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date: 13 July 2020

(p. 745) Index

(p. 745) Index

abolition 134, 568–72
abortion 121, 358, 575
Abram, M. 262
Achen, C. 401–2
Ackerman, B. 319
action precepts 102–3, 105–6
Adams, J. 475
Addams, J. 119, 574
Adler, E. S. 157, 274
administration, public 192, 193, 195
administrative power 296–7
administrative presidency, and representative government 292–4
administrative state 723
and bureaucracy 327–40
and civil rights 246–7
and Congress 239–40
and courts 239–40
and gender 338
and inequality 337–8
new 233
and race 338
theory 330, 333–8
weak 330–3
affirmative action 214, 247, 613
Affordable Care Act 9, 62–3, 303, 351, 433, 614, 635
AFL-CIO 355, 551, 580
African Americans
enfranchisement 177
interest groups 540–1
suffrage 140, 218–19
upward mobility 388
voting rights 356, 371–2
see also black
Age Discrimination in Employment Act 351
Aggregate Proportional Reduction in Error (APRE) 500
agricultural workers 375
Agriculture, Department of 297, 604, 607
Aid to Dependent Children 375, 575
Alabama 667
Aldrich, J. 153–4, 160
Aldrich, N. 726
Alexander, M. 607
Allison, G. T. 9
Almond, G. 168
Alphonso, G. 713
Altmeyer, A. 374
American Anti-Slavery Society 542, 568
American Bible Society 540
American Colonization Society) 603
American Creed 133–4
American exceptionalism 13, 96, 236–41, 473–4
in APD literature 28, 318, 644, 650
and culture 132
diminishing 105
parties 486
suffrage politics 461–4, 463
two-party system 480–2
American Federation of Labor 544, 579
American and Foreign Sabbath Union 542
American Indians 332–3
American Law Institute 687
American Legion 478
American Lyceum Association 542
American Medical Association 542
(p. 746) American National Election Study 523
American Odd Fellows 541
American Party 475
American Peace Society 542
American Political Development (APD)
agenda setting 34
and the carceral state 642–57
and comparative politics 166–79
and the courts 312–13
critical junctures 11–12
descriptive inference 15
emergence of 187–8
excellent writing in 14–16
and the family 707–13
and gender relations 112–27
historical research in 210–11
holism 3–4
identity in 662–78
interest groups in 535–56
and liberalism 96–106
methodology 148–9, 166, 172–3, 191, 197
multiple orders in action 13
origins of 1, 167–71
and polarization 492–509
and political history 185–97
and political parties 473–87
porous boundaries 27
race in 593–617
and rational choice 148–50
redefinition 158–9
regulatory state in 721–40
research trajectories 16–17
scope and depth 2–4
states, and the 364–77
turned inward 197
underlying question 14–16
and welfare state 625–38
American Prison Association 543
American Protective Tariff League 477
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 53
American Red Cross 543
American Revolution 98, 114, 116, 519, 539, 563, 568
American Temperance Society 542
American Tract Society 540
American Woman Suffrage Association 116
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) 351, 671
Americans for Prosperity 64–5
Ancient Order of Hibernians 541
Andersen, E. 687
Anderson, C. 616
Ansolabehere, S. 404
Anthony, S. B. 116
anti-fusion laws 482
Anti-Masonic Party 475
Anti-Monopoly party 722
Anti-Saloon League 358, 478
anti-trust policy 272
Appleby, J. 677
Argentina 177
Arkansas 245, 248–9, 251, 297, 449
Arons, H. 554
Arrow, K. J. 151
Asian Americans 445, 465
Asian-American Legal Defense and Education Fund 466
Atlanta 389, 429, 655
Austin 385
Australian ballot 482
Aziz, R. 80
backlash 12–13
Bafumi, J. 403, 414
Bailyn, B. 97
Baker, P. 124
balanced budget 347, 350, 369
Balogh, B. 188, 197, 211–13, 332
Baltimore 392
Banaszak, L. A. 236
bank bailouts 55
Baptist, E. 598
Bartels, L. M. 3, 11, 502, 525
Baumgartner, F. R. 528, 556
Beard, C. 311
Beaumont, G. de 136
Beckmann, M. 302
behavioral research 148–9
behavioral theory 311–12
Benhabib, S. 123
(p. 747) Bennett, B. 65
Bennett, A. 216
Bensel, R. F. 7, 149, 169, 173, 188, 195, 197, 211–13, 272, 333, 520, 598, 603–4, 616
Benson, L. 521
Berger, S. 6
Berinsky, A. J. 2, 503, 524
Berk, G. 35–6
Berle, A. 732
Berman, S. 175, 176
Bernanke, B. 239
Berry, J. 552, 554
Beveridge, A. 725, 728
Binder, S. 5, 156, 158, 268–9
Biondi, M. 612
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002) 554
Birdenbaugh, C. 134
Black, D. 151
black
Democratic South 447–8
disenfranchisement 447–8, 464
office holding 450
women 608
Black nationalist campaigns 569–70
Black Panthers 571
Black Power 571
Blackmon, D. 607
Blackstone, W. 115
B’nai B’rith 541
Boorstein, D. 133
Bork, R. 496
Borstelmann, T. 616
Boston Tea Party 563–4
Bourdieu, P. 647
bourgeoisie 78
Bourke, P. 529
Brady, D. 1
Brady Bill 351
Brand, D. 736
Brandeis, L. 374, 728
Brandwein, P. 6, 313, 616, 663, 668, 669, 671–2, 674
Brazil 178, 463
bribery 72
Bridges, A. 1, 188, 382, 387–8
Brinkley, A. 188
Britain 331, 354, 564, 628
National Health Service 174
political parties 481, 485
Brooke, J. L. 190
Brown, M. 672
Brownlow Committee 336
Bryan, W. J. 142, 425, 428–9, 725
Bryce, J. 152, 310, 328, 383–4, 387, 408, 476, 543
Buchanan, P. 135
Budget Act (1974) 271
budget reform politics 155–6
Béland, D. 632
Bunche, R. 616
Bureau of Indian Affairs 333, 602, 606
bureaucracy 30–1
and the administrative state 327–40
executive 237
federal departments 237–8
followed democracy 214
inefficient 328–9
methodology 339
politicized 272
professional 334
rulemaking 339
bureaucratic leadership 519
bureaucratic state 231–2
bureaucratization of society 334
bureaucrats
behavior 329
as political entrepreneurs 335–6
see also officials
Burger Court 317
Burgess, J. 309
Burnham, W. D. 169, 425, 454, 498
Bush, G. W. 12, 51, 53, 55, 57, 60, 246, 288, 302, 432, 554, 627, 635
business
corporations 79, 353, 737
and federalism 353–4
privileged position 733
Butler, J. 138
Butler, P. 312
Cable Act (1922) 122, 673
Cahn, N. 704
California 348–50, 367, 649, 692, 708
(p. 748) Callen, Z. 616
campaign financing 72, 505–6, 554
Campbell, A. L. 236, 243, 337, 526, 545, 632, 677–8
Canada 174, 481, 485
Canaday, M. 236, 666, 672, 675, 685, 710
Canes-Wrone, B. 298
Cannon, J. 262, 265, 432, 479–80, 726
Canon, D. T. 261
Cantor, E. 65
Cantril, H. 522
capital, unit of analysis 78
capitalism
and the public good 734
and slavery 598
capitalist markets 69–70, 76
capitalists 75–6
Carbone, J. 704
carceral state
and APD 642–57
and citizenship 652–5
and democracy 642–3, 650–2
growth of 648
path dependence 643
policy feedback 643
Carmines, E. G. 501
Carp, B. 381
Carpenter, D. P. 48, 160, 188, 215, 237, 243, 297, 335, 478, 606–7, 738
Carsey, T. M. 502
Carson, J. 275
Carson, R. 581
cartels 353
Carter, J. 431, 627, 711, 737
Casey, S. 522
Catholics 144
Catt, C. C. 118, 457, 466, 574
Caughey, D. 524
causal mechanisms 220
causal narratives 208, 213, 217, 220
causal-process observations (CPOs) 218–20
causes of effects 209–10
Ceaser, J. 97, 293
Center for Law and Social Policy) 549
centralization
economic 156
political 235, 271, 364, 598, 604, 738
advocacy group lobbying 544
chairman 263, 479
House Democratic Caucus 476
Republican Conference 476
Chandler, A. D. 196, 732
Chemerinsky, E. 446
Chen, A. 214
Cheng, C. I-F. 616
Chicago 385, 389, 392, 578
Child Tax Credit 629
children 677
Children’s Bureau 125, 337
Chinese 144, 465
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) 600
Christian right 65, 303
Christianity 102, 138–9
cities 381–93
in APD 389–93
by size 390–1
competition between 388
conflict 387
and democracy 382–4
Democratic party interest 392
development policies 388–9
legal status 391–2
liberal democratic ideals 391
passage of time 384
political development in 382–9
political machine 387
population loss 386–7
power source 381
as urban outposts 381
and urbanization 389–93
citizens 78–9
deserving and undeserving 673
and police 656
citizenship
in APD 696
and the carceral state 652–5
definition 683
and family 707–10
ideas of 315
law 178, 315
married women 122
Native American 669
(p. 749)
rights 245
and sexuality 683–4, 710
social 375
versus status categories 712
civic culture 138, 168
civic ideals 6, 186, 188
civic skill-building 538
civic status 7
Civil Aeronautics Board 737
civil rights 430–1
in the administrative state 246–7
in the associational state 249–50
equality 120–2
in the fragmented state 248–9
in the standardizing state 247–8
and state building 252–3
unconstitutional law 446
votes on 499
Civil Rights Act
(1875) 431
(1957) 612
(1960) 613
(1964) 121, 356, 546, 571, 575, 613
(1968) 247, 249
civil rights movement 483, 524
civil rights state 243–51, 610–14
civil service 159
national 606
reform 479–80
see also bureaucracy
civil society 541
civil unions 693
Civil War 75–8, 140, 158, 195, 568–9
administrative state 331, 333
equality 115–16
focus of attention 603–4
legislation 604
pensions 447, 628
Republican Party during 293
Civilian Conservation Corps 581
class
conflict 77
formation 170
relations 75
tensions 462–3
classless society 96
Clausen, A. R. 499–500
Clay, H. 153, 261
Clayton, C. 311, 319
Clayton Act 526
Clean Air Act (1970) 336, 582
Clean Water Act (1977) 582
Clear, T. 655
Clemens, E. S. 124, 188, 216, 478, 538, 546, 555, 672–3, 725
Cleveland, G. 428
Clinton, B. 300, 351, 434, 614, 690
Clinton, J. D. 274, 404
Cloward, R. 630
Club for Growth 65
coal mining 354
Cohen, C. J. 553, 555
Cold War 298, 429, 436, 611, 666, 685, 736
Coleman, J. C. 478
collective action, and violence 448–9
collective bargaining 355
collective identities 87
collectives, as analytical units 77–9
Collier, D. 217
colonial production 70
color line 593–617
Colorado 692
Colt Firearms Manufacturing Company 541
Commager, H. S. 133
Commander in Chief 288, 298
Commerce, Department of 732
Committee on Economic Security 374
Committee on Fair Employment Practices 570
common sense 85
communications
history of 195–6
political 527–8
Communism 294, 569–70
community 135, 137–8
comparative analysis 207, 215–16
comparative politics 166–79
Comparative historical analysis 207
competitive enfranchisement 453–4
Comprehensive Education and Training Act 647
conceptual development 216–17
Condorcet Paradox 2
conflict
class 77
(p. 750)
institutional 318, 345, 348, 350–1
political 77, 496, 498
racial 631
Congress 189, 259–76
and the administrative state 239–40
budget reform politics 155–6
and national development 271–3
and the New Deal 297
oversight 237, 239–40
parties in 473, 475–7, 479–80, 483–5
party leadership 264–8
power 270–1, 292
reform 219
relations with presidents 237–8
staff 484
textbook 262
Congress and History Conference 149
Congress of Industrial Organizations 273, 579
Congress of Racial Equality 570–1
Congressional Budget Office 52
congressional committee system 260–4, 544
chairs 263, 484
creation 261–2
independent expertise 261–2
and political parties 264
professional staff 263, 484
seniority system 262–3
standing committees 153, 155, 261, 265, 276
steering committees 266
subcommittees 263
Conklin, R. 726
Connecticut 692
consensus school 133
consequences and decisions 83–4
constituents
measurement of opinion 402
preferences 401–4, 411
Southern 414–15, 430–1
Constitution 11, 38–9, 43, 519
administration 233
Article 1 451
Article II 292
citizenship 569
in crises 234–5
and Declaration of Independence 295–6
democratic ethos 232
and dissent 565–7
Equal Rights Amendment 118, 574, 576
Fifth Amendment 693
Tenth Amendment 243, 391
Thirteenth Amendment 463
Fourteenth Amendment 116, 316, 449–50, 666, 674
Fifteenth Amendment 116, 371, 445, 449–50
Eighteenth Amendment 358, 574
Nineteenth Amendment 119, 357, 371, 449, 462, 566, 574, 670
Twenty-third Amendment 449
Twenty-fourth Amendment 449
Twenty-sixth Amendment 449
federalism in 345–7
and interest groups 539
need to evolve 724–5
parties in 474–5
on presidential power 288, 290
and race 601
slavery 666
voter eligibility 370
We the People 289
and women’s rights 572
Constitutional Convention (1787) 346
constitutional ideas 317
constitutional innovation 6, 288
consultants 485
Consumer Product Safety Act (1972) 336
Converse, P. 498
Cook, T. 682
Coolidge, C. 428
Cooper, J. 260–2, 262
Corcoran, T. 294
corporations
large 353, 737
modern 79
see also business
Corwin, E. S. 311–12, 314
courts 79, 233–4, 309–21
and APD 312–13
and the administrative state 239–40
creative actors 315, 319–20
historical studies 321
ideas in 313–17
and the New Deal 297
(p. 751)
obstructionist 318
see also judges; law
Cover, R. 314
Cox, G. W. 157
craft unions 354, 577
see also trade unions
creative destruction 33
creative syncretism 29, 34–7, 37–8, 43
Credit Mobilier scandal 544
Crenson, M. 392
criminal justice
and the American state 643–52
impacts on communities 655–6
and political socialization 654
and state development 644–7
criminal status 687
Critchlow, D. T. 188
Croly, H. 294
Crowe, J. 160, 321, 601, 616, 677
Cuba 463
cultural issues 521
culturalism 185
culture 357–8
American 133–5
ascriptive 135, 138–40
change 663, 668–9
civic 138, 168
definitions 132–3
diversity 134
pattern of conflicts 143–5
pluralism 134
political 132–45
them and us 138–40
war 704
Cushman, R. E. 311
Daley, R. J. 381
Dallas 385
Danelski, D. 311–12
data archives 528–9
Dauber, M. L. 188
Debats, D. 529
decentralization
and civil rights 613
political 231, 235, 270–1, 351, 364
of welfare 375–6
decisions, and consequences 83–4
Declaration of Independence 295–6, 572–3
American Creed 133–4
Declaration of Sentiments (1833) 115
Defense, Department of 693–5
Defense of Marriage Act (1996) 358, 689–91, 693
Delaware 353, 447, 692
democracy 72–3, 176–8
before bureaucracy 214, 330, 332
and the carceral state 642–3, 650–2
and cities 382–4
conditions conducive to 168
and development 76
direct 366
flawed 177
and interest groups 529–40, 535–6
and public opinion 522–6
studies 516
unsteady 650
voting method 151
workings of 518
democratic deficit 525
Democratic Party 51–4, 57–8
and the AFL 355
and black disenfranchisement 447–8
Caucus chairman 476
city interest 392
civil rights 571–2
disenfranchises black adult males 458
emergence of 475
and New Deal 294
presidential support 299–300
Southern 458, 479, 503–4
split vote 414
and trade unions 478–9
democratization 176–8
histories of 176–7
and state formation 169–70
deregulation 34
Derthick, M. 3, 632
development 473–4
and democracy 76
and ideology 669–71
uneven 664, 672–3
(p. 752)
devolution, paradox of 349
Dewey, J. 36, 725, 728
Dillon’s Rule 391
Dion, D. 156, 268–9
direct-action tactics 583
disability policy 671
discrimination
employment 687–8, 695
LGBTQ 686–9
disenfranchised 458–60, 464
displacement 28, 29–32, 33–4, 37–8
dissent institutionalized 563–85
DiStefano, C. 123
District of Columbia 692
diversity 349–50
Dobbin, F. 242, 247
Dodd, L. C. 271
domestic workers 375
Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell 689–91, 694–5, 697
Douglass, F. 101–2, 464, 597
Downs, A. 151
DREAM Act 302
Dred Scott decision (1857) 316, 568, 598, 602
Du Bois, W. E. B. 569, 593, 595, 597, 616
Dudziak, M. 616, 666
Dunlavy, C. A. 196
durability 33
Duverger, M. 481
DW-NOMINATE 402–3, 405–6, 411–17, 495, 498, 501
Dyer 431
Dykstra, R. R. 529
Earned Income Tax Credit 629
Earth Liberation Front 583
Easton, D. 313
economics
macro- 10
micro- 73
motivation 79–82
neo-classical and institutional 73–5
and political science 70–5
economy 69
crisis 54–6
and elections 427–9, 520–1
inequality 507–9, 615, 627, 635–6
productive efficiency 73
Edling, M. M. 190, 193, 234
Edmunds, G. 726
Education Act (1972) 121
Edwards, G. 298
Einhorn, R. 333, 602
Eisenhower, D. 248, 251, 267, 297–8, 299, 426, 686, 739
Eisner, M. C. 336
elderly, the 79, 678
elections 212–13, 235
booms 428–9
campaign finance 505–6
direct primary 367
econometric analysis 427
economic crash 427–8
long-term parity 431–2
and national security crises 429–30, 433
patterns in 425–36
presidential 403–4, 411, 431–2, 434–6
primaries 481–2, 505
and race 430–1
short-term equilibration 432–3
see also incumbents
electoral accountability 519
electoral politics 615
electoral responsiveness 406
electoral rules and procedures 399
electorate
expansion of 399
partisan sorting 502–3
policy preferences 502–3
see also voters
elites
actions 611–12
black 603
economic 64–5, 77, 135, 461
legal 314
political 118, 135, 405, 503, 615
social 475
state 375, 599, 602, 731
thinkers 538
white 603, 605, 608
Elliot, E. N. 102
Ellis, R. J. 98
(p. 753) Emancipation Proclamation (1863) 568
Emerson, R. W. 581
employment
anti-discrimination legislation 575
discrimination 687–8, 695
segregated 244
Employment Non-Discrimination Act 691
Endangered Species Act (1973) 582
enfranchisement 399
competitive 453–4
programmatic 455
strategic 455–6, 457
Engel, S. M. 216, 665
Engstrom, E. J. 159, 160, 275
environment, regulation 738
Environmental Protection Agency 297, 336, 582
environmentalism 580–3, 738
Epstein, L. 473, 482
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 336, 571, 613
Equal Pay Act (1963) 121
equality 664
and American Revolution 114
Civil Rights Era 120–2
Civil War 115–16
and liberalism 113
New Deal 119–20
Progressive Era 117–19
see also inequality
Ericson, D. F. 6, 602
Erie, S. P. 387–8
Erikson, R. S. 403, 416–17, 526
Eskridge, W. 693
Esping-Andersen, G. 174
Ethington, P. 393
ethnic diversity 177–8
ethnic divisions 176
Evers, M. 449
ex-felons 454, 465
Executive branch 159
Executive Office of the President 292
Executive Reorganization Act (1939) 292
expectations 82–3, 86, 87
expertise, neutral 734
Factory Girls’ Association 542
Fair Employment Practices Committee 246, 610
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) 626, 631
family 667
as an organization 711
and citizenship 707–10
definition 705–7
not simply a private institution 714–16
political ideas of 712–13
and the state 706
see also households
Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) 630
Farhang, S. 321, 336, 613
Farmer Labor Party, Minnesota 481–2
farmers 78, 335
Farmers’ Alliances 544
Federal Communications Commission 239
Federal Election Campaign Act (1971) 554
Federal Elections Bill (1890) 459
Federal Housing Administration 629
Federal Reserve 5, 10, 234, 239, 252, 336
federalism 78
and APD 345–59
and business 353–4
in the Constitution 345–7
cooperative 41
and crime policy debates 646–7
and culture 357–8
development sequence 348–9
and dissent 566
and diversity 349–50
dual 41
fiscal powers 346, 348–9
and fragmentation 349–50
and inequality 349–50
and institutional conflict 345, 348, 350–1
and moral behavior 357–8
and national legislative majorities 347–8
and political organization 351–2
as political weapon 350–1
and race 355–6
regulation 334, 734
and welfare state 631
(p. 754)
and women’s rights 573
Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions 578
Feeley, M. 651
Feinstein, B. 214
Feldblum, C. 690
Feldman, L. 671
felon
disenfranchisement 654
ex- 454, 465
feminism 572–6
second wave 575
feminist networks 236
Fenno, R. F., Jr. 263
Ferguson, K. 610
feudalism 96, 136
filibuster 52–3, 268–70, 348
Filipinos 708
Finegold, K. 188
Fiorina, M. P. 502
Fiske, J. 723, 728
Fitzhugh, G. 102
Flanagan, R. 389
Florida 13, 355, 356, 449
Foner, E. 604
Food and Drug Administration 10, 335
Ford, G. 297, 435, 627
Ford, J. J. 287, 293
Ford Motor Company 354
foreign affairs state 340
foreign policy
Haiti 447
and presidential power 297–9
and racial equality 666
Forest Service 335
Four Freedoms 296
Fox News 61, 64
France 175, 328, 331
Francis, M. M. 611, 616
Frankfurter, F. 317
Franklin, B. 143–4
free markets 79, 136
Free Masons 540, 541
Free Soil Parties 475, 481
free trade zone, US as 347
free-marketers 65
freedmen 75
Freedmen’s Bureau 604, 673, 711
freedom 80
Freedom Summer (1964) 460
FreedomWorks 64–5
freeloaders 62
Freeman, J. B. 190
French Revolution 114
Friedan, B. 120–1, 575
Friedman, M. 9
fringe groups 138
Frymer, P. 214, 248, 321, 615, 616, 669
Fugitive Slave Law (1793) 568, 601
Fuller, M. 4
Fung, A. 554
Gailmard, S. 159
Galambos, L. 723
Gallup, G. 409, 526
Galvan, D. 35–6
Galvin, D. J. 16, 160, 215–16, 299
Gamm, G. 153, 160, 266, 479, 546
Ganz, M. 541
Garfield, J. A. 159
Garland, D. 650
Garvey, M. 569
Garveyism 460
Gay Liberation Front 695
gay marriage 358
Geer, J. G. 527
Geertz, C. 132
Geithner, T. 55
gender 677
and administrative state 338
definitions 112
and political development 664
politics of 375
as variable 122–5
and welfare state 356–7, 631, 653–4
see also sexuality
gender relations
in APD 112–27
and the welfare state 174
General Appropriations Act 581
General Federation of Women’s Clubs 543
General Union for Promoting the Christian Observance of the Sabbath 542
(p. 755) Gentzkow, M. 507
George, A. L. 216
George III, King 115
Gerber, E. 553
Germany 328, 353–4, 429, 522, 628
Gerring, J. 221
Gerry, E. 381
gerrymandering 159, 504–5
GI Bill (1946) 78, 526, 545, 629
Gibson, E. L. 177, 463
Gilens, M. 525
Gillion, D. 616
Gillman, H. 6, 160, 316–17
Gilmore, G. 608
Gingrich, N. 496, 506
Ginsberg, B. 301, 408
Glassman, M. 673
Goethe, J. W. von 4
Goldberg, C. A. 673
Gompers, S. 577–8
González, F. E. 177
Gooding-Williams, R. 599
Goodnow, F. 329–30
Goodwyn, L. 78
Gordon, L. 608
Goss, K. A. 555
Gottschalk, M. 338, 645–6, 650
governability 28
government
fiscal powers 346, 348–9
institutions and civic ideals 186, 188
loans 629
policy 9
and privatization 707
public safety 644–5
reconstruction 31
representative 292–4
social expenditure 645
structure 41
support 136
see also state
Graber, M. 320, 602, 666, 677
Grand Army of the Republic 477, 543
Grand United Order of Odd Fellows 541
grant-in-aid policies 367
Gray, V. 554
Great Depression 54, 56, 77, 266, 334, 349, 428, 520, 732
Great Migration of African Americans 460, 480, 612
Great Recession (2007–2009) 54, 62, 63, 291
Greenbackers 481
Greenhouse, L. 351
Greenstone, J. D. 98, 132, 142, 212, 295
Gun-Free School Zones Act 351
Gurr, T. R. 387
Hacker, J. S. 12, 48, 174, 241, 338, 629–30, 632, 637, 688
Hague, F. 381
Haines, C. G. 310–11, 314
Haiti 447
Hamilton, A. 5, 8, 34, 154, 261, 289, 292–3, 346, 728
Hamilton, C. V. 609
Hamilton, D. 609
Handlin, M. F. 520
Handlin, O. 520
Hansen, J. M. 478
Harding, W. 428
Harlan, J. M. 317, 726
Harris, R. 546–7, 555
Harrison, B. 581
Hartz, L. 6, 11, 88, 96–8, 103, 105, 136, 138, 142, 168–9, 295, 315
Hattam, V. C. 188, 668
Hawaii 692
Hayes, R. B. 430, 458
Haymarket Affair (1888) 578
health care 56–7
and liberalism 103–4
path dependency 104
state provision 634
health insurance
national 635
private 629, 635
health policy studies 173–4
Heclo, H. 547, 731
Hegel, G. W. F. 194, 328
Heritage Action 64
Herron, M. 403, 414
(p. 756) Hetch Hetchy Dam 581
Highlander Folk School 570
Hilderbrand, R. 521
Hill, R. 386
Hirano, S. 482, 505
Hirschman, A. O. 616
Hirschmann, N. 123
historical datasets 274–5
historical institutionalism (HI) 1, 48, 53, 173, 185, 207, 312–13, 503, 516
historical narrative 208, 211–13, 217, 220
historical perspective 70
historical research
in APD 210–11
hypotheses and concepts from 213–14
methodology 191
primary sources 210–11
secondary sources 211
history 148, 172–3, 426
and APD 185–97
importance of 10–14
and law 310–11
limitations on 520
new 521
and storytelling 189
Hoar, G. F. 464, 668
Hobbes, T. 123
Hodges, A. G. 302
Hofstadter, R. 133, 145, 475, 481
Holder, E. 246
Hollingsworth, J. R. 353
Holt, M. F. 427
Home Mortgage Interest Deduction 337
home rule 391
Homeland Security 237
homelessness 671
Homestead Act 628
homosexuality 666, 672
decriminalized 689–92
and military policy 689–90
and national security 685–6
spousal benefits 694
Supreme Court on 688, 691
Hoover, H. 54–5, 428, 732
Hopkins, H. 294
Horne, G. 598
Horton, C. 98
Horwitz, R. B. 196
households 709
see also family
Housing Act (1937) 626
housing market
collapse 634
segregation 613–14
Housing and Urban Development 237
Howard, C. 15, 236, 241, 629, 635, 665
Huitt, R. K. 267
Huntington, S. P. 3, 88, 97, 134, 168–9, 176, 270–1
Hurst, J. W. 43, 312
Hussein, S. 289
Hyman, H. M. 312
Ibrahim, L. M. 106
ideal points 151, 402–3, 415, 418, 493, 494
ideals, civic 6, 186, 188
ideas
of citizenship 315
constitutional 317
constitutive role 6–7
of the family 712–13
importance of 6–7
in law and courts 313–17
legal 317
political 6–7, 317
private regulation 736
public regulation 734–5
ideation 83–5
and behavior 88
cultural interpretation 85
and ideology 84–6
materialist interpretations 84
rational calculation 84
identity
in APD 662–78
definitions 662
formation 7
and legal development 676
national 177–8
normative concerns 673–5
and Supreme Court 668
ideology (p. 757)
and development 669–71
and the family 712–13
and goals 84–5
and ideation 84–6
and legal discourse 671, 672
measurement of 493
Ikenberry, J. 365
Illinois 648, 692
Immergut 174
immigrants 62, 178, 372, 454
immigration 432, 714
Improved Order of Red Men 541
income tax 241, 336, 714
incumbents
advantage 433–6
balancing 432
responsiveness 405–6, 409
thermostatic rotation 432
see also elections
Independent Order of Good Templars 542
independent regulatory agency 238–9
India 481
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 351
Indian Rights Association 543
individualism 135, 136
Industrial Workers of the World 578
industrialization 76
inequality 637
and administrative state 337–8
distribution 386
economic 507–9, 615, 627, 635–6
and federalism 349–50
interest groups 549–51
persistent 674
political 524, 636
racial 243, 252, 597, 600, 614–15
and tax expenditure 636
see also equality
information
imperfect 87
perfect 86
and responsiveness 407–10
Ingraham, P. 250–1
inheritance tax 706
initiative 366
instability theorems 1–2
institutional change
adaptive or reconstitutive 5
decentralizing impact 366
and states 365–70
institutional conflict 345, 348, 350–1
institutional contexts 50
institutional legacies 27
institutional structures 616
institutionalism
historical 185
new 5
institutions 172–3
electoral 158–9, 372, 462
failed change 157
fringe 138
importance of 4–6
and political change 668
in rational choice 148, 152
rules and procedures 155–8
structural choice 152–5
weak 136
intercurrence 30, 215
interest groups 535–56, 615–16, 631
African Americans 540–1
agricultural 540
biases within 552–4
and campaign finance 554
commercial 540, 541–2, 544, 550, 553
data 538, 546–7
and democracy 535–6, 539–40
the elderly 79, 678
fragmented 352
historical research 536
for humanitarian reform 542
increased political power 548
inequality 549–51
modern 545–8
and policymaking 543–4
and political parties 477, 485–6
public 297
and study of politics 537–9
women 540–1
intergovernmental relations 345
Internal Revenue Service 693
International Ladies Garment Workers Union 578
Interstate Commerce Act (1887) 726
(p. 758) Interstate Commerce Commission 238–9, 726–7
interviews 59–60
Iowa Department of Public Health 692, 694
Iraq war 430, 433
Irish 139–40, 387, 388, 541
iron and steel producers 75
Irvin, B. H. 190
Isacharoff, S. 482
issue networks 731
Jackson, A. 154, 291, 352
Jacobs, L. R. 410, 518, 632
Jacobson, G. 302
Jacobson, R. 677
Jamaica 463
James, S. C. 160, 188, 335
Japan 236, 522, 736
Jefferson, T. 142, 154, 289, 291, 331, 351, 475, 539, 597
Jenkins, J. A. 1, 153, 154–5, 159, 160, 264, 476
Jillson, C. 154
Jim Crow laws 29, 140, 243, 249, 356, 414, 417, 460–1, 500, 569–71, 571, 605–6, 610, 612, 667, 670
John, R. 16, 331
Johnson, A. 455
Johnson, J. 670
Johnson, K. S. 188, 349, 606, 616, 667
Johnson, L. B. 267, 292–3, 298, 303, 374, 449, 571, 584, 613
Johnson, R. N. 159
Johnston, R. 501
Jones, B. D. 389
Jones, C. 241
Judd, D. 390
judges
appointments process 319
and the political system 319–20
in state-building 318
see also courts
judicial review 240, 319–20
Junior Order of United American Mechanics 541
juries 121
jurisprudence
innovation 6
and party building 459
Justice Department 237
Civil Rights Division 246
justice institutions, antidemocratic 651–2
Kahn, R. 668
Kameny, F. 686
Kansas City 385
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) 433, 568
Kantor, P. 388
Karol, D. 501, 526
Katz, M. 627
Katzenstein, M. F. 106
Katznelson, I. 15, 106, 149, 188, 212, 244, 273–5, 387–8, 595, 608, 616, 653, 672, 674
Kaufman, H. 329
Keck, T. 316–17
Kellstedt, P. M. 528
Kelly, A. H. 312
Kennedy, J. F. 571, 582
Kennedy, A. 317, 691, 693
Kennedy, D. 296
Kennedy, J. F. 248
Kennedy, R. 248
Kennedy, T. 52
Kentucky 356
Keohane, R. O. 15
Kernell, S. 159, 275
Kersch, K. 317, 674
Key, V. O., Jr. 15, 425, 427, 474, 495, 517
King, A. 631
King, D. S. 11, 177, 236, 243–4, 387, 501, 600, 605–6, 611, 650, 666
King, M. L., Jr. 142, 245, 392, 563, 570
Kingdon, J. 97
Klarman, M. 611
Klein, J. 629
Kleinerman, B. 302
Kloppenberg, J. 98
Knights of Labor 544, 577
Kohler-Hausmann, J. 648
Korean war 430
Kramer, G. H. 427, 430
Kruse, K. 614
Kryder, D. 666
Ku Klux Klan 249, 445, 569
Kurtz, S. 553
(p. 759) labor
movement 77–8, 577–80
protection 373
relations 316, 336, 499
unit of analysis 78
labor unions see trade unions
Lampi, P. 453–4
land 628
Lange, M. 211, 213
language 668
Lapinski, J. S. 274, 501
Lassiter, M. 614
Latham, E. 537
Latino Justice Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund 466
Latinos 445, 465
law 309–21
citizenship 315
enforcement agencies 648–50
and history 310–11, 321
ideas in 313–17
normative concerns 673–5
in political science 309–12
and racial ideology 315–16
and social relationships 192
and suffrage politics 449–50
see also courts; judges
law-making 274–5
Lawson, B. L. 160
Lax, J. 417
layering 30
Layman, G. C. 502
Layton, A. 616
leader-follower relation 86
League of Conservation Voters 582
League of Women Voters 574, 576
Lee, F. E. 508
Lee, T. 520, 612, 616
Leech, B. 556
legal institutions, and political change 668, 676
Legislative Reorganization Act(1946) 262–3
legislatures
nonpartisan 367
professionalism 368–9
states 368–9
Lend Lease Act (1941) 296
Levendusky, M. 502
Levitsky, S. 217
Levitus, D. 393
Lewis, J. L. 579
LGBTQ
forms of state recognition 684–5
and marriage 690–6
state discrimination 686–9
Liazos, A. 541
Libecap, G. D. 159
liberal contract theory 712
liberalism 137, 296, 370
anti-caste 98
and APD 103–5
consensus 96–8
Darwinian 98
defense of racial slavery 100–2
and equality 113
and health care 103–4
humanist 98
and multiple traditions 97–9, 104–5
in political arguments 105–6
reform 98
tradition 135–40
versus republicanism 315
and women’s rights 712
liberty 475
Lieberman, R. C. 176, 178, 236, 338, 604, 608, 611, 613, 631, 650, 653
Lincoln, A. 290, 291, 293, 295, 302, 407–9, 432, 518, 568
Lindblom, C. 537, 733
Linz, J. J. 171
Lippmann, W. 408
Lipset, S. M. 97, 168–9
literacy test 117, 371, 459, 462
Little Rock 248–9, 251, 297
loan guarantees 629
lobbying 544, 548, 551
Locke, J. 142, 301
locked-in 33, 40, 43
Lockwood, B. 573
Lodge, H. C. 408
Long, H. 374
(p. 760) Los Angeles 652
Louisiana 449
Lowery, D. 554
Lowi, T. J. 3, 212, 298, 733
Lowihas, T. 535
Lowndes, J. 668
Lubove, R. 627
McAdam, D. 538
McCain, J. 54, 60
McCarty, N. M. 3, 494, 496, 498, 501, 504–5, 507–8
McCloskey, R. G. 312
McConnaughy, C. 456
McCormick, R. L. 521
McCubbins, M. D. 157
McDonagh, E. L. 526, 664
McDonald, M. P. 159
McDuffie, G. 100
McGhee, E. 505
Machiavelli, N. 301
machine coalitions 384–5
McIlwain, C. H. 314
McIver, J. 403, 417
McKelvey, R. E. 151
McKelvey Chaos Theorem 2
MacKenzie, S. A. 275
McKinley, W. 408, 428, 432, 519, 521
MacKinnon, C. 123
MacKuen, M. 416–17
McMahon, K. 610, 616
Madison, J. 41, 142, 154, 346, 351, 384, 535–6, 556, 565, 728, 740
Mahoney, J. 215–16, 219–20, 457
Maine 692
Maioni, A. 174
Manley, J. 263
Manza, J. 654
markets
capitalist 69–70, 76
failure 75
free 79, 136
regulation 721–2, 735
versus state 70–3
marriage 126, 673
coverture 115, 121, 357, 674
definition 709
gays 358
and LGBTQ 690–6
miscegenation laws 667, 675, 706, 708, 710
regulation of 316, 709
spousal benefits 694
Married Women’s Property Acts 357
Marshall, T. H. 392
Martens, A. 669
Marx, A. 178
Marx, K. 194
Maryland 368, 692
Mason, A. T. 311, 314
Massachusetts 349, 454, 520, 692
maternalists 113–14, 117, 119, 122–3, 125–6, 174, 338, 357, 669
Matthew 523
Mayer, K. 294
Mayhew, D. R. 5, 11, 15, 155, 271, 474, 480
Mead, M. 132
Means, G. 732
media 506–7
reports 528
social 529
see also newspapers; press
Medicaid 15, 626, 630, 634
Medicare 15, 62, 66, 334, 336–7, 523, 525, 626, 630, 632, 634
Medicare Modernization Act (2003) 243
Meeks, C. 695–6
Mellon Plan 527
merit systems 367
Merriam, C. 383–4, 595
metonymic moment 393
Mexican Americans 465
Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund 466
Mexico 177
Michigan 687
Mickey, R. 612, 615, 667
microeconomics 73
military 234, 236
and homosexuality 689–90
recruitment 447
Milkis, S. M. 5, 188, 190, 734
(p. 761) Mill, J. S. 216
Miller, L. 646–7
Miller, W. 401, 403, 410
Mills, C. W. 537
Milner, H. 595
Milstein, A. 647, 696
Milwaukee 389
Mink, W. 673
Mink, G. 122
Mink, M. 169
Minnesota 481–2, 692
miscegenation laws 667, 675, 706, 708, 710
Mississippi 449
Missouri Compromise (1821) 601–2
Mitchell, C. 392
Model Penal Code 687
Moe, T. 291
Mollenkopf, J. H. 387–8
Monroe, A. D. 410, 527
Monroe, J. 475
Montesquieu 301
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) 570
Moore, B. 176
Moore, H. T. 449
moral behavior 357–8
Morgan, K. J. 4, 236, 243, 337
Morone, J. A. 6, 98, 189, 335
Morse, S. F. B. 196
mothers’ pensions 119, 122, 124, 373, 376, 627, 631
Mott, L. 541, 573
Moynihan, D. 250–1, 711
Muhammad, K. 654
Muir, J. 581
Mulcare, D. 602
Mulroy, Q. 616
Murphy, P. L. 312
Murphy, W. F. 311
Myrdal, G. 597, 616
Nackenoff, C. 124, 664, 669
Nall, C. 616
Nathan, R. 349
National American Women’s Suffrage Association 117–18, 370, 457, 545, 573–4, 576
National Asian Pacific American Law Center 549
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 460, 549, 551, 569–70, 611–12, 669
Legal Defense and Education Fund 449–50
National Association of Manufacturers 727
National Audubon Society 582
National Conference on Social Work 543
National Council of La Raza 549
National Education Association 542
National Environmental Policy Act(1970) 582
National Female Anti-Slavery Society 541
national forests 581
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force 690
National Labor Relations Act (1935) 113, 579, 580
National Labor Relations Board 248, 579
National Labor Union 544, 577
National Organization for Women 549, 551, 575
National Recovery Administration (1933–1935) 733
national security 340
crises 429–30
and homosexuality 685–6
state 297–9
National Trades Union 542, 577
National Woman Suffrage Association 116
National Women’s Party 545, 574
Native Americans 139–40, 445, 447, 465, 669
nativist movements 66
Natural Resource Defense Council 582
Navy Department 447
Neem, J. N. 520
Negro Political Participation study 523
Nelson, G. 582
neoliberalism 695
Neuman, R. 408
Neustadt, R. 286, 287, 288, 290, 480
Nevada 692
New Deal
and administrative power 296–7
class conflict 77
coalition 186, 414, 524, 569
elections 425, 435
equality 119–20
and federalism 349, 354–7
gender roles 574
(p. 762)
north-south divide 273
and the president 287–8, 294–300, 303, 336
public regulation 732–3
racial issues 244, 414–15, 599, 608–10, 612, 672–4
second 51, 54, 57–8, 64
social policy 374–5
social programs 672–3
state popularity 251
welfare state 273–6, 545, 608–10, 628–9, 637
working people 579
New Departure 670
New Hampshire 454, 692
New Haven 383–4, 385
New Jersey 353, 381, 692
New York City 353, 387, 582, 642, 646, 652, 687, 723
news media 267
news reports 522
newspapers 408, 478, 507
see also media; press
Nietzsche, F. 10
Nixon, R. 247, 297–8, 426, 435, 582
NOMINATE 274
DW-NOMINATE 402–3, 405–6, 411–17, 495, 498, 501
normative principles 73
normative system 82
North, D. C. 197
North Carolina 368, 454
Norton, A. 98, 142
Novak, W. J. 36, 211–13
Novkov, J. 124, 314, 599, 616, 706, 708
nuclear power 582
Obama, B. 40, 49–58, 60, 64, 66–7, 142, 145, 291–2, 296, 300, 302–4, 351, 392, 433, 450, 554, 614, 635, 693
O’Brien, R. 671
Occupy Wall Street 142
O’Connor, S. D. 317
office holding 450
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs 738
officials 376
see also bureaucrats
Ogorzalek, T. 392
Oklahoma 368
Olson, M. 537–8
O’Neill, T. 231
opinion surveys 523–4, 527
Oregon 692
Orloff, A. 173, 174
Orren, K. 1, 32, 98, 104, 113, 158, 160, 188, 190, 212, 243, 252, 301, 364, 599, 601, 606, 663, 665, 669, 696, 712
Ostrom, E. 4
Page, B. I. 410, 523, 527
parenting 694
Parker, C. 523, 545, 612, 616, 664, 666
Parks, R. 570
parties see political parties
Pascoe, P. 670, 674, 706, 710
Patashnik, E. 33
Pateman, C. 123
path dependence 186, 389
and agency 676
in APD 28, 82–3, 215
carceral state 643
definition 12
health care 104
pathway to the present 32–4, 37–8, 42
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) 103–4
Patler, N. 606
patrimonialism 125
patronage 352–3, 366–7
Patrons of Husbandry or Grange 544
Patterson, J. 610
Patty, J. W. 159
Paul, A. 117–18, 448, 458, 574
Pearson, S. J. 124
Peltason, J. W. 312
penal policy 338
Pendergrast, T. 381
Pendleton Act (1883) 234, 334, 366–7
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 634
(p. 763) pensions
Civil War 628
mothers’ 119, 122, 124, 373, 376, 627, 631
policy 634
Perkins, F. 374, 574, 578–9
Peterson, P. 383, 388–90
Petracca, M. 556
Phelan, S. 683–4
Philadelphia 231, 247, 353, 364, 381, 385, 427, 565, 652
Phillips, J. 417
picketing 448
Pierson, P. 2, 12, 212, 215, 644
Pildes, R. H. 482
Pimpare, S. 607
Pisapia, M. 124
Piven, F. F. 630
plasticity 35
Plotke, D. 185
Plott, C. 151
pluralist thinkers 538
Pocock, J. G. A. 97
polarization 12, 492–509
by party and region 496–7
causes of 501–9
elite 503
history of 495–6
issue constraint 498
public opinion 529
Southern realignment 503–4
police 234
and citizens 656
powers 316, 365–6, 369
policy 9, 33
anti-trust 272
coalitions 414
creating versus reshaping 56–8
decentralized authority 351
definition 39–40
diffusion 376–7
drift 34
effects of suffrage 446–8
entrepreneurs 42
grant-in-aid 367
and guidelines 39
ideological complexion 411–12
and majority opinion 527
mass benefits 525
no policy 40
outcomes 212
regionalism 189, 195
rule of 39
social security 34
subsystems 34
time capsules 215
policy feedback 2, 33, 50, 376
carceral state 643
and inequality 636
and public opinion 517, 524, 526–7, 545
and welfare state 632–3
policy preferences
of the affluent 525
electorate 502–3
policy state 29
the concept of 38–9
development of 37–9
theory of 39–42
policymaking
and interest groups 543–4
and public opinion 524
Political Action Committees 554
political authority, fragmentation 631
political coalitions 186, 384–5, 414, 524, 569
political development
attack on 169–71
comparative 28
concept origin 168
definition 365, 663
and gender 664
and modernization 168
and race 664
state-level 667
political education 392
political history see history
political leaders 264–8
polarization 527
and the public 399
political monopoly 384–5
political participation 399, 526
political parties 42, 153–4, 176, 233–4, 236
in APD 473–87
(p. 764)
and bureaucracy 473
caucus 155
centralization 482–3
and class formation 170
and congressional committee system 264
composition 320
conflict 457
in Congress 475–7
contemporary 483–6
decentralized 293
definition 474
emotional attachment to 477–8
exceptionalism 486
and interest groups 477, 485–6
labor-oriented 387
leadership 476
local level 477, 485
mass 154
national 485
National Committees 485
organization 477–9, 485–6
party press 477, 478
patronage 352–3, 366–7
polarized 415–16
political action committees 506
political regulation 481–2
and the president 293, 299–301, 484–5
rise of 218, 474–5, 566
teamsmanship 508
theory of realignments 498
and voting rights 452–5
weakened 478–80
political representation see representation
political science
and economics 70–5
founders 310–11
law in 309–12
and public opinion 520
political socialization 654
political time 289–90, 301, 385
politics
and culture 141–3
group basis of 537–9
of redistribution 173–5
polity-centered approach 50–1
Pollock, F. 310–11
pollution 581
Polsby, N. W. 262, 274
Polsky, A. J. 236
polyarchy 383–4
Poole, K. T. 274, 402–3, 405, 414, 492–4, 496, 498, 501, 504–5, 507–8
Populists 481
postal service 331, 335
poverty rate 626, 627, 637–8
pragmatism 36–7, 43
preferences 80–1, 83
formation of 82, 85
political 81
presidents 186–7, 194, 286–304
beyond the law 289
elections 372, 403–4, 411, 431–2, 434–6
and federal regulation 734
and foreign policy 297–9
formative actors 286–7, 290–5
and the New Deal 294–5, 295–6, 336
nomination 475, 485
and party development 216
and political parties 293, 299–301, 484–5
in political time 289–90
prerogative 301, 303
relations with Congress 237–8
and structural change 291–2
traditional and modern 480
traditional-modern divide 288–90
waivers 351
press 476–8
see also media; newspapers
previous question rule 269
Prior, M. 506
prison
labor 607
population 644
Prison Litigation Reform Act 651–2
Pritchett, C. H. 311, 312
private regulation
dominant 735
ideas 736
opposed 725–6
and public regulation 721–2
reasserted 731
(p. 765)
trusts 724
private sector 337
delegation to 249
enforcement regimes 336
policy delivery 242–3
privatization 707
process tracing 208, 217–20, 522
Professional Air Traffic Controllers Union 580
professional organizations 542, 543, 550, 553
professionalization 478
Progressive Era
administrative state 331
equality 117–19
social policy 373–4
state-building 169
see also New Deal
Progressive Party (1912) 295–6, 728
progressive reform movement 234
progressivism 193
Prohibition 335, 448, 526–7, 573
property distribution 706
property rights 316
protest
movements 5–6
tradition of 563–4
Prothro, J. 523
Przeworski, A. 452
public choice 386
public finance 190
public goods 537, 734
public opinion 288–9, 296, 516–29
Civil War 519
data 523–4
definitions 517
and democracy 522–6
indicators of 408–9
institutionalization 521
measurement 517, 521
methodology 526–9
perceptions of 518
and policymaking 524, 527
and political science 520
surveys 403, 409
public regulation
academic objections to 737–8
calls for 726–9
expansionary periods 729–30
from private regulation 721–2
ideas 734–5
public safety 644–5, 651
public values 313
public-private connections 236
Puerto Ricans 465
Puritan legend 140–1
Puritanism 518
Putnam, R. 137–8, 546
Quadagno, J. 631, 653
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) 216
qualitative methods 207–21
Rabban, D. 311
race 177–8
and administrative state 338
in APD 593–617
conflict 631
definition 594
and the early republic 600–3
and elections 430–1
exclusion and subordination 606–7
and federalism 355–6
hierarchies 666
inequality 243, 252, 597, 600, 614–15
lesser 594–5
minorities 62
north-south divide 272–3
and political development 664
politics 596–7
relations 596–7
and the welfare state 607–8, 653–4, 674
racial formation 596–7
racial ideology 315–16
racial orders 594
Rae, D. 390
ranking minority member, congressional committees 484
Rast, J. 389
rational choice
and APD 148–50, 259
evolution of 150–2
methodology 148–9, 150–1
(p. 766)
origins 148
theory 80–1, 83–4
Rayburn, S. 266
Reagan, R. 291, 297, 299–301, 303, 428, 434, 496, 580, 583, 614, 627, 731, 733, 735, 737–8
realignment synthesis 39
realignment theory 498
recall 366
Reconstruction Finance Corporation 240
redistribution 57–8, 63, 173–5
Reed, R. 709
Reed Rules 157, 265
Reed, T. B. 157, 265, 270, 464, 726
referendum 366–7
reform coalitions 384–5
regime theory 389
regulation
dialectics of 729–38
environment 738
federal agencies 730
and federalism 334, 734
and markets 735
regulatory capture 733
regulatory state 721–40
Rehabilitation Act (1970) 671
Rehnquist, W. 351
Rehnquist Court 317
religion 11, 81, 540,