins, Richard, 141
day of rest. See Shabbat
Dean, Douglas, 533
deconversion, from religion, 14–15
Deegan, Pat, 413
deep ecology, 604–605
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA Phantom Effect, 70
quantum effects on, 70
depression
Buddhist meditation for, 311
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for, 320
destiny motif
compulsive behaviors and, 295
ego development and, 294
in religious traditions, 294
the Self and, 294–296
symptoms in, 294–296
vocational change in, 294
development, conceptual definition of, 209–210
Dewey, John, 75
Dharmic Hinduism, 316
dhyānas (states of consciousness), 309
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), 335–336
dialogical pluralism, 32
Dick, Steven J., 49
Dieckman, Hans, 294
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 28
Dirac theory, of creation of matter, 577–579
dark energy in, 577
gravitational forces in, 578–579
discipline, religious orientation and, 155–156
Dittes, James, 12
(p. 619) diversity in spirituality, psychotherapy and, 237–238. See also spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy
APA ethical criteria for, 251
competency development for, 238–239
for coping strategies, 239
ethical violations and, 238
for healing strategies, 239
increased credibility and, among religious clients, 238–239
personal worldview compatibility and, 240
with theistic integrative psychotherapy, 240–242
treatment-approach selection, 239–240
DNA Phantom Effect, 70
donation behaviors, religious involvement and, 145
dopaminergic system, 492
Dossey, Larry, 605
double consciousness, of African Americans, 201
dreams, analysis of, 296–299
benefits of, 297
as diagnostically informative, 298
for Freud, 296
as indication of therapy prognosis, 298
nightmares, 298
recurrent, 298
series, 298–299
Drolma, Achi Chokyi, 191
Druze sect, 211
dualism, 224–225, 235
Du Bois, W.E.B., 201
duhkha (suffering), 308, 328
Dunne, Brenda, 279
Dusek, Jeffrey, 541
dynamic model of affect, 440
dynamic psychology, 9–10
dysfunctional spiritual beliefs, 415
Dyson, Freeman, 66
E
Eastern models, of spiritual development, 212–213, 242. See also specific religions
in Buddhism, 212
self-reflection as facet of, 212
in Shintoism, 212
spirituality within, 244
in Taoism, 213, 213
with Yogasutras, 213, 212–213
Eastern spiritual traditions. See also Buddhism; Confucianism, family concept within; Hinduism; Shintoism; Taoism; Zen Buddhism
definitions of, 343–344
early Buddhism, 344
human body in, 364–365
ecological-developmental biology, 71, 70–71
Eddy, Mary Baker, 186
Edelman, Gerald, 55–57
Edinger, Edward F., 298–299
Ego and Archetype; Individuation and the Religious Function of the Psyche (Edinger), 298–299
ego development, 294
Ego Resilience Scale, 446
Eight Point Program (EPP), 401–402, 403
electroencephalography (EEG), 510
Ellis, Albert, 258, 398, 419
embodied simulation, 276
embodied spirituality, 366–367. See also transpersonal psychology
Emmons, Robert, 85
emotions. See also positive emotions
dynamic model of affect for, 440
evolutionary perspective for, 394–395
physical health and, religiousness levels influenced by, 379, 382–384
positive, 434–435, 438
religion and, as psychological study, 38
in Taoism, dynamic flow of, 318
emotional compensation hypothesis, 89
emotional experience, theory of, 40
emotion-based religiosity scale (EBRS), 89
empathy
altruism and, 143, 143
IRI and, 143
emptiness, as concept in Buddhism, 280
The End of Materialism (Tart), 586
The End of Science (Horgan), 52
enlightenment
with residue, 354–355
without residue, 355
of Siddhārtha Gautama, 346
entailed assumptions, in PRS, 22
Entangled Minds (Radin), 283
entelechy, 292
epistemic values, 22
epistemic virtues, 22
epistemological assumptions
in hermeneutics, 30–31
limitations of, 24–25
in PN, 24–25
in PRS, 22
erotic love, 128
espiritismo, 203
essentialism. See individual essentialism
ethics
evolutionary, 604
in postmaterialist science, 602
in psychology, 391
ethical assumptions
in hermeneutics, 29–30
in PN, 25–26
in PRS, 22
Everett, Hugh, III, 52, 54
evil, 129–132
bipolar dimensions in, 126
in Buddhism, as concept, 129
in Christianity, as concept, 129, 131
emergent themes within, 129–130
as fragmentation, 131–132, 135
grandiose self-image and, 133–134
hate as embodiment of, 130, 133–134
in Hinduism, as concept, 129
by individuals, 130–131
in Islam, as concept, 129
in Judaism, as concept, 129
as possession, 131
Satanism and, 129
as subjective, 130
suffering as, psychological perspective of, 130–131
thematic constructs, 134
evolutionary ethics, 604
evolutionary psychology, religion and, 38
theology and, 44
evolutionary theory, 53
anomalies in, 601
quantum effects on, 69
experience, in postmaterialist science, 602
experiential avoidance, 336
explicate order, 67
extraneous prayer, 540
extrinsic religious orientation, 40, 86
as psychological model of spiritual development, 215
racial prejudice and, 98
F
failed prophecy, in cognitive dissonance theory, 11–12
religiosity after, 12
as social construction, 15
faith, 182–185
definition of, 182
maternal influences on, 182–183
as patriarchal, 182
faith development, 183–185
conjunctive stage of, 184
individuative-reflective stage, 183–184
intuitive-projective stage, 183
literal stage of, 183
psychotherapeutic applications for, 193
synthetic conventional stage, 183
universalizing stage of, 184–185
faith-specific therapies, 17
family psychotherapy, 460
family relationships, religion and. See also nontraditional families; parents; traditional families
as concept, 166
in Confucianism, as structural concept, 168
formation of, 168–169
future research for, 177–178
gender roles in, 169
in Hinduism, as structural concept, 168
(p. 620) in Judaism, as structural concept, 168–169
maintenance of, 169–170
maintenance of, by married couples, 170–171
through marriage, 169
between parent-children, 169–170
in Protestant Christianity, as structural concept, 168
relational spirituality and, 166, 178
religious familism, 165–166, 168, 169
religiousness as influence on, 171
family spirituality, 459–460
“Father Sergius” (Tolstoy), 429
The Favorite Fairytale of Childhood (Dieckman), 294
Fechner, Gustav, 560
feedback loops
consciousness and, 71
in levels of learning, 73
Feigl, Herbert, 23
females. See women
feminism
among African American females, 202–203
Goddess movement and, 187
mujerismo, 203
fertility goddesses
for ancient Hebrews, 188
women as, 187–188, 193
first-person perspectives, 43
Fisher, Daniel, 410–411
Five Factor Model (FFM) for personality, 86
agreeableness in, 90–91
ASPIRES Scale and, 105, 116–117
STS and, 106
Flournoy, Theodore, 288, 289, 296
folk healers, 203
folk Hinduism, 316
forgiveness, physical health influenced by, 382
Forman, Robert, 39
fossil gaps, as anomalies in evolutionary theory, 601
Fowers, Blaine, 426
Fowler, James, 140
Fox, Matthew, 458
fractured identity, from cultural oppression, 198–199
fragmentation, evil as, 131–132
in Christianity, 131
future research study for, 135
Frances of Assisi (Saint), 429
Frankl, Viktor, 456
Frankle, Estelle, 464
Freire, Paulo, 202
Freud, Sigmund, 288, 398
on Buddhist influences on psychotherapy, 329
dream analysis for, 296
dynamic psychology under, 9–10
James and, 10–11
Jung and, 289, 288–289
linking of religion and psychoanalysis by, 7, 9–10
on psi research, 273–274
on religion, 273
sexual theory, 289
on spirituality, 273
Friedman, Thomas L., 59
Fromm, Erich, 331, 331
Frost, Robert, 157
Full Catastrophe Loving (Kabat-Zinn), 333
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
during meditation, 508
during RSMEs, 505
fundamentalism. See religious fundamentalism
Future of an Illusion (Freud), 398
The Future of the Body (Murphy), 366
G
GABA neurotransmitter. See gamma aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter
Gadamer, H-G., 28
Gage, Fred, 72
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter, 492
Gariaev, P. P., 70
Gauld, A., 587
gender
attachment processes by, religiousness and, 90
conjunctive faith stage and, 184
in family relationships, 169
Godhood and, 187
human body and, spirituality and, 367
maternal instinct and, 143
patriarchal nature of religion and, 182
physical health and, religiousness as influence on, 379–380
in psychological models of spiritual development, 216
genetics. See behavior genetics
German experimental tradition, in psychology, 9
Gertrude of Helfta, 186
Geschwind syndrome. See interictal personality syndrome
girls
during conjunctive stage, of faith development, 184
maternal influences on faith, 182–183
glossolalia, 44
God
in Christian meditation, 314
the Self and, 292
Goddess movement, 187
Gödel's theorem, 71
God Hates Us All, 131
Godhood
gender considerations in, 187
purification procedures for women and, 187
God-image and self-esteem (GISE) study, 29
epistemological assumptions in, 30–31
ethical assumptions in, 29–30
in hermeneutics, 29
methodological assumptions in, 31
ontological assumptions in, 29
God-image formation (GIF) study, 29
epistemological assumptions in, 30–31
ethical assumptions in, 29–30
in hermeneutics, 29
methodological assumptions in, 31
ontological assumptions in, 29
Goleman, Daniel, 333
good. See also love
bipolar dimensions in, 126
bottom-up approach to, 125
definition of, 124–128
liberalism and, 127–128
libertarianism and, 128
in Moral Foundations Theory, 125
political conservatism and, 127–128
in Schwartz Value Survey, 127
self-transcendence and, 128–129
thematic constructs, 134
top-down approach to, 125
Gorusch, Richard, 27
The Gospel of the Buddha (Carus), 345
Goswamit, Amit, 66
gratitude, physical health influenced by, 382–383
gratuitous assumptions, in PRS, 22
gravitational forces, 578–579
Green, Alyce, 560
Green, Elmer, 560
Gregg-Schroeder, Susan, 413
Grinberg, Jacobo, 601
Gröning, Philip, 315
group processes, religion and, 38
Gurwitsch, Alexander, 535
Guth, Alan, 66
H
Hadot, Philippe, 430
Hainline, Ross, 300
Hall, G. Stanley, 8, 289
hands on healing. See healing with intent, studies in
Hansen, L. Sunny, 458
happiness, 430–431
Harris, William, 545
Hartle-Hawking theory, 65
Hassidism, 211
hate, evil and, 130
grandiose self-image and, 133–134
Hawkings, Stephen, 68
(p. 621) Heading Toward Omega (Ring), 523
healers, 541–543
form and ritual for, 542
healing, through spirituality, 549–550
with CAM, 203
through Candomblé, 203
consciousness and, applications for, 593–595
with curanderismo, 203
with espiritismo, 203
folk, 203
of human body, 368
as human desire, 375
in Native American spirituality, 203
peer-review literature for, 550
among people of color, 203
professional society support for, 550
with psychotherapy, 239
purpose of, 203
with Santeria, 203
through shamanism, 203
through syncretism of syncretism, 203
with Umbanda, 203
Western applications of, 203
healing with intent, studies in
for cancer in rats, 550–551
control group issues, 553–554
methodological implications in, 555
practitioner belief in, 551–553
resonant bonding in, 554–555
scientific implications of, 555–556
health. See physical health
heart rate coherence training, 369
heart rate variability (HRV), 371–372
hedonic treadmill effect, 433
Heisenberg, Werner, 52
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, 461
hermeneutics, 28–31
circle, 31
epistemological assumptions in, 30–31
ethical assumptions in, 29–30
GIF study on, 29
GISE study on, 29
individual essentialism and, 29
James’ influence on, 28
The Law of Three Stages and, 29
metaphysical assumptions in, 29
methodological assumptions in, 31
modern theoretical development of, 28
ontological assumptions in, 29
physicalist monism and, 29
rejection of expert objectivity and, 30–31
rejection of knowledge and, 30
Herrick, James A., 49
hidden variable theory, 64
Higgs boson, 53
Hillman, James, 417
Hinduism. See also yoga practices
Bhakti, 316
Dharmic, 316
evil as concept within, 129
family concept within, 168
feminine imagery in, 193
folk, 316
meditation in, 316–317
spirituality within, 244
types of, 316–317
Vedantic, 316
Vedic, 316
Yogic, 316, 316–317
hippocampus, activation of, 493
Hisbodedus meditative practices, 318
Hisbonenus meditative practices, 318
holism, 225
Holographic Principle, 69
Holy Spirit, 189–191
BARS for, 190
images of, 189–191
in ISAW, 190, 191
LCI study of, 190
At Home in the Universe (Kaufman), 70
homeopathy, 366
homosexuality. See also same-sex unions
intrinsic religious orientation and, 98
RF bias against, 97
Hood, Ralph, 7, 40
'd Hooft, Gerard, 68
hope, as evolutionary response, 394–395
Horgan, John, 52
Horney, Karen, 330–331
How God Changes Your Brain (Newberg/Waldman), 369
human agency
in theistic integrative psychotherapy, 241
in transpersonality, 200
human body, spirituality and
in Ayurveda, 364
in Buddhism, 365
cellular measures of, 373–374
CNS correlates, 372
conceptual relationship between, 363–367
in Eastern spiritual traditions, 364–365
effects of prayer, 369–370
feminine concepts of, 367
genetic measurements in, 373–374
with heart rate coherence training, 369
HRV and, 371–372
Judeo-Christian approaches to, 366
laying on of hands and, 369–370
neuroimaging for, 372–373
psychological markers of, 371–372
qi and, 364–365
with RR, 370
scientific technology and, 370
Shalom Process, 368–369
with spiritual healing, 368
stress response modulation and, 370–371
subjective measures for, 371
suffering and, measures of, 374
with TM, 369, 372
in transpersonal psychology, 366–367
as virtue, 367–368
vitalism and, 365–366
in Western spiritual traditions, 365–367
yoga and, 364
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 380, 395–396
humanity, 428
Hume, David, 426
Huntley, Harvey, Jr., 461
Huxley, Aldous, 510
Hyman, Ray, 536
hypercapnia, 515
hypothalamus, activation of, 493–494
hormone release during, 494
during meditation, 493–494
hypoxia, 515
I
The Idea of the Holy (Otto), 292
Ignatius of Loyola (Saint), 313, 315
illness as vocation, 296
imagination. See active imagination
Ima on the Bima (Portnoy), 184
implicate order, 67
Implicit Attitude Test (IAT), 99
inclusive fitness, 141
indigenous models, of spiritual development, 210–211
shamanism as, 210–211
individual essentialism, 26
hermeneutics and, 29
limitations of, 27
individuation process, 291–293
personal myth in, 291
the Self in, 291–292
individuative-reflective stage, of faith development, 183–184
insight
in Buddhist meditation, 309
in self-awareness, 75
Integrative Life Planning: Critical Tasks for Career Development and Changing Life Patterns (Hansen), 458
integrative medicine, 605–606
integrative-philosophical models, of spiritual development, 213–215
cultural-historical approach to, 214
levels in, 214–215
stages of, 213–214
integrative spiritually oriented psychotherapy, 262
intention. See also healing with intent, studies in; nonlocality, in prayer studies; prayer, healing through
four key experiments in, 567–572
future research applications of, 544–545
influence of, 534
Jung on, 536
negative, 541
observer effect and, 534
(p. 622) in psychoanalysis, 281
in self-awareness, 75
interictal personality syndrome, 502
intermediate space, the unconscious and, 275–276
mirror neurons and, 275–276
unmediated resonance in, 276
Internationale Gesellschaft für Religionspsychologie, 13
International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 37
interpersonal neurobiology, 337
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), 143
The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud), 288
intersubjective space, 283
intersubjective theories, of psychoanalysis, 274–275, 276–278
analytic third in, 275
case study of, 277–278
development of self in, 275
interventions, psychotherapeutic
accommodative, 262
assimilative, 261–262
collaborative, 262
outcome data for, 263–264
in psychology, spiritual and, 400–404
in psychotherapy, religious integration in, 261–264
selection factors for, 262–263
spiritual, 250–251, 261
in WBT, 230
interventions, spiritual, 445–446
Into Great Silence, 315
intrinsic religious orientation, 40, 86
anti-homosexual prejudice and, 98
as psychological model of spiritual development, 215
Introduction to Zen Buddhism (Suzuki), 329
intuition
definition of, 192
medical, 592–593
in WomanSoul, 192
in women, 192
intuitive-projective stage, of faith development, 183
Inventory on Spirituality, 189
Inventory on the Supreme and Work (ISAW), 190, 191
Irenacus, 186
Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century (Kelly/Kelly), 366
Islam. See also Sufism
evil as concept within, 129
five pillars of, 316
meditation in, 315–316
Qur'an and, 315–316
religious branches within, 316
spirituality within, 244
Tafakkur in, 316
as Western model of spiritual development, 211
J
Jainism, 244
James, William, 7, 9, 72, 145, 216. See also The Varieties of Religious Experience
on Buddhist influences on psychotherapy, 329
on childhood and adolescent religious development, 153
cognitive dissonance theory for, 11
consciousness from religion for, 39
conversion for, 9
experimental psychology for, 8
Freud and, 10–11
hermeneutics influenced by, 28
on interdisciplinary paradigms for psychology, 12
investigation of mediums by, 587–588
legitimization of religious experience, 458
PRS and, 21
psychology of religion for, 9, 398
psychology theory for, 72
on purpose of brain function, 510
reality of the unseen for, 272
religious experience defined by, 37–38
Janov, Arthur, 369
Jensen, Lone, 186–187
Jesus, the Christ, in Light of Psychology (Hall), 8
jhanas (states of consciousness), 347–355, 350
with content, 351
content-less, 351–354
John of the Cross (Saint), 313, 315
John Paul I (Pope), 186, 366
Jonas, Wayne, 543
Jones, Ernst, 10
Jourard, Sidney, 456
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 12
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 142
Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 13
Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 13
Journal of Personality, 85
Journal of Positive Psychology, 425
Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 37
Journal of Psychology and Theology, 37
joy, 444
Jud, Jerry, 368
Judaism, 38
altruism in, 138
Buddhist meditation and, 318
evil as concept within, 129
family structure as concept within, 168–169
Hassidism within, 211
Hisbodedus meditative practices, 318
Hisbonenus meditative practices, 318
Kabbalah in, 317–318
meditation practices in, 317–318
same-faith marriage and, 170
spirituality within, 244
Talmud, 317
as Western model spiritual development, 211
work and, 456
Julian of Norwich, 185–186
Jung, Carl, 67, 216, 289, 297. See also destiny motif; dreams, analysis of; Memories, Dreams, Reflections
academic influences on, 286
active imagination for, 290
on Buddhist influences on psychotherapy, 329–330
confrontation with the unconscious for, 290
dream analysis by, 287–288, 296–299
dual personalities of, during childhood, 288
early work, 286–290
family background, 287
Freud and, 289, 288–289
on Freudian sexual theory, 289
individuation process, 291–293
on intention, 536
libido transformation theory, 289
meaningfulness of life for, 290–291
on meaning of work, 456
mid-life experiences, 290–293
mid-life theory, 291
myth of man, 293
personal myth for, 290, 291, 293–294
psychology of religion for, 398
religion for, 287
on spirituality, 291, 292
on synchronicity, 299–302
theory of Psychological Types, 289–290
on the unconscious, 283
K
Kabat-Zinn, Jon, 333, 335
Kabbalah, 317–318
Kafatos, Manas, 69
Kaufman, Stuart, 70
Keats, John, 302
Kelly, E., 366
Kemp, Linda, 461
kibbutz movement, 139
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 138
knowledge acquisition. See also Logos pathway, for knowledge acquisition; materialist science; matter, creation of; Mythos pathway, for knowledge acquisition
CM paradigm for, 558–559
intention experiments in, 567–572
material parameters, by research discipline, 564
through scientific inquiry, 559–560
(p. 623) Koob, Andrew, 70
Kook, Abraham, 138
Kotchnig, Elined, 300
Kraepelin, Emil, 410
Krevsky, George, 302
Krieger, Dolores, 539
Kristeller, Jean, 403
Kuhn, Thomas, 59
kundalini energy, 217
Kunz, Dora, 539
L
Laing, R. D., 416
Lakatos, Imre, 59
Lao Tzu, 318
Lapdron, Machig, 191
Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 67
Latinos, spirituality among
animism and, 199
Candomblé, 198, 203
communal nature of, 202
curanderismo, 198, 203
espiritismo, 203
liberation through, 202
magical realism and, 200
mujerismo among, 203
Santeria, 198, 203
through syncretism, 198, 203
Latter Day Saints (LDS), 170
Laughlin, Robert, 68
on organizational system principles, 68
LaVey, Anton, 129
law of nature, 48–49
The Law of Three Stages, 26
hermeneutics and, 29
limitations of, 27
laying on of hands, 369–370. See also healing with intent, studies in
learning, levels of, 75–76, 73
feedback loops in, 73
meta-communication, 73–74
recursion in, 73
self-awareness and, 73–74
Leonard, Frank, 412
Leuba, James H., 8, 9
liberalism, morality and, 127–128
liberation
during Black theology movement, 202
for Latinos, through spirituality, 202
mujerismo and, among Latinas, 203
racial, for African Americans, 202
through spirituality, for people of color, 202–203
womanism and, among African American females, 202–203
libertarianism, morality and, 128
libido transformation theory, 289
Liebovici, Leonard, 534
Life Choices Inventory (LCI), 190
life span psychology, religion and, 38
limbic-marker hypothesis, 502
Lipton, Bruce, 70
literal stage, of faith development, 183
Logos pathway, for knowledge acquisition. See also materialist science
art-based technology in, 564
qualitative models in, 563
science-based technology in, 565
for scientific understanding, 561–565
Lord Kelvin. See Thompson, William
love
altruistic, 128, 132–133
definition of, 128–129
erotic, 128
as positive emotion, 443–444
self-transcendence and, 128
unconditional, during NDEs, 522–523
Lukoff, David, 413
Luther, Martin, 186, 312
M
madonnas, 191, 193
Black, 201
magical realism, 200
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 56–57
Maha Moggallana, 349
Mahayana Buddhism, 327
Maher, Michaeleen, 533
Mahler, Jay, 412, 413, 418
Main, John, 313, 314
males
attachment processes for, religiousness and, 90
in psychological models of spiritual development, 216
Man and His Symbols (Jung), 297
marital relationships
maintenance of, by married couples, 170–171
parent-child relationships and, 170–171
quality of, 170
marriage
family relationships through, 169
same-faith, 170
in traditional families, 170
Martin, Malachi, 131
Martin, Mike, 429
Marx, Karl, 599
Maslow, Abraham, 332, 603
on meaning of work, 456
mass energy consciousness, 565–566
mass energy information consciousness, 566
master virtues, 431–432
materialism. See also spiritual materialism
definition of, 585
mind-brain problem and, 585–586
materialistic perspective, in psychotherapy, 224–225, 234–235
materialist science. See also scientific method
anomalies in, 600–601
development history of, 599–600
as dogmatic, 600
limitations of, 599
modernism and, 599
paradoxes of, 600–601
religious tradition and, conflicts with, 600
rise of secularism and, 598
maternal instinct, 143
matter, creation of, 572–579
with Big Bang theory, 577–578
Dirac theory of, 577–579
quantum theories of, 572–577
RF in, 575
Mattis, Jacquie, 152
Maturana, Humberto, 74
May, Ed, 538
McCallie, David, 534
McConnell, Robert, 534
McCulloch, Warren, 596
McDaniel, Carl, 457
McLeod, Ken, 338
Mead, Margaret, 416
meaning of life, 258
medical intuition, 592, 592–593
medical model, for SMPs, 411
medicine, new technologies in, 361
meditation. See also Buddhist meditation; Christian meditation; neuroimaging, during meditation
amygdala activation during, 493–494
cingulate cortex activation through, 490–491
clinical applications for, 320–321, 337
in cross-cultural psychology, 322
future applications for, 319–322
in Hinduism, 316–317
Hisbodedus practices, in Judaism, 318
Hisbonenus practices, in Judaism, 318
hypothalamic activation during, 493–494
in Islam, 315–316
in Judaism, 317–318
in Kabbalah, 317–318
neuropsychological applications for, 320
new concepts in, 321–322
NIH studies on, 337
physiological effects of, 333
prayer through, 542
prefrontal cortex activation through, 490–491
psychotherapeutic applications for, 311, 319, 326–327
in Sufism, 316
in Taoism, 318–319
universality of, 307
in Zen Buddhism, 330
Mediumship and Survival: A Century of Investigations (Gauld), 587
Memories, Dreams, Reflections (Jung), 287, 289, 290
mental health, religion and, 13–14. See also serious mental problems
coping strategies and, 14
negative effects of, 396–397
mental health, religiousness and, 392
Mental Health Services Act, 418–419
Merton, Thomas, 313, 314
meta-communication, 73–74
Metal: A Headbanger's Journey, 131
metaphysical assumptions
in hermeneutics, 29
in PN, 26–27
in PRS, 22
meta-therapy, 333
methodological assumptions
in hermeneutics, 31
operationalization and, 23, 23–24
in PN, 23–24
in PRS, 22
Michelson, Albert, 51
mid-life theory, 291. See also destiny motif
millennium generation, 390–391
mindfulness
in Buddhist meditation, 310, 334
in cognitive therapies, 319, 320
definition of, 334
future research applications for, 320–321
as practice, 334
in Western psychology, 334
mindfulness, psychotherapy and, 333–336
from 1980–2000, 334–336
ACT, 336
in CBT, 334
contemporary applications of, 336
future applications for, 337–338
in MBSR programs, 335
well-being from, 337
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), 336
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs, 335
therapeutic applications, 335
miracles, 271–272
mirror neurons, 66
embodied simulation with, 275–276
models, conceptual definition of, 209
modernism, 599
modern physics, 51–53. See also quantum physics
black holes in, 68–69
consciousness and, as study subject, 54–55
dark energy, 52
Higgs boson, 53
Holographic Principle in, 69
with LHC, 67
particle physics, 53
pedagogy and, 77
physical constants in, 66
psychology and, 77
quantum mechanics in, 52, 54, 55
relativity theory in, 51–52
sense of wonder in, 53–54
Standard Model of Particle Physics, 52–53
string theory, 53
Moral Foundations Theory, 125
moral identity, 95
morality, through religion, 95–96. See also evil; good
in Buddhism, 308
in experimental studies, 95–96
liberalism and, 127–128
libertarianism and, 128
in Moral Foundations Theory, 125
political conservatism and, 127, 127–128
in psychological models of spiritual development, 215–216
in Schwartz Value Survey, 127
social desirability hypothesis and, 95
spirituality and, 96
in theistic integrative psychotherapy, 241
moral reasoning, 95
altruism and, 143–144
moral virtue, in Buddhism, 308
Morita, Shoma, 330
Morita therapy, 330
Morley, Edward, 51
Mormonism. See Latter Day Saints
Mosher, Loren, 417
mothers
faith influenced by, 182–183
during intuitive-projective stage of faith development, 183
during literal stage of faith development, 183
during synthetic conventional stage, of faith development, 183
Motherhood of God, 185–187, 193
in Buddhism, 186
creativity influenced by, 187
early believers in, 186
fertility goddesses and, 187–188
motivational interviewing, 428
motives
in ASPIRES Scale, 107–108
in STS, 107–108
Muhammad, Elijah, 202
mujerismo, 203
Murphy, Michael, 366
Murray, Kelly, 162
mysticism
chemically-facilitated, 15–16
non-chemically facilitated, 16
psychedelic drugs and, 16
Mysticism Scale, 16, 40
myths. See also personal myth
of man, 293
of pure evil, 130–131
Mythos pathway, for knowledge acquisition, 558, 565–567
mass energy consciousness in, 565–566
mass energy information consciousness in, 566
N
Nadeau, Robert, 69
Nanotechnology, 78
Nash, Carroll, 539
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), 413
National and International Religion Report, 185
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 470–471
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 337
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 157
Native Americans, spirituality among, 197
as culturally relevant, 199–200
healing activities in, 203
universal interconnectedness in, 200
naturalism. See also positivistic naturalism
in PRS, 23
natural theology, 43–44
Nature, 64
Nazianzus, Gregory, 186
near death experiences (NDEs), 363
as challenge to materialist reductionism, 524
Christianity and, 521–522
common components of, 515
criteria for, 514–515
definition of, 514
explanatory models of, 515–516
future research directions for, 523–525
historical research on, 514
hypercapnia as cause of, 515
hypoxia as cause of, 515
neurotransmitters as causes of, 516
paradox of, 601
pharmacological causes of, 515–516
phenomenology of, 515
prior religiosity and, 517–518
psychological models for, 516
in religious traditions, 521
REM intrusion and, 516
RSMEs and, 509–510, 516–517
as spiritual catalyst, 523
subsequent religiosity after, 518–520
technological influences on, 523
theological implications of, 520–523
unconditional love felt during, 522–523
negative energy. See dark energy
negative intention, as nocebo effect, 541
negative prayer, 541
nocebo effect, 541
Ness, Arne, 605
(p. 625) neurobiological models, of spiritual development, 217
kundalini energy and, 217
neuroimaging, during meditation, 506–508
with fMRI, 508
with PET, 507
with SPECT, 507–508
neuroimaging, during RSMEs, 503–506
development of, as discipline, 500–501
with fMRI, 505
future research applications for, 510
as measuring tool, 372–373
with PET, 504
with SPECT, 504–505
neuroplasticity, in brain function, 72
neuroscience, RSMEs and, 508–510
new age religions. See spirituality
Newberg, Andrew, 369
new careering, 461
nightmares, 298
nihilism, 130
nocebo effect, 541
non-chemically facilitated mysticism, 16
nonlocality, in prayer studies, 532–534
agent of action and, 537–539
blindness as variable in, 536–539
dosage variables, 535–536
observer-expectancy effects for, 532–534
randomization in, 536–539, 540
time variables, 534–535
The Non-local Universe (Nadeau/Kafatos), 69
nontraditional families
adults without children, 176
cohabiting heterosexual unions, 173–175
divorced adults with children, 176
religion in, 171–176
same-sex unions, 172–173
single parenthood, 175–176
O
objective consciousness, 65. See also quantum physics
objective psyche, 290
observer effect, 534
Occhino, Mary, 593
“Ode to a Grecian Urn” (Keats), 302
Offer, Avner, 432
On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena (Jung), 288
ontological assumptions
in hermeneutics, 29
in PN, 26–27
in PRS, 22
ontological claims, in psychology of religion, 13, 16–17
openness, 96–97. See also prejudice, religion and
religiousness and, 96–97
spirituality and, 96
operationalization, 23
limitations of, 23–24
oppression, spirituality among peoples of color and, 198, 198–200
attachments as result of, 198
contemporary, 199
through cultural imperialism, 198
fractured identity as result of, 198–199
through racial microaggressions, 199
skin color and, 198
soul wounds from, 199
optimism, spirituality and, 58
optimistic “law” of big numbers, 48–51
aging world population as influence on, 50
analysis of, 49–50
assumed law of nature in, 48–49
corollaries in, 48–49
foundations for, 50–51
religious disappointment as influence on, 50
scientific progress as influence on, 50–51
technological progress as influence on, 51
The Order of Cistercians, 313–314
organizational psychology, religion and, 38
organizational systems, principles of, 68
Origen, 186
Orthodox Jews, career limitations for, 463
Osis, Karlis, 533
Otto, Rudolf, 292, 536
P
Padmasambhava, 328–329
Pali Canon, 328
paradigm shifts
in psychotherapy, 223–231, 224
in scientific discovery, 595
in spirituality, tangibility of, 595
parapsychology, 17
spiritualism and, 17
parents. See also mothers; single parenthood
in family relationships, 169–170
parent-child conversations about religion, 154–155
religious conflicts with children, 160
sanctification, 156
as spiritual ambassadors, 154
in traditional families, parent-child relationship formation, 170
parental-based socialization of religiosity (PBRS) model, 88
parent-child conversations, about religion, 154–155
parent-centered, 155
youth-centered, 155
parent-child relationships
within families, 169–170
formation of, 170
marital relationship as influence on, 170–171
Parson, Talcott, 12
Parsons, Frank, 456–457
particle physics, 53
Patanjali, 212
patriarchy
female conflicts with, during conjunctive faith stage, 184
in religious structure, 182
Pauli, Wolfgang, 67
pedagogy
modern physics and, 77
psychology and, 77
Penrose, Roger, 65, 71, 600
people of color, spirituality among. See also African Americans; Asian Americans, spirituality among; healing, through spirituality; Latinos, spirituality among; Native Americans, spirituality among; oppression, spirituality among peoples of color and
as collective unconsciousness, 198
cultural consciousness in, 200–203
as culturally relevant, 199–200
cultural resilience from, 200–201
with histories of oppression, 198–200
immigration as influence on, 198
liberation through, 202–203
main characteristics of, 204
psychological needs addressed by, 199
as source of healing, 197
transpersonality in, 200
personality, religion and, 38. See also attachment processes, religiousness and; behavior genetics, religiousness and; Five Factor Model for personality; prosociality, religion and
age as influence on, 87
agreeableness and, 90–91, 93–94
conscientiousness, 94–95
CPI for, 192
external religiousness and, 87–88
FFM, 105
internal religiousness and, 87–88
morality, 95–96
prejudice and, 96–97
religious orientation, 86
Schwartz Value Survey, 86
self-control, 94–95
theistic integrative psychotherapy and, 241
trait pathways, 90
traits as influence on, 86
values as influence on, 86
(p. 626) personal meaning, 439
resilience and, 441–442
personal myth, 290, 293–294
in individuation process, 291
after SMPs, 418
Peterson, C., 228
photosynthesis, 70
physical health, religiousness and
coping strategies for, 382
emotions as influence on, 379, 382–384
forgiveness as influence on, 382
future research on, 384–385
by gender, 379–380
gratitude as influence on, 382–383
HIV and, 380
individual differences in, 384–385
as influence on, 380–381
life expectancy and, 392–393
measurement challenges for, 385
methodological issues for, 395–396
model for, 381–384
negative effects, 380, 383, 396–397
positive affect as influence on, 383, 384
positive psychology and, 394
for posttraumatic growth, 383
recursive relationship between, 384
religiosity and, 379–381
through social structures, 393–394
spirituality and, 379–381
treatment adherence and, 380
physicalist monism, 26
hermeneutics and, 29
limitations of, 26–27
physical laws, paradox of, 600–601
Pickering, Alan, 535
Planck, Max, 573
political conservatism, morality and, 127–128
traditionalism and, 127
Poponin, Vladimir, 70
Porter, Nicole, 462
Portnoy, Mindy, 184
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 438
positive emotions, 434–435
broaden-and-build theory for, 440
constructs in, 438–439
coping measures, 445
definition of, 438
DSES for, 444–445
dynamic model of affect for, 440
future research applications for, 446, 448–450
love as, 443–444
measurement methodology for, 444
PANAS and, 438
personal meaning and, 439
posttraumatic growth and, 439
purpose of life and, 439
religious involvement measures and, 445
resilience and, 446–450
spirituality and, 443–446
spiritually-oriented interventions, 445–446
two-factor model for, 439–440
positive psychology
affluence and, 432–434
classification of, 425–426
clinical responses, 427–428
conscientiousness in, 428
development of, 228, 425–426
early foundations for, 426
facts and values in, 426–427
happiness in, 430–431
humanity in, 428
instrumentalism in, 430
literature on, 432
meaning-making in, 428–430
motivational interviewing in, 428
new therapy development within, 229–230
physical health and, 394
positive emotions in, 434–435
positive psychotherapy and, 229
psychology of myopia and, 432–434
public response to, 426
recovery of virtue as part of, 228–229
Values in Action Inventory for, 428
virtue ethics in, 426–432
WBT and, 229–230
positive psychotherapy, 229
consciousness levels in, 231
positive youth development, 468–471
awareness measures in, 479–480
community involvement in, 475–476
conceptual definition of, 470
core constructs of, 470
cross-cultural viability of, 480, 481–482
cultural narrowness in extant research, 481
design processes for, 471
developmental assets in, 471, 472–473, 475–476
developmental pathopsychology compared to, 471
engagement capacity in, 474–475
future research applications for, 481–482
long-range implications of, 469
measurement criteria for, 481
NICHD and, 470–471
psychology of religion and, 481
research themes for, 474–478
resilience as construct in, 477
risk behaviors and, 476–477
scope of, 468–469
success criteria for, 469
theoretical approaches to, 478–481
thriving indicators with, 477–478
positivism, 23
positivistic naturalism (PN), 23–28
epistemological assumptions in, 24–25
ethical assumptions in, 25–26
individual essentialism in, 26, 27
instrumental view of science in, 25
The Law of Three Stages in, 26, 27
limitations of, 27–28
metaphysical assumptions in, 26–27
methodological assumptions in, 23–24
naturalism in, 28
ontological assumptions in, 26–27
operationalization in, 23–24
physicalist monism and, 26–27
scientific method and, 27, 28
positron emission tomography (PET)
during meditation, 507
during RSMEs, 504
Post, Stephen, 367
postmaterialistic psychology, 224–225
postmaterialist science, 601–603
CAM and, 602
downward causation in, 601
ethics in, 602
evolving capacity for supramental in, 602
function of experience in, 602
role of consciousness in, 601
transpersonal psychology within, 602
post-secularism, 603
posttraumatic growth, 383, 439
prayer
agent of action in, 537–539
blindness as variable in, 536–539
dosage variables, 535–536
extraneous, 540
harm from, 539–540
healing through, 369–370
through meditation, 542
negative, 541
observer-expectancy effects for, 532–534
psychological factors, 540–541
randomization in, 536–539, 540
STEP for, 531–532
study criteria for, 543–544
time variables, 534–535
prefrontal cortex, activation of, 490–491
through meditation, 490–491
neurochemical effects of, 494–495
prejudice, religion and, 11, 96–99. See also racism
anti-homosexual, 97, 98
authoritarianism and, 11
during childhood and adolescent religious development, 158
coping theory and, 98–99
extrinsic religiousness and, 98
future research applications for, 99–100
IAT for, 99
in intrinsic religiousness, 98
orientation influences on, 11
as personality trait, 96–97
(p. 627) quest religiousness and, 97–98
research trends for, 98–99
RF and, 97
Priestly, Joseph, 30
Princeton Engineering Anomalies (PEAR) studies, 279
Principles of Psychology (James), 9
The Principles of Psychology (James), 72
probability distribution, in quantum physics, 64
prosociality, religion and, 91–94, 144. See also altruism
aggressive retaliatory behaviors and, 92–93
from childhood religious development, 159
experimental evidence for, 92
limits of, 92–94
observer reports of, 91
priming methods for, 92
projective methods for, 92
spirituality and, 93–94
as tribal, 93
universal, 93
vengefulness and, 92–93
Protestant Christianity, 312
conversion to, 9
family as concept within, 168
psychology of religion influenced by, 8
as Western model of spiritual development, 212
psilocybin, 16
psi phenomena
clairvoyance, 272
Freud on, 273–274
intersubjective space and, 283
PEAR studies, 279
psychoanalysis influenced by, 280–281
psychokinesis, 272, 280
quantum space and, 279–280
research on, 279–280
the Source and, 280
spiritual space and, 279–280
superordinate space and, 279–280
telepathy, 272
the unconsciousness and, 272–273
PSPL deafferentation, 492–493
psychedelic drugs, mysticism and, 16
psilocybin, 16
psychoanalysis
academic identity crisis of, 280–281
attunement in, 281–282
countertransference in, 281
criticism of, 10
cultural influence of, 10
decline in religion influenced by, 10
as dynamic psychology, 9–10
female faith development and, 193
future directions of, 280–283
Hindu Indian spirituality in, 193
influence in, 281
intention in, 281
intersubjective theories of, 274–275, 276–278
non-neutrality in, 281
personality of analyst as influence on, 282
psi influence on, 280–281
psychology of religion and, 9–10
religion and, 7, 9–10
resonance in, 281–282
scientific testing of, 10
Sufi philosophy in, 193
Sufism and, comparative considerations of, 316
telepathy in, 274, 274
time and, 282–283
two-person, 275, 276
the unconscious in, 273–274
psychoanalytic movement, early, 286–287
psychokinesis, 272, 280
psychological models, of spiritual development, 215–217
extrinsic religion in, 215
Freudian approach in, 216
as gender-biased, 216
intrinsic religion in, 215
morality in, 215–216
seven universal stages in, 216
transpersonal, 216–217
Psychological Types, theory of, 289–290
psychologists
religiosity of, 397–398
spiritual traditions and, therapeutic applications for, 400–401
Psychologists Interested in Religious Issues (PIRI), 7
psychology. See also positive psychology; transpersonal psychology
clinical, 44
cognitive, 38
consciousness and, 71–79
cross-cultural, 322
cultural, 38
diversity awareness in, 391
dualism in, 224–225, 235
dynamic, 9–10
emotion and, 38
ethics in, 391
evolutionary, 38, 44
German experimental tradition, 9
as hard science discipline, 398
holism in, 225
interdisciplinary integration within, 37
James theory for, 72
life span, 38
materialistic perspective in, 224–225, 234–235
mindfulness as concept in, 334
modern physics and, 77
as natural science, 10
organizational, 38
pedagogy and, 77
postmaterialistic perspective in, 224–225, 235–236
reductionism in, 224–225
religion and, as research study, 36–38
shadow culture in, 9
of spirituality, 225–226
transpersonal, 216, 216–217, 337
psychology, spirituality and
academic forefathers and, 398
barriers to, 397–400
in care giving, 401–402
empirical support for, 402
EPP in, 401–402, 403
future research applications, 404–406
institutional support for, 399
interdisciplinary benefits from, 399–400
intervention implementation, 400–404
spiritual inquiry in, 402–404
tools and principles for, 401
virtues in, 405
Psychology of Judaism, 38
psychology of myopia, 432–434
psychology of religion. See also data, for psychology of religion; taxonomies, in psychology of religion
for Allport, 398
applications for, 44–45
authoritarianism in, 14
for chemically-facilitated mysticism, 15–16
in clinical psychology, 44
cognitive dissonance as theme in, 15
conversion themes in, 14–15
coping strategies and, 14
for dangerous religious forms, 45
deconversion themes in, 14–15
development of, as academic field of study, 7, 36
early history for, 8–12
faith selectivity limitations, in data, 38–39
faith-specific therapies and, 17
funding agency support for, 17–18
future research prospects for, 16–18
geographic limitations, in data, 38
German experimental tradition and, 9
glossolalia in, 44
for healthy religious processes, 45
interdisciplinary associations, 12–13
interdisciplinary paradigms for, 12
for James, 9, 398
journals on, 37
for Jung, 398
mental health and, 13–14
nomenclature for, development of, 7–8
for non-chemically facilitated mysticism, 16
ontological claims in, 13, 16–17
(p. 628) paradigmatic assumptions in, 43
parapsychology and, 17
positive youth development and, 481
prejudice in, 11
Protestant Christianity as influence on, 8
psychoanalysis and, 7, 9–10
psychology of spirituality and, 39
reemergence of, in U.S., 12–16
relational models for, as future focus, 59–60
religious orientation and, 14
for RF, 14
scriptural text in, as point of view, 44
social constructionism as influence on, 43
sociology of religion and, 44
spiritualism and, 8
themes in, 13–16
theology and, 43–44
The Psychology of Religion, 15
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 13, 37
psychology of religion and spirituality (PRS). See also hermeneutics; positivistic naturalism
definitions in, 21–22
dialogical pluralism and, 32
discovery in, 22
entailed assumptions in, 22
epistemic values, 22
epistemic virtues, 22
epistemological assumptions in, 22
ethical assumptions in, 22
future applications, 31–32, 58–59, 60
gratuitous assumptions in, 22
individual essentialism in, 26, 27
The Law of Three Stages in, 26, 27
metaphysical assumptions in, 22
methodological assumptions in, 22
naturalism in, 23
ontological assumptions in, 22
overview of, 21
positivism in, 23
scientific epistemological cycle in, 22
theoretical needs in, 31–32
traditional research programs in, 23–27
undetermination in, 22
psychology of spirituality, 39
The Psychology of the Unconscious (Jung), 289, 296
psychospiritual, 362–363
psychotherapists
across-faith issues for, with clients, 266–267
client autonomy and, 259–260
competence of, 260–261, 263
diversity sensitivity for, 261
faith disclosure by, 266
influence on clients, 260, 265
multiple role relationships for, with clients, 265
same-faith issues for, with clients, 265–266
spiritually-oriented interventions by, 261
psychotherapy, Buddhism and
from 1900–1950, 329–330
from 1950–1960, 330–331
from 1960–1980, 331–333
APA guidelines for, 333
Freud on, 329
James on, 329
Jung on, 329–330
meditative applications, 311, 319, 326–327
meta-therapy, 333
self-awakening therapy, 331
Zen Buddhism, 330–331
psychotherapy, religion and. See also diversity in spirituality, psychotherapy and; spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy; theistic integrative psychotherapy; universal spirituality, psychotherapy and
accommodative approaches to, 262
across-faith issues in, 266–267
approach criteria with, selection factors, 262–263
assimilative approaches to, 261–262
autonomy of clients within, 259–260
Behavior Therapy, 224
benefits of, 264–265
Buddhist meditation and, 311, 319
client welfare in, 257–259
cognitive revolution in, 223–224
cognitive therapy, 224
collaborative approaches to, 262
competency development in, 230–231
competency of therapists in, 260–261, 263
dualism in, 224–225, 235
empirical support for, 264
family, 460
future research directions for, 267–268
future training applications for, 268
healing through spirituality with, 239
holism in, 225
intervention approaches, 261–264
limitations of, 265–266
materialistic perspective in, 224–225, 234–235
outcome data for, 263–264
overgeneralization of religion and spirituality in, 256–257
paradigm shift in, 223–231, 224
positive, 229
postmaterialistic perspective, 224–225, 235–236
psychopathological focus in, 226–228
reductionism in, 224–225
religion as cultural issue in, 256–261
same-faith issues in, 265–266
spirituality as cultural issue in, 256–261
therapist influence in, 260
psychotic experiences, spiritual content in, 413
purpose of life, 439
Putnam, Hilary, 346
Q
qi, human body and, 364–365
qigong, 213
Quakers, 313
quantum physics, 52. See also anthropic principle; biological systems, quantum effects in
Bell's Theorem, 64
Big Bang theory and, 65
black holes in, 68–69
consciousness and, 63–64, 65–66
creation of matter in, 572–577
entanglement in, 52
explicate order and, 67
Hartle-Hawking theory and, 65
hidden variable theory, 64
information assessment in, 65
organizational system principles in, 68
paradoxes in, 600
phase transitions in, 68
physical constants in, 66
predictive power of, 69
probability distribution in, 64
quantum tunneling and, 64–65
reflective thinking and, 63–64
religious belief and, 65–66
systems perspective in, 67–68
technological dependence on, 63
uncertainty principle in, 64
wave function collapse in, 52
quantum space, 279–280
quantum tunneling, 64–65
quest religiousness, 86
prejudice and, 97–98
Qur'an, 315–316
R
racism
extrinsic religiousness and, 98
RF and, 97
radical Islam, 45
Radin, Dean, 283, 538, 603
Ragins, Mark, 411
Rand, Ayn, 128
rapid eye movement (REM) intrusion, 516
Rayburn, C.A., 192, 192
reality of the unseen, 272. See also the unconscious
recovery model
medical model compared to, 411
for schizophrenia, 410
for SMPs, 410–411
spirituality as influence within, 414–416
(p. 629) recurrent dreams, 298
recursion, in levels of learning, 73
reductionism, 224–225
reference frames, 575
reflecting on the universe. See Tafakkur
reflection, in self-awareness, 75, 77
reflective thinking, quantum physics and, 63–64
Reiki study, 593–594
relational consciousness, 153, 153
Relational Frame Theory (RFT), 336
relational spirituality
conceptualization of, 167
family relationships and, 166, 178
relativity theory, 51–52
Relaxation Response (Benson), 542
relaxation response (RR), 370
religions. See also altruism; consciousness, religion and; Eastern models, of spiritual development; evil; failed prophecy, in cognitive dissonance theory; family relationships, religion and; good; personality, religion and; prejudice, religion and; prosociality, religion and; psychology of religion; psychology of religion and spirituality; psychotherapy, religion and; religious orientation; religious values; specific religions
agreeableness from, 90–91, 93–94
altruistic love and, 128, 132–133
attachment processes and, 38
behaviorism and, 39
cognitive psychology and, 38
common virtues among, 125, 125
community benefits from, 393
conceptualization of, 38–39, 123–124, 139–140, 166–167
conscientiousness as value, 94–95
coping strategies and, 14, 38
counseling resources in, 258
cultural imperialism through, 199–200
as cultural issue, in psychotherapy, 256–261
as culturally specific, 39
cultural psychology and, 38
decline of, psychoanalysis as influence on, 10
deconversion from, 14–15
definitions of, 124, 185, 389
destiny motif within, 294
disappointment in, in contemporary culture, 50
diversity awareness for, 391
donation behaviors and, 145
emotions and, as psychological study, 38
empirical perspectives on, 140
epidemiological studies on, 257–258
etymological perspective, 139
evolutionary psychology and, 38, 44
female virginity in, 187
five moral foundations for, 126
Freud on, 273
group processes and, 38
Jung and, 287
life span psychology and, 38
materialist science and, conflicts with, 600
as meaning-making, 428–430
meaning of life through, 258
mental health and, 13–14
morality through, 95–96
NDEs within, 521
negative outcomes from, 146, 259
in nontraditional families, 171–176
openness and, 96–97
organizational psychology and, 38
overgeneralization of, in psychotherapy, 256–257
parent-child conversations about, 154–155
as patriarchal, 182
personality and, 38
poor health outcomes with, 259
positive dimensions of, 257–258
positive emotions and, 434–435
prejudice and, 11
as primary activity, 37–38
psychoanalysis and, 7, 9–10
psychology and, in research study, 36–38
quantum physics and, 65–66
as quest, 86
within same-sex unions, 172–173
science fiction and, 48–50
self-control as value, 94, 94–95
social constructionism as influence on, 43
as social network, 258
sociology of, 44
spiritual failure and, 259
spirituality as replacement for, 50–51, 55
spirituality compared to, 139–140
spirituality within, 244
theistic, 242
within traditional families, 170–171
universality of, 140
value categories for, 126
religiosity, 185–188. See also physical health, religiousness and
community benefits of, 393
definition of, 185
EBRS, 89
after failed prophecy, in cognitive dissonance theory, 12
of females, 185
life expectancy increases and, 392–393
mental health and, 392
Motherhood of God and, 185–187
NDEs influenced by, 517–518, 518–520
PBRS model, 88
of psychologists, 397–398
with SMPs, 413–414
spirituality compared to, 207–208
in U.S., 255–256
religious drifting, 89
religious experience, 86. See also conversion, religious experience and
defined by James, 37–38
extrinsic, 40, 86, 98
intrinsic, 40, 86, 98
religious familism, 165–166, 168, 169
religious fundamentalism (RF)
belief content of, 97
belief style of, 97
homosexual bias in, 97
prejudice and, 97
psychology of religion, 14
racist attitudes and, 97
religious institutions, flaws of, 208
religiousness. See religiosity
religious orientation, 14. See also adolescence, religious development during; childhood, religious development during; faith development; personality, religion and; religious values
extrinsic, 40, 86, 98, 215
faith-specific therapies, 17
intrinsic, 40, 86, 98, 215
parental discipline and, 155–156
prejudice influenced by, 11
religion as quest in, 86, 97–98
religious phenomena, 41
religious prejudice, 158
Religious Problem Solving Scale, 415
Religious Research Association, 12
Religious Society of Friends, 313
religious-spiritual-mystical experiences (RSMEs). See also brain functions, during RSMEs; neuroimaging, during RSMEs
limbic-marker hypothesis for, 502
neuroimaging studies of, 503–506
neuroscience and, 508–510
subjectivity of, 508–509
temporal lobe stimulation during, 502–503
TLE and, 501–502
religious studies. See theology
religious values
agreeableness as, self-reports, 91
conscientiousness as, 94–95
epistemic, 22
personality influenced by, 86
Schwartz Value Survey, 86
self-control as, 94–95
traditionalism and, 95, 127
REM intrusion. See rapid eye movement intrusion
resilience
Brief Resilience Scale, 446–447
broaden-and-build theory for, 440
(p. 630) CD-RISC, 446
constructs in, 438–439
coping strategies and, 442
definition of, 438
dynamic model of affect for, 440
Ego Resilience Scale, 446
future research on, 443, 448–450
live values and, 441
personal meaning and, 439, 441–442
positive emotions and, 447–448, 446–450
in positive youth development, 477
posttraumatic growth and, 439
purpose of life and, 439
relationships and, 440–441
research limitations on, 442–443
Resilience Scale, 446
spirituality and, 440–443
two-factor model for, 439–440
Resilience Scale, 446
resonance, in psychoanalysis, 281–282
resonant bonding, in healing with intent studies, 554–555, 555
Revelation of Love (Julian of Norwich), 185–186
Review of Religious Research, 12
Reynolds, Pam, 509, 509
NDE of, 509–510
Ricoeur, Paul, 28
Ring, K., 523
Rinpoche, Gochen Tulku, 191
Robert of Molesme, 313
Rolland, Romain, 273
Roman Catholicism, 312
same-faith marriage in, 170
S
Sabom, Michael, 509
sacraments, in Christianity, 312
the sacred, 390
Saddhatissa, H., 347
Sagan, Carl, 596
same-faith marriage, 170
same-sex unions, 172–173
formation of, 172
maintenance of, 172–173
samsara (cycle of existence), 327–328
sanctification, as concept
for children and adolescents, 153
of parents, 156
sangomas, 211
Santeria, 198
healing through, 203
The Satanic Bible (LaVey), 129
Satanism, 129
Sato, Koji, 332
satori (way of experiencing oneself), 332
schizophrenia, recovery model for, 410
Schlitz, Marilyn, 533
Schlossberg, Nancy, 464
Schmeidler, Gertrude, 533, 534
Schore, Allan, 276
Schrödinger, Erwin, 52
Schultz, Johannes, 560
Schwartz, Gary, 535
Schwartz, J. M., 71
Schwartz Value Survey, 86
morality values in, 127
science. See also biology; materialist science; modern physics; particle physics; postmaterialist science
sense of wonder in, 53–54
spirituality as replacement for religion influenced by, 55
science fiction. See also optimistic “law” of big numbers
mythology in, 48
religion and, 48–50
themes in, 48
scientific epistemological cycle, 22
scientific method
PN and, 27, 28
religion and, as primary activity, 37–38
scriptural text, as psychological point of view, 44
Searle, John, 600
secularism, rise of, 598
segregation principle, 510
the Self
destiny motif and, 294–296
development of, 275
God and, for Jung, 292
in individuation process, 291–292
self-awakening therapy, 331
self-awareness, 72–79
attention and, 74, 76
attraction-aversion distraction cycle, 76
ground of awareness in, 74
insight in, 75
intention in, 75
levels of learning and, 73–74
object in, 74, 76–77
practice of, 75, 76
reflection in, 75, 77
subject in, 74, 76–77
witness capacity of, 76
self-control, 94–95
affluence and, 433, 434
conscientiousness and, 94–95
spirituality and, 96
self-esteem, religiousness and, 88–89
Self-Expansiveness Level Form (SELF), 216–217
selflessness, in spirituality, 188–189
self-transcendence
elevation from, 133
good and, 128–129
love and, 128
Seligman, Martin, 228, 228
Selye, Hans, 370
serious mental problems (SMPs)
coping strategies for, 414–415
dysfunctional spiritual beliefs and, 415
medical model for, 411
personal mythology readjustments after, 418
recovery model for, 410–411
reflection phase for, 417–418
religiosity levels in patients, 413–414
Religious Problem Solving Scale, 415
as route to spirituality, 413
Soteria programs for, 417
spirituality incorporated into, 410
tracing of heritage for, 418
treatment strategies for, 416–417
serotonergic activity, 495–496
Sexton, Virginia, 7
Shabbat (day of rest), 317
shadow culture, 9
Shalom Process, 368–369
shamanism, 203
as indigenous model of spiritual development, 210–211
as path of community service, 211
sangomas and, 211
sheep/goat effect, 534
Sheldrake, Rupert, 535, 600
Shintoism, 212
spirituality within, 244
Siddhārtha Gautama
early years of, 345
eightfold path for, 308, 347
enlightenment of, 346
as founder of Buddhism, 307–308, 327–328
four noble truths for, 308, 346–347
spiritual inquiry of, 344–346
spiritual method of, 346–347
spiritual teachers for, 345–346
Siegel, Daniel, 337
Sikhism, 244
single parenthood, 175–176
career development and, 463
formation of, 175
maintenance of, 175–176
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
during meditation, 507–508
during RSMEs, 504–505
singularity problem, in Big bang theory, 66
Skinner, B.F., 72, 398
Smith, Adam, 606
Smith, Clyde, 302
Smith, Esther, 302
Smith, Huston, 400
Smith, Justa, 539
Smith, Susy, 589
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, 161
(p. 631) social constructionism, 43
social desirability hypothesis, 95
social-ecology approach, to religious development, 153
among African Americans, 156
children as spiritual emissaries in, 154
cultural influences on, 154, 157–158
family structure as influence in, 154
macrosystems in, 153
mesosystems in, 153
microsystems in, 153
multiple variables in, 155–156
parental discipline in, 155–156
parent-child conversations in, 154–155
peer influences on, 156–157
religious prejudice and, 158
sanctification of parental role in, 156
sibling influences on, 157
transactional models in, 153–154
social interactionism, 44
social networking, through religious/spiritual affiliations, 258
Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, 12
Society of Behavioral Medicine, 399
sociology of religion, 44
Sojourners, 127–128
Sorokin, Pitrim, 12, 17
Soteria programs, 417
soul, scientific meaning of, 591
soul wounds, 199
the Source, 280
space-time causality, 67
speaking in tongues. See glossolalia
Spetzler, Robert, 509
spirits, 188
in daily life, practical role for, 591–593
NDEs and, 363
as physical concept, 363
scientific meaning of, 591
Spirit Partnership (SP) hypothesis, 592
in medical intuition, 592–593
spiritual activism, 598–599, 603–604
social change from, 606–607
Spiritual Awareness Psychotherapy, 193. See also spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy
spiritual awareness psychotherapy (SAP), 460
spiritual but not religious, identification as, 390, 406
spiritual development, models of. See also adolescence, religious development during; childhood, religious development during; Eastern models, of spiritual development; psychological models, of spiritual development; Western models, of spiritual development
awareness measures in, 479–480
barriers identification in, 217
belief organization within, 210
conceptual definitions in, 207–210
conversion and, 208
cross-cultural viability of, 480
defined end purposes in, 209–210
definition criteria for, 478, 479
five-factor model, 208
future research directions for, 218
horizontal, 207
indigenous, 210–211
integrative-philosophical, 213–215
interdisciplinary approach to, 471–474
as interpersonal, 209
as intrapersonal, 209
multidirectional, 207
neurobiological, 217
philosophical aspects of, 210
psychological, 215–216
spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy and, 227
suddenness of, 210
testing of, 479–480
theory in, 209
traditional, 210–213
as transpersonal, 209
as unidirectionally progressive, 210
vertical, 207
spiritual failure, 259
poor health outcomes and, 259
spiritual impressions of the heart, 249–250
spiritual inquiry, 344
of Siddhārtha Gautama, 344–346
in spiritually-influenced psychology, 402–404
spiritual interventions, 250–251
by psychotherapists, 261
spirituality. See also diversity in spirituality, psychotherapy and; faith development; family relationships, religion and; healing, through spirituality; human body, spirituality and; mysticism; people of color, spirituality among; psychology, spirituality and; psychology of religion and spirituality; psychology of spirituality; universal spirituality, psychotherapy and
as adventurous, 58
among African Americans, 197
agreeableness and, 93–94
among Asian Americans, 197–198
attachment and, 89–90
benefits of, 208
broaden-and-build theory for, 440
within Buddhism, 244
cellular measures of, 373–374
within Christianity, 244
conceptualization of, 166–167
within Confucianism, 244
conscientiousness and, 96
constructs in, 438–439
in consumer movements, 411–413, 418–419
counseling resources with, 258
as cultural issue, in psychotherapy, 256–261
cultural resilience and, 200–201
diversity in, psychotherapy and, 237–238
dynamic model of affect for, 440
dysfunctional beliefs, 415
engagement capacity for, 474–475
epidemiological studies on, 257–258
family, 459–460
five-factor model of, 208
Freud on, 273
genetic measurements for, 373–374
harmful occurrences with, 208
within Hinduism, 244
human body as concept within, 363–367
Inventory on Spirituality, 189
within Islam, 244
within Judaism, 244
Jung on, 291, 292
among Latinos, through syncretism, 198
liberation through, for people of color, 202–203
life expectancy increases and, 392–393
within major religious traditions, 244
as meaning-making, 428–430
meaning of life through, 258
in meaning of work, 457–459
mental health and, 392
among millennium generation, 390–391
morality through, 96
among Native Americans, 197
negative dimensions of, 259
neuroimaging and, as measurement tool, 372–373
openness and, 96
optimism and, 58
overgeneralization of, in psychotherapy, 256–257
paradigm shift in study of, 595
parapsychology and, 17
parent-child conversations about, 154–155
as patriarchal, 182
personal meaning in, 439
physical health and, 379–381
in popular culture, 388–389
positive dimensions of, 257–258
positive emotions and, 443–446
posttraumatic growth and, 439
prosociality and, 93–94
psychological markers of, 371–372
psychologization of, 225–226
(p. 632) psychology of religion and, 8, 8
purpose of life and, 439
relational, 166, 167
religion compared to, 139–140
religiosity compared to, 207–208
replacement of religion by, 51, 50–51, 55
resilience and, 440–443
self-control and, 96
selflessness in, 188–189
within Shintoism, 244
SMPs and, 413, 413
social networking through, 258
social scientists’ conceptions of, 245–246
as study discipline, 549
subjective measures for, 371
within Taoism, 244
transcendence from, 188
two-factor model for, 439–440
for women, 188–189
The Spiritual Life of Children (Coles), 161
spiritually accommodative approaches, to psychotherapy, 263
spiritually-sensitive psychotherapy. See also positive psychology
APA guidelines for, 231
ASERVIC guidelines for, 231
competency development in, 230, 231
consciousness levels and, 227–228, 231
contemporary approaches to, 223
coping strategies in, 226
for crises of faith, 226–227
foundational skills for, 239
growth-oriented, 226–228
as integrative, 225–226
personal worldview compatibility in, 240
recovery of virtue in, 228–229
for spiritual development, 227
treatment-approach selection in, 239–240
treatment endpoints in, 229
spiritual materialism, 217
spiritual space, 248–249
psi and, 279–280
spiritual struggles, 226–227
divine, 227
interpersonal, 227
intrapersonal, 227
Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS)
ASPIRES Scale and, 105–106, 106
FFM of personality and, 106
limitations of, 106
motive constructs in, 107–108
normative data for, 109
self-reporting in, 110
Sri Ramakrishna, 400–401
Stack, Jerome, 413, 418
Standard Model of Particle Physics, 52–53
Stapp, H., 71
Starbuck, Edwin, 8, 9
Start, Lester, 186
Star Wars trilogy, 48
mythology in, 49
states of consciousness. See dhyānas; jhanas
Stevens, J., 15–16
Storming Heaven (Stevens), 15–16
stress response modulation, 370–371
string theory, 53
structural equation modeling (SEM), 108, 120
Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP), 531–532
methodology of, 532
suffering. See also duhkha
as evil, 130–131
physiological measures of, 374
Sufism, 138, 211, 316
meditation in, 316
psychoanalysis and, comparative considerations of, 316
psychotherapeutic applications of, 193
Summhammer, Johann, 543
superordinate space, 279–280
survival of consciousness (SOC), 586
contemporary experiments on, 587–591
experiential approaches to, 589–591
future research on, 595–596
integrative approaches to, 589–591
intentional nature of, 589
validity of proof for, 589
Susskind, Leonard, 64, 66, 67, 68–69
Sutta Nipata (Saddhatissa), 347
Suzuki, D. T., 314, 329, 331
Fromm influenced by, 331
Symbols of Transformation (Jung), 289, 296
synchronicity, as theory, 299–302
definition of, 299, 299
as grace, 299
syncretism, 198
healing through, 203
synthetic conventional stage, of faith development, 183
systems perspective, in quantum physics, 67–68
T
Tafakkur (reflecting on the universe), 316
Talmud, 317
Taoism, 213
emotional flow in, 318
key principles of, 318
meditation practices in, 318–319
psychotherapeutic applications of, 319
qigong in, 213
spirituality within, 244
Tao Te Ching, 318
Tao Te Ching, 318
Tart, C. T., 586
taxonomies, in psychology of religion, 40–41
categorization in, 40–41
distinction among, 41
extrinsic, 40, 86, 98
intrinsic, 40, 86, 98
measure broadness in, 41
reliability of methodology for, 40
for religious phenomena, 41
TEACH questionnaire, 459–460
telepathy, 272
in psychoanalysis, 274, 274
Templeton, John, 17
temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), 501–502
interictal personality syndrome of, 502
temporal lobe stimulation, during RSMEs, 502–503
Ten Ox-Herding Pictures, 213
Teresa of ávila (Saint), 186, 313, 315
thalamus, activation of, 491–492
dopaminergic system during, 492
GABA neurotransmitter during, 492
theistic integrative psychotherapy, 240–242, 262
altruism in, 241
characteristics of, 243
human agency in, 241
implications in, 242
morality in, 241
personality theory and, 241
philosophical assumptions in, 241
theistic religions, 242
theological virtues, 441
theology, 43–44
children's, 162
evolutionary psychology and, 44
glossolalia in, 44
natural, 43–44
scriptural text in, as psychological point of view, 44
The Theology of the Body (John Paul I), 366
theory of emotional experience. See emotional experience, theory of
theory of neuronal group selection (TNGS), 56
theory of relativity. See relativity theory
Therapeutic Touch, 539
Theravāda Buddhism, 327, 365
Thich Nhat Nanh, 313
Thompson, William, 51
thriving, 477–478
as bi-directional process, 477–478
The Tibetan Book of the Dead, 520
Tibetan Buddhism, 327–328
Tiedeman, Anna-Miller, 457, 460
career development strategies, 461–462
Tiedeman, David, 457, 460
career development strategies, 461–462
Tillich, Paul, 12
Tolstoy, Leo, 429
traditional families, 165–166
(p. 633) as concept, 166
marital relationship formation in, 170
parent-child relationship formation in, 170
religion within, 170–171
religious familism, 165–166, 168, 169
religiousness as influence on, 171
traditionalism, religious values and, 95, 127
transcendence
from spirituality, 188
during universalizing stage of faith development, 184–185
transcendental meditation (TM), 369
physiological effects of, 372
transpersonality
agency in, 200
cosmic locus of control in, 200
cultural context for, 200
magical realism and, 200
in spirituality, among persons of color, 200
transpersonal psychology, 216–217, 337, 606
human body concepts in, 366–367
within postmaterialist scientific perspective, 602
SELF measures in, 216–217
subjective aspects of, 216
Traumatic Experiences and Adolescents’ and Children's Health (TEACH) questionnaire, 459–460
Trinlay Thaye Dorje, 327
on samsara, 327–328, 328
Tsogyel, Yeshe, 191
two-person psychoanalysis, 275, 276
U
Uddaka Ramaputta, 345
Umbanda, 203
uncertainty principle, 64
unconditional love, during NDEs, 522–523
the unconscious, 272–273
behavioral influences of, 272
definition of, 273
intermediate space and, 275–276
Jung on, 283
psi and, 272–273
in psychoanalysis, 273–274
undetermination, in PRS, 22
United States (U.S.). See also African Americans; Asian Americans, spirituality among; Native Americans, spirituality among
CAM in, 203
healing through spirituality in, 203
psychology of religion in, reemergence of, 12–16
religiosity levels in, 255–256
universalizing stage, of faith development, 184–185
universal spirituality, psychotherapy and, 237–238
affirmation as treatment resource, 242–251
client affirmations in, 250
creation of safe therapeutic environments, 247
future approaches in, 251–252
language and thematic familiarity in, 248
session preparation, 247
in social science literature, 242
spiritual assessment guidelines for, 247–248
spiritual impressions of the heart in, 249–250
spiritual interventions in, 250–251
spiritual space creation in, 248–249
unmediated resonance, 276
Utts, Jessica, 536, 538
V
Vajrayāna Buddhism, 327, 365
Valera, Francisco, 74
values. See also religious values
religious categories, 126
Values in Action Inventory, 428
van Den Berg, Jan, 366
van Lommel, Pim, 363
The Varieties of Religious Experience (James), 9, 288, 292
consciousness in, 39
Vedantic Hinduism, 316
Vedic Hinduism, 316
vengefulness, 92–93
Vinaya, 328
virginity of females, in religious doctrine, 187
virtues
in Buddhism, 308
conscientiousness, 428
economic affluence and, 432–434
facts and values for, 426–427
happiness as, 430–431
human body as, 367–368
humanity as, 428
integration of, 427
master, 431–432
meaning-making in, 428–430
in positive psychology, 228–229, 426–432
in spiritually-influenced psychology, 405
theological, 441
vitalism, 365–366
vocations
in destiny motif, 294
illness as, 296
W
Waldman, Mark Robert, 369
Wallis, Jim, 127
Ward, Lester, 141
Watkins, Anita, 535
Watkins, Graham, 535
Watson, David, 434
Watson, John, 398
Watts, Alan, 328, 332–333
wave function collapse, 52
way of experiencing oneself. See satori
Weisburd, Dan, 412
Weiss, Paul, 535
well-being
from childhood religious development, 158
from mindfulness-based psychotherapy, 337
Well-Being Therapy (WBT), 229–230
consciousness levels in, 231
development of, 229–230
goals of, 230
intervention techniques in, 230
Werbos, Paul, 566
Westerhoff, John, 161
Western models, of spiritual development, 211–212
in Christianity, 211–212
in Islam, 211
in Judaism, 211
in Protestantism, 212
Wheeler, John, 64
When prophecy fails study, 11
Whitmont, Edward, 300
Wholeness and the Implicate Order (Bohm), 460
whole person, as concept, 362
Why Good Things Happen to Good People (Post), 367
Wickes, Francis, 293–294
Wider than the Sky (Edelman), 55–57
Wigner, Eugene, 54
Wilber, Ken, 606
Williamson, W. Paul, 8
Winnecott, Donald, 464
wisdom, in Buddhism, 308
Wiseman, Richard, 533
Wogaman, J. Philip, 186
Wolf, Stewart, 560
womanism, 202–203. See also feminism
WomanSoul (Rayburn/Comas-Diaz), 192
women. See also girls
attachment processes for, religiousness and, 90
career development for, 462–463
conflicts with patriarchy, during conjunctive faith stage, 184
during conjunctive stage, of faith development, 184
creativity for, 191–192
as fertility goddesses, 187–188, 193
in Goddess movement, 187
human body for, spirituality and, 367
intuition in, 192
as madonnas, 191, 193, 201
maternal instinct in, altruism and, 143
mujerismo and, 203
(p. 634) patriarchal nature of religion and, 182
in psychological models of spiritual development, 216
purification procedures for, 187
religiousness of, 185
as saints, 191
spirituality in, 188–189
during universalizing stage of faith development, 184–185
virginity of, in religious doctrine, 187
womanism and, 202–203
Wood, Matthew, 366
work, meaning of. See also vocations
career and, 457
in Christian theology, 456
in Judaic tradition, 456
Jung on, 456
Maslow on, 456
spirituality in, 457–459
The World Community for Christian Meditation, 314
The World is Flat (Friedman), 59
The World's Religions (Smith, H.), 400
Wundt, Wilhelm, 458
Y
yoga practices, 317
Ayurvedic, 364
human body and, 364
increase of public interest in, 317
physiological effects of, 317
psychological effects of, 317
Yogasutras, 212–213
eightfold path in, 213
prayer through meditation in, 542
Yogic Hinduism, 316, 316–317. See also yoga practices
youth development. See positive youth development
youth risk behaviors, positive youth development and, 476–477
Z
Zeilinger, Anton, 64
Zen Buddhism, 327
meditation in, 330
Morita therapy and, 330
psychotherapy and, 330–331
satori, 332
Zen Buddhism Psychoanalysis (Fromm), 331
Zeno Effect, 67
Zoroastrianism, 244
Zwingli, Huldrych, 312