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date: 29 February 2020

(p. xi) List of Figures

(p. xi) List of Figures

  1. 1.1 The Cogidubnus inscription from Chichester, Sussex. From Gale (1723). Reproduced by permission of Durham University Library. 7

  2. 1.2 Plan of a Roman villa excavated by Samuel Lysons at Bignor in Sussex. Source: Lysons (1815: plate 19). Reproduced by permission of Durham University Library. 10

  3. 1.3 Knook Castle and British villages, Wiltshire. Source: Hoare (1810). Reproduced by permission of Durham University Library. 12

  4. 1.4 The civil and military districts. Source: Haverfield (1912: figure 1). Reproduced by permission of Durham University Library. 15

  5. 1.5 The Roman site at Chesters (Cilurnum) showing the excavated areas and ‘forum’. Source: Budge (1903: opposite p. 98). Reproduced by permission of Durham University Library. 16

  6. 1.6 Sketch plan of the graves forming a ‘family circle’ at Aylesford, Kent. Source: Evans (1890: figure 4). Reproduced by permission of Durham University Library. 17

  7. 3.1 Excavation of a major Roman building by Oxford Archaeology South in advance of housing development just outside the walled town of Cirencester in 2009. Source: © Oxford Archaeology South, with thanks to Berkeley Homes for agreement to reproduce. 45

  8. 3.2 Volunteers excavating Building 16 at Piddington villa, Northamptonshire, in 2012. Source: © Pete Wilson. 46

  9. 3.3 Volunteers excavating the sequence of barracks in the north-west quadrant of the fort at Vindolanda in 2011. Source: © The Vindolanda Trust. 53

  10. 3.4 Combined geophysical surveys undertaken by the Landscape Research Centre with the support of Historic England and the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund on the southern side of the Vale of Pickering, North Yorkshire; depicts more than 1.5 kilometres of late Iron Age and Roman trackside ribbon development or ‘ladder settlement’ in addition to a wealth of other prehistoric and post Roman features. Source: © Landscape Research Centre. 55

  11. 4.1 Gender profiles in artefact studies. (a) Percentage of men and women with published articles on small finds listed in the Society of Antiquaries (p. xii) subject catalogue from 1900 to 1988 (end date of catalogue). (b) Percentage of men and women publishing articles in Britannia 1970–89 (excluding reviews). (c) Subject of articles by women in Britannia 1970–89 (excluding reviews). Source: © Ellen Swift. 78

  12. 5.1 Memorandum on wooden leaf tablet from Vindolanda, referring to the British use of cavalry (Tab. Vindol. II. 164): dimensions 78 x 186 millimetres. After a punctuation mark in l. 4, the text reads: ‘nec residunt | Brittunculi ut iaculos | mittant’ (‘nor do the Brits mount in order to throw javelins’). Source: Full text and translation in Bowman and Thomas (1994: 107–108). © The Trustees of the British Museum. 97

  13. 5.2 Sale of a slave girl, Fortunata, recorded on a stylus tablet from London, drawn by R. Tomlin: dimensions c. 140 x 114 millimetres, probably one of three tablets. The writing survived as scratches in the wooden tablet, becoming illegible where a triangular patch of the original wax still survived; [p]‌uellam Fortunatam are the first two words of l. 3. Source: Full text and translation in Tomlin (2003, 2011). © Roger Tomlin. 98

  14. 5.3 Curse tablet no. 43 from the sanctuary of Mercury at Uley, Gloucestershire, drawn by R. Tomlin: dimensions c. 95 x 83 millimetres. Docilinus asks Mercury to drive Varianus, Peregrina, and Sabinianus to death for injuring his farm animal unless they redeem their action. Source: Text and translation in Hassall and Tomlin (1989: 329–331, no. 3) and Tomlin (2002: 172). © Roger Tomlin. 99

  15. 5.4 Tile with personal-name graffito scratched before firing, Candid[us]. From a fourth-century deposit at Hayton, East Yorkshire. Source: Tomlin and Hassall (2001: 393). Photograph: M. Millett. 101

  16. 5.5 Tombstone of Classicianus from London: pieces as displayed in the British Museum with reconstruction of original monument drawn by Richard Grasby (Grasby and Tomlin 2002: figure 21), slightly adjusted. Reconstructed text (as in RIB 12): ‘Dis | [M]‌anibus | [G(ai) Iul(i) G(ai) f(ili) F]ab(ia tribu) Alpini Classiciani | … | … | proc(uratoris) provinc(iae) Brita[nniae] | Iulia Indi filia Pacata I[ndiana(?)] | uxor [f(ecit)]’ (‘To the spirits of the departed (and) of Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus, son of Gaius, of the Fabian voting-tribe … procurator of the province of Britain, Julia Pacata I[ndiana], daughter of Indus, his wife, had this built’). Source: Photograph © The Trustees of the British Museum. 103

  17. 5.6 Europa and the bull with two cupids in front of the presumed semicircular couch in the apse of the dining room at Lullingstone villa, Kent. The inscription (RIB 2448.6) reads: ‘Invida si ta[uri] vidisset Iuno natatus | Iustius Aeolias isset adusque domos’ (‘If jealous Juno had seen the swimming of the bull, more justly would she have gone to the palace of Aeolus’). Source: © Alamy. 106

  18. (p. xiii) 9.1 Distribution of Roman military sites in Scotland. (a) Flavian (c. ad 78–86); (b) Antonine (c. ad 139–165). Source: Reproduced by courtesy of Professor D. J. Breeze. 183

  19. 9.2 The Antonine military complex at Inveresk (East Lothian). Source: Drawing by Alan Braby. 187

  20. 9.3 Distribution of Roman finds from non-Roman sites north of Hadrian’s Wall. (a) overall distribution; (b) middle Roman Iron Age c. ad 160–250 (the sites of Birnie and Traprain Law, mentioned in the text, are marked: *represents find-spots of denarius hoards); (c) late Roman Iron Age c. ad 250–400; *marks the major centres of Traprain Law, Edinburgh Castle, Eildon Hill, and Dumbarton Rock. Source: © Fraser Hunter. 191

  21. 10.1 Epigraphically recorded age of travellers to Rome 30–600 ad as recorded by Noy (2000) and for the late antique west by Handley (2011). Source: after Handley (2011: graphs 1 and 2). © Department of Archaeology, University of Reading. 205

  22. 10.2 Strontium and oxygen isotope data of humans from Lankhills/Winchester, contrasting burials identified as ‘intrusive’ according to Clarke’s criteria (1979) with other burials from the site; the two boxes indicate the local strontium isotope range for Winchester and estimates for the range of oxygen isotope values consistent with a childhood in Britain based on human skeletal phosphate (δ18Op) data available in 2009 (thin line) and 2012 (thick line). Source: after Evans et al. (2006) and Eckardt et al. (2009). © Department of Archaeology, University of Reading. 212

  23. 10.3 Reconstruction of the so-called ‘Ivory Bangle Lady’ from York. Source: © Aaron Watson. 215

  24. 11.1 Map showing areas of the Roman Empire with military units on Hadrian’s Wall. Source: © Rob Witcher, illustration by Christina Unwin. 229

  25. 11.2 Regina’s tombstone. Source: © Claire Nesbitt. 239

  26. 12.1 Distribution of British brooches. Source: Brooches distribution partly after Morris (2010: 86, figure 4.35 and appendix 6); map by author. © Tatiana Ivleva. 250

  27. 12.2 Britons abroad: profession and status. Source: © Tatiana Ivleva. 252

  28. 12.3 Distribution of the military diplomas (star), funerary (circle), and votive (diamond-shape) inscriptions mentioning British emigrants. Source: Map by author. © Tatiana Ivleva. 253

  29. 13.1 Distribution of cremation burials in late Iron Age Britain. Source: after Fitzpatrick (1997). © T. Moore. 263

  30. 13.2 Comparison of late Iron Age cremation burials from (a) Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, and (b) Clemency, Luxembourg. Source: © British Museum and Musée National d’Histoire et d’Art, Luxembourg. 265

  31. (p. xiv) 13.3 Similarities in villa layouts from northern Gaul and Britain. Source: © T. Moore. 269

  32. 13.4 Approximate distribution of Romano-Celtic temples. Source: after Derks (1998). © T. Moore. 271

  33. 16.1 Percentage of burials with grave goods with each age category at Colchester, Poundbury, and Lankhills. Source: © Alison Moore. 327

  34. 16.2 Percentage of total burials with grave goods at East London, Gloucester, and York. Source: © Alison Moore. 332

  35. 16.3 Percentage of aged burials with grave goods at rural sites in western and eastern regions of southern Roman Britain. Source: © Alison Moore. 333

  36. 17.1 Bronze and ceramic vessels in grave 6260, the cremation burial of an adult (ad 5–80), from a rural settlement at Tollgate, Springhead. The bronze jug, pan, and mixing bowl as well as two ceramic flagons were placed beneath a table. On this were piled terra nigra and terra rubra platters, beakers, cups, and local copies. The skull and forelimb of a pig were found close by, as was the cremated bone. One or more boards with glass gaming pieces and bone dice lay closer to the grave’s centre. Source: courtesy of Oxford Archaeology. 350

  37. 17.2 A bronze drinking vessel found at Llantilio Pertholey near Abergavenny with a handle in the form of a snarling leopard with inlaid silver and amber (PAS NMGW-9A9D16). Fieldwork subsequent to its discovery by metal-detecting revealed the original funerary context. Source: courtesy of National Museums and Galleries of Wales. 352

  38. 19.1 Comparative age of decapitated and non-decapitated inhumations along the Fen Edge. Source: © B. Crerar. 391

  39. 19.2 Comparative sex of decapitated and non-decapitated inhumations along the Fen Edge. Source: © B. Crerar. 392

  40. 19.3 Comparative grave-good allocation for decapitated and non-decapitated inhumations along the Fen Edge. Source: © B. Crerar. 393

  41. 19.4 Comparative coffin allocation for decapitated and non-decapitated inhumations along the Fen Edge. Source: © B. Crerar. 394

  42. 19.5 Comparative posture of decapitated and non-decapitated inhumations along the Fen Edge. Source: © B. Crerar. 395

  43. 19.6 Guilden Morden cemetery, showing distribution of decapitated burials, adapted from Fox and Lethbridge (1926: figure 1) and Lethbridge (1934: site plan). Source: © B. Crerar. 398

  44. 20.1 Chronological and regional distributions of brooches. Note: The area and type labels are those given in Table 20.1 when not otherwise specified. Figures 20.1 (a-c) are Correspondence Analysis plots that show which regions have higher proportions of which types. Source: Data derived from Mackreth (2011). © Hilary Cool. 414

  45. (p. xv) 25.1 Map showing quantitative evidence for the distribution of Severn Valley wares, in comparison with the core distribution of the western Iron Age coinage group. Note: Columns represent the percentage at a site; dashes represent sites without Severn Valley wares. Known kiln sites producing Severn Valley wares are shown. Both the contour map and the bar plots show that there is a very sharp fall-off at the edge of the distribution of the fabrics. Source: © J. Evans. 512

  46. 25.2 Map showing the core areas of the seven regional coin series of Iron Age Britain, after Creighton (2000: figure A.1), compared with the distribution of Dressel 1 amphorae finds, after Fitzpatrick (1985), and the distribution of pre-conquest Romanized toilet instruments (Hill 1997). Source: © J. Evans. 516

  47. 26.1 Map of Roman Britain showing selected sites with evidence for goldworking. Source: © David Dungworth. 533

  48. 26.2 Principal lead-silver orefields and sites of primary silver extraction. Source: © David Dungworth. 536

  49. 26.3 Zinc and lead content of Colchester-type brooches (single piece construction and made of brass) and Colchester derivative brooches (multiple component construction and made of leaded bronze). Source: © David Dungworth. 540

  50. 26.4 Silver content of denarii and zinc content of contemporary sestertii and dupondii (data from Walker 1976–8; Dungworth 1996). Source: © David Dungworth. 541

  51. 26.5 Principal iron production sites. Source: © David Dungworth. 544

  52. 26.6 Dated Roman iron production sites in the Weald, after Cleere (1974). Source: © David Dungworth. 545

  53. 28.1 Kernel density plot of the distributions of ‘broad period Roman’ styli recorded by the Portable Antiquities Scheme as of 17 January 2014, plotted against selected constraints. Source: Robbins 2014: figure 4 for constraints, with kind permission of the author; background map data from Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service, Crown Copyright/database right 2013. Produced by L. Wallace. 580

  54. 28.2 Tomlin’s line drawing of Tab. Sulis 18. Source: Reproduced with the kind permission of the author. 581

  55. 28.3 Tomlin’s line drawing of Tab. Sulis 30. Source: Reproduced with the kind permission of the author. 583

  56. 28.4 Tomlin’s line drawing of the lead curse tablet at Red Hill, Ratcliffe-on-Soar. Source: Hassall and Tomlin (1993: 311), reproduced with the kind permission of the author. 586

  57. 28.5 Latin and Ogam-inscribed stone, St Dogmaels/Llandudoch, Pembrokeshire, Wales, (a) photograph, (b) drawing and transcription. (p. xvi) Source: © Crown copyright: Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales. 589

  58. 29.1 Finds per site of anthropomorphic sculpture. 601

  59. 29.2 Zoning of sculpture quality. 605

  60. 30.1 Distribution of inscribed votive altars from Roman Britain. Source: after Millett (1995a: 110). © Amy Zoll. 623

  61. 30.2 Main concentrations of votive altars. Source: after Millett (1995a: 110), temples after Millett (1995a: 112); TOT rings after Daubney (2010: 112). © Amy Zoll. 625

  62. 30.3 Distribution of votive inscriptions dedicated to the gods Cocidius, Belatucadrus, and Vitiris/Veteres, including double-named variants. Source: after Zoll (1995a). © Amy Zoll. 631

  63. 32.1 Silver ring with early Christian symbol (anchor and fish) from the Roman fort at Binchester, County Durham. Source: © Durham University. 665

  64. 32.2 Potential Roman church from Silchester, Hampshire. Based on Frere (1975: figure 1). Source: © David Petts. 667

  65. 32.3 Painted wall plaster from Lullingstone Roman villa (Kent) showing chi-rho symbol flanked by an alpha and omega. Source: © The Trustees of the British Museum. 669

  66. 34.1 Magnetometer survey of part of the Roman landscape in the Vale of Pickering, North Yorkshire. Across the top of the image a trackway runs east-west, flanked on either side by settlement enclosures and small fields. Beyond these to the south are the fainter traces of a series of fields bounded by ditches. Superimposed on these, in the northern zone, the back dots represent grubenhaüser (sunken-featured buildings) of Early Medieval date. To the south the land rises towards the Yorkshire Wolds and the ancient landscape is obscured by deposits of wind-blown sand. Source: Courtesy of Dominic Powlesland, Landscape Research Centre. 702

  67. 34.2 Plan of the Roman villa at Fishbourne, Sussex, in the later first century ad showing the approach from the east and associated structures. Source: Drawn by Lacey Wallace, after Cunliffe (1971); Cunliffe et al. (1996); Manley and Rudkin (2003). 705

  68. 34.3 Plans showing the development of the Roman villa and associated structures at Frocester Court, Gloucestershire. Source: Drawn by Lacey Wallace, based on Price (2000–10). 707

  69. 34.4 Plan of the nucleated rural settlement at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, in the late third–fourth centuries ad. A series of buildings set within enclosures flank the Roman road, which runs along (p. xvii) the valley of the river Nene just above the flood plain. Source: Illustration from Lawrence and Smith (2009), reproduced courtesy of Oxford Archaeology. 709

  70. 34.5 Photograph of a domestic building (Figure 34.4, No. 10810) within the nucleated rural settlement at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire. The Roman road and the river Nene are visible in the background. Source: Illustration from Lawrence and Smith (2009), reproduced courtesy of Oxford Archaeology. 710

  71. 34.6 Cut-away reconstruction drawing of the third-century aisled hall excavated at Shiptonthorpe, East Yorkshire. Source: Drawing by Mark Faulkner, from Millett (2006). 713

  72. 34.7 Aerial photograph of part of the Roman landscape at Burnby Lane, Hayton, East Yorkshire, looking north-east. The valley of the Burnby Beck runs down the centre of the photograph, with its relict course showing as a light crop-mark against the darker green of the flood plain. On either side of this damp ground can be seen a series of settlement enclosures. On the left a length of boundary ditch is also visible. This runs parallel with the stream, and formed one side of a droveway that linked the lowlands to the south-west with the Wolds to the north-east, allowing animals to be moved for seasonal grazing. Source: Photograph by Peter Halkon, courtesy of the Hayton Project. 716

  73. 35.1 Correspondence analysis highlighting differences in the composition of pottery assemblages (top) by vessel form (bottom) in the hinterland of Roman London and Colchester, c. 50 bcad 250. Note: Details of abbreviations are outlined in Table 35.1. © Martin Pitts. 727

  74. 35.2 Pottery assemblages from Roman London, Essex, and Cambridgeshire plotted according to the percentage prevalence of lids versus jars, c. 50 bcad 250 Source: after Perring and Pitts (2013). © Martin Pitts. 729

  75. 35.3 Multidimensional scaling analysis of the prevalence of non-work-related health conditions in late Roman Britain. Source: after Pitts and Griffin (2012). © Martin Pitts. 733

  76. 35.4 Comparison of the Gini coefficient of inequality with the mean number of furnishings per grave for selected Romano-British cemeteries Source: after Pitts and Griffin (2012), with additions. © Martin Pitts. 736

  77. 36.1 Map of southern Britain with the main settlements mentioned in the chapter. Source: © A. C. Rogers. 744

  78. 36.2 Plan of pits, shafts, and timber-fenced enclosures excavated within the centre of Roman Dorchester (Durnovaria) at the Greyhound Yard site, 1981–4. Source: adapted from Woodward and Woodward (2004: figure 1). © A. C. Rogers. 753

  79. (p. xviii) 36.3 Plan of the relationship between the fortress and later colonia at Colchester; the walls around the town were constructed in the early second century ad; the theatre and temple were constructed within the fortress annexe. Source: adapted from Crummy (1993: figure 2.9). © A. C. Rogers. 754

  80. 36.4 Plan of the relationship between the town wall circuit and enigmatic earthworks at Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum) possibly associated with the earlier oppidum here. Source: adapted from Fulford (1984: figure 85). 757

  81. 37.1 Plan of Caerwent forum, with location of probable curia marked. Source: Adapted from Brewer (2006: 39). 770

  82. 37.2 Plan of Silchester forum with known and approximate locations of inscriptions and statues indicated. Source: P. Copeland; adapted from Isserlin (1998: figure 9.1) with additions. 771

  83. 37.3 Plan of Canterbury. Source: (Millett 2007: figure 5.15). Reproduced by kind permission of the Kent History Project, Kent County Council, from plans provided by the Canterbury Archaeological Trust. 775

  84. 37.4 Plan of Wroxeter. Source: (White et al. 2013: figure 4.21). 777

  85. 39.1 (a) Charred spelt wheat grain, showing infestation by a grain weevil from a third/fourth century corn drier at Grateley South, Hampshire; Photo: Gill Campbell; © English Heritage; reproduced by kind permission of English Heritage; (b) Charred remains of the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) from a deposit filled with charred ‘rubbings’ of malted spelt in an early/mid Roman ditch at Northfleet villa, Kent ([D.] Smith 2011); Photo: David Smith; (c) Charred germinated spelt grains from a late Roman corn drier at Northfleet villa, Kent ([W.] Smith 2011: Plate 9); © High Speed 1 Ltd; image reproduced with the kind permission of High Speed 1 Ltd; (d) Charred detached spelt grain sprouts from a late Roman ditch at Northfleet villa, Kent ([W.] Smith 2011: Plate 10); © High Speed 1 Ltd; image reproduced with the kind permission of High Speed 1 Ltd; (e) Charred coriander; one of a cache of more than 1,000 coriander fruits found on the floor of a shop in Colchester that was burnt down during the Boudiccan Revolt of ad 6/61. The material was recovered as part of the excavations carried out at 45-6 High Street (Murphy 1977); Photo: Gill Campbell; © English Heritage; image reproduced by kind permission of English Heritage; (f) Waterlogged olives from a latrine block at the rear of a first century tavern at 1 Poultry, London (Davis 2011: figure 39. 275); Photo: Andy Chopping; image reproduced by kind permission of Museum of London Archaeology. 811

  86. 39.2 Predominant mode of preservation for the three main categories of food and fibre crops, based on the total number of occurrences of each of these plants in archaeobotanical assemblages from Roman Britain. Source: after Van der Veen (2008); Van der Veen et al. (2008). 815

  87. (p. xix) 39.3 Frequency patterns of selected foods, waterlogged records only. a) foods that initially increase but then decline; b) foods that increase over time; c) foods that decline over time. N = number of records with waterlogged remains. Source: after Van der Veen (2008); Van der Veen et al. (2008). 818

  88. 39.4 A near complete waterlogged imported pine cone (Pinus pinea) from a late third/early fourth century ditch fill containing possible other votive objects at Clatterford Roman villa (McPhillips 2001). Source: © English Heritage; image reproduced by kind permission of English Heritage. 824

  89. 40.1 Roman coins recorded by the Portable Antiquities Scheme. Source: © Philippa Walton. 835

  90. 40.2 BERK-65D307—a Roman Republican denarius issued in c. 207 bc found in Berkshire. Source: © Portable Antiquities Scheme. 837

  91. 40.3 The Frome hoard being excavated. Source: © Somerset County Museums Service. 842

  92. 40.4 The Coleraine Hoard (County Antrim) deposited in the first half of the fifth century ad. Source: © The Trustees of the British Museum. 845

  93. 41.1 Plan of the roadside settlement at Higham Ferrers. Source: (after Lawrence and Smith 2009: figure 2.18). © James Gerrard/Andrew Agate. 854

  94. 41.2 Plan of the Roman villa at Turkdean. Source: (after Holbrook 2004: figure 4). © James Gerrard/Andrew Agate. 857

  95. 41.3 The distribution of villas near Ilchester: 1) Dinnington, 2) Lopen, 3) Seavington St Mary, 4) Ilchester Mead, 5) Batemoor Barn, 6) Lufton, 7) West Coker, 8) East Coker, 9) Westlands. Source: © James Gerrard/Andrew Agate. 858

(p. xx)