Abstract and Keywords
Karl Vollers and Theodor Nöldeke held that the Qur’an first appeared in a tribal dialect, later adjusted to Bedouin poetry. Frederico Corriente argued for an intertribal ‘Old Arabic koine’ of an esteemed quality, distinct from tribal dialects. Ernest Axel Knauf places it alongside a commercial koine and tribal dialects as an esteemed literary language. John Wansbrough dates the Qur’an after the death of Muḥammad, while Günter Lüling and Christoph Luxenberg argue for an original Qur’an in Aramaic. Johnathan Owens, finds evidence for both an early inflected and uninflected Arabic Qur’an. Fruitful avenues for research include rereading old materials; mastering recitation systems; extending dialect studies; and returning to the text of the Qur’an.
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