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date: 17 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

In the present chapter, I argue that general culture is strongly influenced by three assumptions that have derived from modern science. These include the following: (1) Big numbers in time and space make anything thought to be statistically possible to eventually be thought of as likely. (2) We can be optimistic that this will eventuate in progress. (3) Life is all about relationships. The main implication of these assumptions is that the psychology of religion will soon become the psychology of religion and spirituality. Based on a review of quantum mechanics and cosmology, I suggested that there are four types of spirituality: (a) religious spirituality, (b) human spirituality, (c) nature or environment spirituality, and (d) cosmos spirituality (or transcendent spirituality). Each of these is defined in terms of close or intimate connection or relationship with a different object, and each has been formed primarily by the wonder, awe, and lack of determinancy found in different fields of study—theology, psychological science, biological science, and physics, respectively.

Keywords: religion, spirituality, physics, neuroscience, psychology, optimism, consciousness

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