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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 869) Index

(p. 869) Index

Figures and tables are indicated by “f” and “t” following page numbers.

Acculturation, 276, 288, 386, 836
Actor–Network Theory, 499
Adams, J. N., 578, 588–589, 592n8
Adler, P. S., 225
Adolescence. See Childhood and adolescence
ADS (Archaeology Data Service), 50
Aerial photography, 54–55, 30, 700, 703, 715, 716f
Age. See also Life course
biological, 322, 323
burial patterns and, 313–314, 322–323, 325–331, 327f, 328t, 330t
chronological, 322, 331
of decapitated burials, 391f, 392–393
epitaphs and, 327–328, 329
gender and, 322
identity and, 304, 314, 322
at marriage, 305, 329
of skeletal remains, 307, 323
social, 322, 324
Agricola (Tacitus), 4, 8, 110, 226
Agricola, military campaigns under, xxx–xxxi, 184
Agriculture. See Farming
Akerman, J., 65
Albarella, U., 798, 800
Allason-Jones, Lindsay, 365, 366, 464
Allectus, xxxiii–xxxiv
Allen, Denise, 470
Allen, J., 517–518
Allison, Pim E., 362, 366, 373, 450
Amalgam-gilding technique, 534
Ammianus Marcellinus, 110
Amphitheatres, 759, 779, 780, 782
Anderson, A. W., 227
Androcentricism, 366, 367
Anglesey, Roman conquest of, xxx, xxxi
Animals, 791–806
birds, 654, 800–801
cattle, 651, 792–795, 814
dogs and cats, 653–654, 799
donkeys and mules, 799
fish, 801
horses, 798–799
hunted animals, 799–800
overview, 791
pigs, 797–798
ritual deposition of, 646, 650, 651, 653–654
sheep and goats, 650, 795–797
zooarchaeological evidence for, 791–792, 802
Antiquarians, artefact studies by, 63–64
Antonine Wall
abandonment of, xxxii
building process, 185
forts along, 14
as frontier, 224
inscriptions from, 8, 293
votive altars at, 622
Antoninus Pius, xxxi–xxxii, 183f, 185
Appearance. See Personal appearance
Arable farming, 808–810, 812–814
Archaeologia Aeliana (journal), 23, 28, 64
Archaeology. See also Bioarchaeology; Romano-British archaeology
behavioural archaeology, 486
cognitive archaeology, 487, 488–489
funding for projects, 23, 24, 48–50, 179–180
in higher education, 32–33, 35
memory and, 682–684
multiculturalism in interpretations, 216–217 (p. 870)
New Archaeology movement, 32, 382, 383, 485
professionalization of, 44, 48
rescue archaeology, 44, 47, 50, 26, 27, 32
symmetrical archaeology, 487, 488
in United Kingdom, 43–44
zooarchaeology, 791–802. See also Animals
Archaeology Data Service (ADS), 50
The Archaeology of 'Race': Exploring the Northern Frontier in Roman Britain exhibition (2009), 216
Archaeology of Ritual and Magic (Merrifield), 82
The Archaeology of Roman Britain (Collingwood & Richmond), 77, 483
Arch of Constantine (Rome), 685
Aristotelian approach to identity, 246
Armour, 452, 465–468
Art, 599–618
Celtic, 181–182
coinage as, 600
dating challenges for, 602
distribution of, 600–602, 601f
interpretations of, 612–614, 615
mosaics. See Mosaics
overview, 599–600
paintings. See Wall-paintings
patron–client relationships in, 607–608
pottery as, 600
producers of, 606–609
quality of, 602–604, 606, 614–615
religious, 610, 613
sculpture. See Sculpture
users and uses of, 609–611, 615
Artefact studies, 63–96. See also Material culture; Materiality; specific types of artefacts
in 1930s–1970s, 76–79, 79
in 1970s and beyond, 79–83
antiquarian interest in, 63–64
archaeological approaches to, 64–73, 66–71t
classification and interpretation of, 65, 69–76
overview, 63
profile of artefact researchers, 82–83
publication of, 73–74
social use of space derived from, 188
technological innovations in, 83–84
text-based scholarship vs., 83, 84
by women, 72, 77, 78f, 81–82, 82–83
Arthropathy, 397
Arthur, P., 519
Ashanti tribe, 388
Aspöck, E., 389, 400
Assman, Aleida and Jan, 682
Atlas of Roman Rural Settlement (Taylor), 687, 708
Augustus, xxix, 152, 163, 685
Aurelian, xxxiii
Aylesford–Swarling tradition, 159–160, 511, 689
Babenberg dynasty, burial practices of, 388
Baker, Patricia, 367, 555
Balty, J. C., 769
Baptism, 670–672
Barates of Palmyra, 214, 238, 240, 298
Barbarino, J. L., 587
Barbarous radiate coinage, 842–843
Barber, B., 387
Barber, E. W., 419
Barker, Phil, 27, 31
Barley, 808, 814
Barrett, A. A., 105
Basilicas, 122, 492, 495, 666, 769, 772
Bathing, 349, 351, 373, 495, 714, 780–782
Bath tablet collections, 100, 108, 109, 580–583, 581f, 583f
Bayesian statistical analysis, 179
Bayford grave assemblages, 349, 351
Bayley, J., 420
Beaumont, J., 315
Beer production, 810, 812–813, 861–862
Behavioural archaeology, 486
Biddle, Martin, 27
Bignor villa, excavation of, 9, 10f, 26
Bilingualism, 577–578, 579, 584, 588, 591
Bioarchaeology
of childhood, 306–308, 315, 316
in gender studies, 372, 374
medicine and, 567
(p. 871) Biological age, 322, 323
Birdoswald site
cemetery excavations at, 236, 457–458
geophysical surveys of, 55
purse hoard from, 840
Birds, 654, 800–801
Birley, Anthony R., 31, 37, 455
Birley, Eric, 43, 25–26, 27–28, 455
Birley, Robin, 26
Biró, M., 622
Bishop, Mike, 468
Black, E., 654
Blacksmithing, 548, 549
Blagg, Tom, 36, 774
Boar, 800
Bonsall, L., 374
Boon, G. C., 76, 78
Booth, Paul, 434, 522
Boudican Revolt (AD 60), xxx, 117, 119, 121, 459–460, 514
Bowman, A. K., 96, 104
Boylston, A., 384
Bradley, Richard, 50, 683
Brailsford, J. W., 517
Brass, 532, 538, 541
Braund, D., 163
Bread wheat, 814
Breastfeeding, 308–309
Breeze, David, 36, 227
Brigantes tribe, xxx
Britannia (Camden), 3–4, 5, 7
Britannia: A History of Roman Britain (Frere), 43, 30, 483
Britannia: The Creation of a Roman Province (Creighton), 125
British School at Rome (BSR), 28, 29
Brochs, 179, 180, 190, 194, 606
Bronze, 493, 532, 538, 540, 839, 844
Bronze Age
burials, 314, 345
continental contacts in, 155
feasting in, 161
gold in, 157
hillfort construction in, 156
monuments of, 686–687
Brooches
artefact studies of, 71, 72, 73, 78
British adoption of, 159
at burial sites, 257–257
Celtic nature of, 76, 82, 188
chronological and regional distribution of, 411–413, 412t, 414f, 415–416
coloured, 415–416
cross-bow, 275–276, 370, 13, 417
evidentiary sources for, 420
gender and, 135, 370, 413, 415
metal content of, 540, 540f
military, 469
in mobility studies, 207, 249, 250, 250f, 255–258
ritual deposition of, 655
Brougham burial site
age-related patterns at, 343, 368
child burials at, 324
cremation at, 437
diversity of remains at, 214
gender patterns at, 343, 368, 372
inscriptions at, 439, 458
material culture at, 236–237, 275, 346
Bruce, John Collingwood, 14
Bruhn, J., 275
BSR (British School at Rome), 28, 29
Building dedications, 287, 292
Burials, 341–362. See also Cremation; Funerary process; Tombstones; specific burial sites
age-related patterns in, 313–314, 322–323, 325–331, 327f, 328t, 330t
Bronze Age, 314, 345
brooches at, 256–257
of children, 310–315
Christian, 672–674
coffins for, 348–348, 394f, 396, 428, 430–431
decontextualization of, 145
demarcation of, 353–351, 439
destruction and degradation of, 343
deviant. See Deviant burials
family circle graves, 16, 17f
in frontier zones, 236–237
gender patterns in, 313, 326–329, 328t, 330, 330t, 368–369
Iron Age, 151, 159–161, 344, 345
material culture in, 145, 236–237, 349–352, 350f, 352f, 437–438
in military community, 457
overview, 341–342
plaster, 347, 430
pre-interment rituals for, 345–347
regional variations in, 331–333, 332–333f
spatial organization of, 352–353, 368–369, 433–434
urban vs. rural, 343, 353–354, 431–432, 735–736, 736f
Bushe-Fox, J. P., 26, 28, 73, 74, 75
Butcher, S., 420
Butt Road cemetery
age-related patterns at, 322
baptismal font at, 671
child burials at, 309–310, 313–314, 325
church structures at, 667
clothing at, 407
gender patterns at, 313
spatial organization of, 433, 673
Caerwent site
amphitheatre at, 779
bathing complex at, 781
cattle at, 794
coin assemblages from, 844
development of, 745, 755
forum at, 492, 768, 769, 770f, 772
pigs at, 797, 798
transformation of, 495
twentieth-century excavations of, 23
Caesar. See Julius Caesar
Caistor-by-Norwich
bathing complex at, 781
development of, 755
forum at, 769, 772
public buildings at, 785
temples at, 776–777, 778
theatre at, 779
Caligula, xxix
Cambridgeshire, decapitated burials in, 389–399, 390t, 391–395f, 398f
Camden, William, 3, 5–6, 7, 18, 19
Camulodunum site
construction of, 756
continuity at, 128–130
Iron Age settlement at, 26
pottery from, 28
Canterbury
bathing complex at, 495, 781
burial sites at, 167, 356, 467
coin assemblages from, 844
establishment of, 165, 755
grave goods at, 438
silver hoard from, 664
theatre at, 789, 779
urban structure of, 774, 775f
Cantonal system, 748
Caracalla, xxxiii, 185, 255, 344
Carausius, xxxiii, 452
Carbon isotope analysis, 212–213
Care of children, 307–310
Carlisle site, 98, 99, 184, 746
Carroll, M., 204
Casey, John, 32, 80, 85
Cassius Dio, 110, 119, 152, 248, 746–747
Castgore site, 853, 854–855, 857–858
Cats, 799
Catterick burials, 370, 371
Cattle, 651, 792–795, 814
CBA (Council for British Archaeology), 29, 52
The Celt, the Roman and the Saxon (Wright), 11
Celtic–Latin bilingualism, 577–578, 579, 584, 588, 591
Celtic peoples
art of, 181–182
languages of, 575–578, 580–584, 581f
as subalterns, 4–5, 8–10, 13, 18
Cementation technique, 541
Cemeteries. See Burials; Tombstones
Centuries of Childhood (Ariès), 303
Ceramics. See Pottery
Cereal crops, 808, 809, 813
Chamberlain, A. T., 311
Champion, Timothy, 150
Charles-Edwards, T., 588
Charlesworth, D., 76
Cheesman, G. L., 24
Chesters, excavated forum at, 14, 16f
(p. 873) Chickens, 800
Childhood and adolescence, 303–321. See also Infancy; Life course
age and sex determination, 306–307
bioarchaeology of, 306–310, 315, 316
classical perspectives on, 304–306
culturally specific constructions of, 303, 304, 306
diet in, 308–309
diseases of, 308, 309
funerary evidence of, 310–315
future directions for research, 315–316
health and care considerations in, 307–310
overview, 303–304
rites of passage in, 305
Childhood in the Past (journal), 304
Chi-rho symbol, 663, 664, 668–670, 669f, 671
Chorography, 5–6
Christianity, 660–680. See also Religion
baptism in, 670–671
in Britain, 11, 143, 387
churches and, 143–144, 409, 454, 665–670, 667f, 669f
death and burial in, 672–674
documentary evidence for, 661–663, 674
early Christianity, 660–661
in Gaul, 143
hairstyles influenced by, 419
imagery and symbolism in, 663–664, 668–670
martyrdom and, 662
material culture and, 663–665, 665f
in military community, 454
in mosaics, 669–670, 671
overview, 660
paganism, relationship with, 675
regional variations in, 675–676
in wall-paintings, 143, 661, 668–669, 669f
Chronological age, 322, 331
Churches, 143–144, 409, 454, 665–670, 667f, 669f
Cicero, 681, 682
Cirencester site
amphitheatre at, 759, 780
cattle at, 793, 794
fort at, 754
forum at, 769, 771, 772
graves goods at, 329, 330t
organization of excavations at, 27, 45, 45f
pottery at, 523
public buildings at, 785
sheep at, 795
sustained occupation of, 14
temple at, 776
theatre at, 782
Cities. See Urban areas
Citizenship, Roman, 232–233, 452
Civil districts, 14, 15f, 18
Clarke, G., 208
Clarke, S., 188, 642, 652
Classicianus, 103, 103f, 110, 293, 353, 434
Claudia Rufina, 7, 254, 410
Claudius, xxix, 6, 119, 127, 341
Clay, C., 204
Cleere, H. F., 546, 549
Client-kingdoms, 510, 511–513, 514
Clodius Albinus, xxxii
Clothing, 406–424. See also Brooches; Personal appearance
accessories, 135–136, 159, 249
evidentiary sources for, 406–410, 419–420
footwear, 410, 420, 438, 450
gender and, 369–371, 409
manufacturing process for, 407–408
military, 416–417, 419–420, 452
overview, 406
religion and, 418
styles of, 409–409
togas, 409, 418
tube dresses, 409, 413
tunics, 409, 416
Coffins, 348–349, 394f, 396, 428, 429–430
Cogidubnus inscription, 6–7, 7f, 8
Cognitive archaeology, 487, 488–489
Cohen, R., 214
Coinage, 834–849
artefact studies of, 64, 65, 75, 76, 79, 85
as art object, 600
bronze, 493, 839, 844
cessation of coin supply, 844–845
distribution of, 600
as economic evidence, 77
in first century AD, 838–840
in fourth century AD, 843–844 (p. 874)
in Gallo-Roman horizon, 162, 266, 512, 512f, 513
inscriptions on, 9, 101, 164, 575–576
Latin on, 575–576
overview, 834, 836
pioneering studies on, 32
radiate coinage, 841–843
regional distribution of, 512, 512f, 513, 516f
ritual deposition of, 161–162, 644–645, 647, 648, 841
Romanization of, 16, 163–164, 510
in second and third century AD, 840–843
silver, 137, 164, 195, 493, 537, 541, 541f
striking and distribution of, 136–137
textual evidence from, 107
transformations in, 491–492, 493–494
Coins and the Archaeologist (Casey & Reece), 80
Coins of the Ancient Britons (Evans), 151
Colchester site
age-related burial patterns at, 326, 327f, 328
cattle at, 793, 795
church structures at, 666–667
construction of, 752–754, 754f
continuity at, 128–130
dating evidence at, 128
in early Roman horizon, 121, 122
forum at, 772
industrial activity at, 783
industrial production at, 164–165
infant burials at, 325
location of, 750
military settlements at, 120
pigs at, 797
plaster burials at, 347
pottery from, 513, 519, 730
sheep at, 796
site reports from, 80
temple complex at, 774, 776, 785
theatre at, 779, 781
veterans at, 459–460
Coleraine hoard, 845, 845f
Collective memory, 681, 682, 691
Collingwood, R. G., xxvii, 24–25, 76, 100, 105, 482–483, 602, 603, 720–721, 722, 731, 737
Collins, R., 417
Collyrium stamps, 560–562
Colonial diasporas, 214, 214
Colostrum, 309
Coloured brooches, 415–416
Commemoration stage of funerary process, 438–439
Commius, 163, 264
Commodus, xxxii
Community archaeology groups, 52
Condron, F., 549
Conkey, M. W., 363
Conolly, R., 579
Constans, xxxiv
Constantine, xxxiv, 454, 662, 685
Constantine III, xxxv, 860, 862
Constantius, xxxiii–xxxiv
Construction process for urban areas, 752–760, 753–754f, 757f
Cook, James, 150
Cool, Hilary, 214, 236–237, 240, 327, 328, 406, 420, 451, 458, 520, 522, 526
Cooper, N., 731
Coote, Henry, 11
Copper and copper alloys, 532, 538–542, 540–541f, 548–549
Corbridge hoard, 467, 472
Core-periphery models, 689, 721
Corn-driers, 808, 813
Cosh, Stephen, 37
Cosmetics, 411, 416
Cotswold Archaeology, 28, 50, 699
Council for British Archaeology (CBA), 29, 52
Council of Arles, 662, 663
Cox, John, 72
Craniomorphometric analysis, 215–216, 215f
Creighton, J., 125, 163, 164, 267, 277, 510, 511–513, 516, 749, 755, 758
Cremation. See also Funerary process
ageing and sexing remains from, 323, 368
Aylesford–Swarling tradition, 159–160, 511, 689
British adoption of, 168, 434
containment methods, 159–160, 347–348, 437 (p. 875)
of horses, 236
Late Iron Age, 151, 263–264, 263f, 265f, 428, 436–437
locations for, 431–433
pre-interment rituals for, 345–346
rituals in, 435
as technology of remembrance, 686
Creolization, 214, 437
Crerar, Belinda, 381
Cribra orbitalia, 309
Croom, A., 419
Crops. See Farming
Cross-bow brooches, 275–276, 370, 413, 417
Croxford, Ben, 599
Crummy, N., 75, 80, 82, 154, 560
Cult practices, 453–458, 778, 779
Cunetio hoard, 834, 841, 843
Cunliffe, Barry, 27, 28, 32, 127, 153–154, 156, 517
Curle, Alexander, 73
Curle, James, 73, 74, 80, 186
Currency bars, 155
Curse tablets (defixiones)
content and subject matter of, 108–110
deities and, 100, 108, 109, 622, 627
in Gaulish, 582
in Latin, 110, 585–587, 586f
sociolinguistic evidence from, 574
textual evidence from, 99–101, 99f
Uley curse tablets, 99f, 100, 108–109, 574, 582, 628
Cybele, cult of, 778
Dalton, O. M., 73, 76
Danebury Environs project, 706, 708, 809
Daniel, Glyn, 52
Davidson, C., 368
Decapitated burials, 389–399
age of, 391f, 392–393
coffins for, 394f, 396, 428
explanations for, 384–385, 387–388
funerary process for, 428
gender of, 392f, 393–394
health, disease, and disability in, 397
material culture in, 393f, 394–396
methodology for analysis, 389–392, 390t
as pagan rites, 387
posture of, 395f, 396–397
spatial organization of, 397–399, 398f
Deer, 799–800
Defixiones. See Curse tablets
Deities, 619–640
curse tablets and, 100, 108, 109, 622, 627
distribution and dating of, 622–626, 623f, 625f
double-named, 633–635
evidentiary sources on, 620–622, 635–636
geographic nature of, 630–632, 631f
healing powers of, 564
imperial vs. local, 629–630
inscriptions dedicated to, 108, 292, 621–622
of military community, 456, 619
offerings to. See Ritual deposition; Votive altars
overview, 619–620
sculptures involving, 610
vows pledged to, 626, 627
DeLaine, J., 781
Demographic determinism, 311
Demography, statistical analysis on, 292–293
Dental diseases, 733–734
Deposition stages of funerary process, 436–438
Derks, T., 237, 272, 633, 634, 635
Deviancy, defined, 381, 382
Deviant burials, 381–405
characteristics of, 385
decapitated. See Decapitated burials
explanations for, 384–385
funerary process for, 428
historical approaches to, 381–386
individuals associated with, 385–386
overview, 381–382
in Romano-British archaeology, 388–389, 400
vicarious human sacrifice and, 384
Diasporas in Roman Britain project (2007–9), 207, 211–213, 215–216, 216
Diaspora theory, 213–214, 216–217
Díaz-Andreu, M., 363
Dickinson, Brenda, 470
Diet and nutrition. See also Farming
in childhood, 308–309
cultural influences on, 272–274 (p. 876)
dental diseases and, 733–734
gender and, 374
lead in, 308, 427
meat in, 792–793, 794, 802
North African, 821
for ritual and ceremonial activities, 822
in urban vs. rural areas, 734
variety and diversity in, 81, 819–823
Dietary deficiency diseases, 308, 309, 315
Dietler, M., 161
Diocletian, xxxiii, 454
Diodorus Siculus, 152, 542
Disability among decapitated burials, 397
Diseases. See also Medicine
agricultural, 810, 811–812f
of childhood, 308, 309
decapitation burials and, 397
dental, 733–734
dietary deficiency, 308, 309, 315
gender and, 567
Division of labour, 371–372, 374
Dobney, K., 524, 794
Doctors, 563, 564
Dogs, 653–654, 799
Domestic structures, 373–374
Domitian, 184
Donkeys, 799
Dorchester settlement
amphitheatre at, 780
bathing complex at, 781
cattle at, 794, 795
chronology of occupation, 157
construction of, 752, 753f, 755, 783
lead coffin liners at, 347, 348
pigs at, 797, 798
ritual deposition in, 653–654
sheep at, 796
Double-named deities, 633–635
Dress. See Clothing
Druids
abolishment from Gaul, 560
military campaigns against, xxx
pictorial representations of, 153
training of, 270
Duality of structure, 246
Ducks, 801
Dungworth, David, 532
Dunning, G., 76, 151
Durham University, 25, 27, 45, 51, 33, 216
Early Roman horizon, 117–133
Colchester in, 121, 122
Colonia Claudia in, 121, 122
continuity in, 126–130
evidentiary challenges and biases in study of, 117–118
Londinium in, 118–119, 121, 122–123
material culture of, 124–125, 130–131
overview, 117
public buildings in, 123–124
regional diversity in, 118
towns in, 123–126
urbanization in, 125–126
Verulamium in, 121–122
East Anglia
building types in, 142
Christianity in, 675–676
folk customs in, 65
hinterlands of, 725–726, 728–730
pottery in, 511
revolts in, xxx
Eckardt, Hella, 203, 683
Economics
gender and, 371–372
gross domestic product and, 853
laissez-faire, 722
power and, 850, 856, 860, 862
systems of, 138–140, 608
taxation and, 136, 227, 526, 721–722, 855, 856
theoretical approaches to, 851, 852
urban and rural relationships, 720–722, 723–724, 729–731
Edict of Milan (AD 313), 660, 661, 663
Edict of Thessalonica (AD 380), 661
Educational networks, 33, 34–35t
Educational programs for archaeology, 32–33, 36
Elite auto-representation, 142, 143, 144
England
historic preservation responsibilities in, 44 (p. 877)
research framework in, 47
English Heritage
historic preservation responsibilities of, 44
National Mapping Programme, 54–55
research framework developed by, 47
research funding from, 50
Entertainment in urban areas, 779–780, 781
Epigrams (Martial), 7
Epigraphic habit
dynamic nature of, 293
inscriptions and, 288–290, 456, 622
in military community, 95, 237
mortuary, 439
sculpture and, 609
Epigraphy
Christian, 673–674
inscriptions and, 204–205, 247, 248–249, 253–254, 253f
military community and, 471
in mobility studies, 204–206, 205f, 248–249, 251–255, 252–253f
Epitaphs
age-related patterns in, 327–328, 329
on coffins, 348
content of, 291–293
decline in, 300
function of, 107, 287
gender and, 326, 328, 329
prevalence of, 287, 289
Erdrich, M., 193
Esmonde-Cleary, Simon, 129, 427, 767–768
Ethnicity. See also Multiculturalism; Race
definitions of, 223–224, 246
identity and, 246, 257, 278, 458–459
material culture and, 136, 207
in military community, 458–459
Evans, Arthur John, 16–17, 73, 151, 153
Evans, C., 75
Evans, John, 151
Everill, P., 45
Excarnation, 434
Excavations in Cranborne Chase (Pitt-Rivers), 71
Eye remedies, 561, 562
Eyers, E., 311–312
Family circle graves, 16, 17f
Family structures, 372–374
Farley, J. M.- A., 168
Farming, 807–833
arable farming, 808–810, 812–814
decline in, 862
diet impacted by, 817, 819–823
future research needed, 827
germination of grains in, 809
horticulture and, 814–817, 815f, 818f
modes of preservation for, 815–816, 815f
overview, 807–808
pest and diseases in, 810, 811–812f
regional variations in, 823–827, 828
scale of production in, 809, 813–814
vineyards, 817
Farmsteads, 127, 128–129, 131, 706, 708
Faulkner, N., 783
Faussett, B., 64
Feasting deposits, 161, 690, 715
Females. See Gender; Women
Field, D., 687
Figs, 819, 820
Fish, 801
Fishbourne site
dating evidence at, 127
pigs at, 797
research framework for, 47, 27
villa at, 270, 704–706, 705f
Fitzpatrick, A. P., 161
Flavian invasion of Scotland, 183f, 184–185
Flavius Cerialis, 104
Folkestone villa, 26, 74
Folly Lane burial site
age-related patterns at, 323
creation of, 344
cremation at, 264
laying-out stage at, 428
military items at, 167
pottery from, 730
wealth at, 160, 165
Footwear, 410, 420, 438, 450
Forensic ancestry assessment, 215–216
Forum, as central feature of urban areas, 768–773, 770–771f
Fowl, 800
(p. 878) Fox, Aileen, 27, 65
Franks, A. W., 71–73, 306
Freestone, I. C., 511
Frere, Sheppard, 43, 27, 30, 31, 32, 79, 121, 483, 748, 755, 769, 783
Frisian peoples, 235–236, 459, 470
Frocester villa, 515, 706, 707f
Frome hoard, 54, 841, 842f, 843
Frontier zones
burial sites in, 236–237
identities in, 225–227
indigenous populations of, 226
lifestyle in, 182, 185–189, 187f, 194
material culture in, 188–194, 191f, 226
Fulford, Mike, 26, 36, 36, 234, 517–518, 644, 652
Fuller, B. T., 308–309
Funding for archaeological projects, 44, 45, 48–50, 179–180
Funerary process, 425–447. See also Burials
commemoration stage, 438–439
deposition stage, 436–438
evidentiary sources for, 425, 426t
interpretation and translation of, 440–441
laying-out ceremonies in, 429–431
locations for, 431–434
modification stage, 434–435
preparation stage, 427–431
selection stage, 426–427
Gaffney, V., 725
Gager, J. G., 109
Gale, Robert, 6
Galen, 307, 735
Galinsky, Karl, 684
Gallic empire, xxxiii
Gallicization, 262, 273, 274, 276–278
Gardening, 814, 816, 817, 823, 826
Gardner, Andrew, 228, 406, 481
Garments. See Clothing
Gaul
abolishment of druids from, 560
building types in, 141, 142, 143–145
cemeteries in, 145
Germanic peoples in, 144, 145
immigrants from, 274
inscriptions in, 288
interactions with Britain, 262, 263–272, 265f, 269f, 273–275, 276–278
militarization of, 136, 141, 143
patron–client relationships in, 158–159
pottery from, 73, 139, 140, 273, 470, 511
religion in, 143
revolts in, xxxiv
Roman conquest of, xxviii, xxxiii, 491
withdrawal of imperial presence from, 135, 137
GDP (gross domestic product), 853
Geese, 801
Gell, Alfred, 485, 488, 499
Gender, 363–381. See also Women
age and, 322
artefact studies and, 71, 76, 78f, 80–81, 82–83
being vs. doing, 364
bioarchaeology of, 372, 374
brooches and, 135, 370, 413, 415
burial patterns and, 313, 326–329, 328t, 330, 330t, 368–369
cultivation techniques and, 826–827
of decapitated burials, 392f, 393–394
defining, 363–365
diet and, 374
diseases and, 567
division of labour and, 371–372, 374
in dress, adornment, and appearance, 369–371, 409
economic activity and, 371–372
epitaphs and, 326, 328, 329
in family and domestic structures, 372–374
future directions for research, 374
identification of, 367–374
in life course, 305
material culture and, 367–371
mobility and, 205, 252, 254, 256
overview, 363
Romano-British gender studies, 365–367
as social construct, 363–364
Geographia (Ptolemy), 110, 181, 226, 747
Geophysical surveys, 55, 55f, 38, 700, 701–703, 702f
Germanic Mode of Production, 154
Germanic peoples
in Gaul, 144, 145
on Hadrian's Wall, 204 (p. 879)
languages of, 560, 561
in Roman Britain, 144
Germanization, 262, 273, 275, 276
Germany
diplomacy and interference in, 194–195
immigrants from, 274
inscriptions in, 288–289
institutional support for archaeology in, 73
interactions with Britain, 262, 268, 272, 273–278
Germination of grains, 809, 810
Gerrard, James, 850
Gildas (monk), 8, 454, 662, 861
Gillam, John, 28, 79
Gini coefficient, 735
Globalization, 484, 487, 499, 500, 737
Goats, 795–796
Gods. See Deities
Gold
coinage produced from, 137, 157–158, 159, 163–164, 532
sites for extraction of, 533, 533f
techniques for working with, 533–534, 535, 549
uses for, 532, 534–535
Golden, M., 303
Gosden, C., 167, 168
Gowland, Rebecca, 303, 307, 308, 311, 313, 322, 324, 325, 328, 330, 331
Graffiti scratches, 100, 101f, 105, 108, 592n6
Grain weevils, 810, 811f, 819–821
Gratian, xxxv
Gratwick, A. S., 577, 585
Graves. See Burials; Tombstones
Greenfield, Ernest, 44
Griffin, R., 310, 735
Grimes, W. F., 27
Grog-tempered pottery, 513, 514, 515, 516
Grooming tools, 411
Gros, P., 767
Gross domestic product (GDP), 853
Grupe, G., 209
Guildhall Museum exhibition (1962), 29
Gutteridge, A., 685
Habitus, 246
Hadrian, xxxi, 185
Hadrian's Wall
armour and weaponry from, 468
coinage from, 844
conflicts regarding, 185
as defensive system, 137
forts along, 14, 138
frontier life beyond, 182, 185–189, 187f, 194
geophysical surveys of, 55
Germanic peoples on, 204
inscriptions from, 8, 291
invasions across, xxxii
keyhole excavation on, 24
materiality of, 234–235
military presence along, 227–231, 229f, 230–231t
multiculturalism at, 217, 224–225, 228–2331, 229f, 230–231t, 240–241
Newcastle excavations on, 45, 51
purpose of, xxxi
research framework for, 47
as tourist attraction, 52
votive altars at, 622
writing tablets from, 26
Hairstyles, 410, 413, 419, 431
Halbwachs, Maurice, 682
Halkon, Peter, 46
Hall, J., 387, 782
Hamp, E. P., 592n8
Handley, M., 205, 206
Hanson, W. S., 579
Hapsburg–Lorraine dynasty, burial practices of, 388
Hares, 800
Harris, W. V., 102, 622
Haselgrove, C. C., 721
Hassall, Mark, 33, 582
Haverfield, Francis, 3, 4–5, 13–14, 16–17, 18–19, 22, 23–24, 73, 74, 75, 482, 576, 747–748
Hawaii, social transformation of, 150
Hawkes, Christopher, 26, 28
Hawkes, S., 76, 151
Hayling Island temple, 270, 272, 689, 690, 837
Haynes, Ian, 228, 448
Health. See also Diseases; Medicine
in childhood, 307–310
decapitated burials and, 397
inequality and, 731, 735
in urban vs. rural areas, 373–734, 733f (p. 880)
Health stress, 307
Heidegger, Martin, 485
Henig, M., 105, 603, 621, 633, 635
Heritage Lottery Fund, 44, 52
Herodian, 344, 434
Herodotus, 542
Heterarchy, 154
Heterosexual bias, 364, 365
Higham, N. J., 590
Higham Ferrers settlement, 644, 646–648, 708, 709–710f, 853, 854f
Hill, J. D., 82, 154, 365, 373, 511, 512, 525, 689
Hillforts, 154, 156, 491, 690, 741–742
Hingley, Richard, 3, 216, 224–225, 240, 373, 484, 644, 652, 721–722, 729, 730, 745
Historic Environment Records (HERs), 44, 50, 54, 579
Hoare, Richard Colt, 11, 17
Hodder, Ian, 32, 82, 487, 489, 851, 852
Hodgson, N., 226, 227
Hod Hill site, 28
Holland, Sally, 310
Holocaust memorials, 684
Holtorf, C., 683
Homogenization, superficial, 248
Homosexuality, 364–365
Honorius, xxxvi
Hope, Valerie M., 237, 285
Horses, 798–799
Horticulture, 814–817, 815f, 818f
Hospitals, 563, 565–566
House churches, 409, 668–669
Housesteads fort
architecture of, 470–471, 495
church structures at, 669, 670
medical evidence at, 564, 566
textual evidence at, 472
Hoxne hoard, 856–857
Hull, M. R., 28, 77
Hunter, Fraser, 179, 226
Hunting, animals for, 799–800
Hurst, Henry, 95, 784, 786
Hutton, R., 687
Hybridization, 214, 276
Hydrocephalus, 397
Identity
age, 304, 314, 322
appearance and, 327, 406, 417–421
categories of, 248
cult practices and, 453–458
defined, 225
diasporic, 214
ethnic, 248, 257, 278, 458–459
fluidity of, 233, 248, 277, 304
in frontier zones, 225–227
individual expressions of, 237–240, 239f
inscriptions and, 295–298
material culture as indicator of, 206–207, 226
of military community, 417, 448–449, 451–459
mobility and, 245–246
Identity and Violence (Sen), 448
Immigrants. See also Mobility
foods brought by, 821
from Gaul and Germany, 274
identification of, 214–217, 248–250, 250f
Imperial diasporas, 214–215, 217
Imperial economy, 138, 139
Imperialism
materiality and, 481, 482, 489, 492–493
rural areas impacted by, 721, 732, 736
An Imperial Possession (Mattingley), xxvii, 449
Inchtuthil site, 28, 184–185, 566
Indigenous populations. See also specific groups
of frontier zones, 226
land incorporated into Roman Empire, 117
Romanization of, 4, 13–14, 17
Inequality
in rural areas, 732–736, 736f, 737
social stratification and, 856
Infancy. See also Childhood and adolescence; Life course
burial practices in, 311–312, 325, 369, 428, 715
dependency in, 306
dietary deficiency diseases in, 308, 309
feeding practices in, 308–309
personhood in, 312, 325–326
Infanticide, 311–312, 325
Ingold, Tim, 488
(p. 881) Inscriptions, 285–302. See also Epitaphs; Textual evidence
abbreviations in, 291
building dedications, 287, 292
categories of, 287
Cogidubnus inscription, 6–7, 7f, 8
on coinage, 9, 101, 164, 575–576
communication to audiences through, 290–295
dating, 289
for deities, 108, 292, 621–622
epigraphic analysis of, 204–205, 247, 248–249, 253–254, 253f
epigraphic habit and, 288–290, 456, 622
from Hadrian's Wall, 8, 291
identity and, 295–298
in Latin, 5, 8, 18, 106, 240, 290–291
literacy and, 291
medical-related, 562–564
military, 14, 287, 288–291, 295–296, 628
Ogam inscriptions, 588–590, 589f
on pottery, 101
prevalence and distribution of, 286–287
statistical analysis on demography using, 292–293
on stone, 286
on tombstones, 237–240, 239f, 289, 296–298, 439
on votive altars, 292, 294, 297, 298, 622
Institute of Archaeology (London), 25, 33, 483
Instrumentation, medical, 558–560
Inventory of Romano-British Coin Hoards (Robertson), 834
Inveresk military complex, 186, 187f
Iron Age
archaeological evidence for, 152–153
burials, 151, 159–161, 344, 345
Celtic languages in, 575
changing perceptions of, 153–154
coinage from, 107, 152, 157–159, 161–162, 836–838, 837f
conceptualizing societies in, 180–182
hillforts in, 742
material culture in, 10, 26, 155, 159, 167, 689
metalworking in, 490
political authority in, 153, 154, 162
pottery from, 128, 155, 159–160
ritual practices in, 159–161, 272
Roman, 180
rural landscape during, 49
in Scotland, 179–182
settlement and economy of, 10, 26, 155–157
social organization in, 153–154
wealth and power in, 157–162
Iron Age and Roman Coin Finds from Wales Project, 834
Isotope analysis
archaeological impact of, 38
carbon, 212–213
lead, 212–213
in mobility studies, 204, 207–214, 212f, 217–218
nitrogen, 212–213, 308
oxygen, 208, 209, 210–212, 212f
strontium, 208, 209, 210–211, 212f
of tooth enamel, 308, 309, 315
Itinerarium Curiosum (Stukeley), 6
Ivleva, Tatiana, 207, 245
Ivory Bangle Lady, 214, 216, 216f
Jackson, R., 560
James, A., 306
James, Simon, 228, 231, 277, 451
Jenny, L. L., 309–310, 313
Jobey, George, 30, 235
Johns, C., 621
Jones, Barri, 33
Jones, M., 813
Jones, R. F. J., 80, 342–343
Jongman, William, 732, 735
Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, 466
Journal of Roman Pottery Studies, 80
Joy, J., 161
Joyce, James Gerald, 14
Julius Caesar
on appearance of British, 410
expeditions to Britain, xxviii–xxix, 162–163, 510–511, 575 (p. 882)
Gallic War account by, 264, 268
writings of, 4, 9, 128, 152, 154, 158
Jupiter columns, 272
Kakoschke, A., 204
Kamash, Zena, 681
Kampen, N. B., 371
Kennedy, D., 251
Kenyon, Kathleen M., 27, 28, 75–76
Kiernan, P., 646
Kincheloe, J. L., 225
King, Anthony, 273, 274, 646, 647, 690, 723, 792
King, Charles, 72
King Harry Lane burial site, 165, 343, 411, 413, 429, 436
Kingscote settlement, 602, 709–710
Kipling, Rudyard, 13
Kirk, J., 77
Knight, J. K., 673
Knook Castle, 11, 12f
Kolb, M., 854
Küchler, Susanne, 683–684
Kyphosis, 381
Labour, division of, 371–372, 374
Laissez-faire economics, 722
Landownership, 701, 745
Landscapes. See also Rural areas; Urban areas
aerial photography of, 30, 54–55, 700, 703, 715, 716f
chorography and, 5–6
geophysical surveys of, 55, 55f, 37–38, 700, 701–703, 702f
memory and, 683
reorganization of, 687, 688
research philosophy on, 32
Language. See Sociolinguistics
Language and History in Early Britain (Jackson), 576–576
Lankhills cemetery
age-related patterns at, 313, 322, 324, 326–327, 327f, 328
developer-funded excavations of, 49
deviant burials in, 384, 428
diversity of remains at, 209
gender patterns at, 313, 326–327, 328, 330
infant burials at, 325
isotope analysis of, 211, 212f
material culture at, 275, 276, 329, 342, 350, 417
spatial organization of, 433
Late Antique period, mobility in, 205–206, 205f
Late Iron Age (LIA)
coinage in, 836–838, 837f
community identities in, 226–227
continuity in, 126, 128–129
cremation in, 151, 263–264, 263f, 265f, 428, 436–437
feasting in, 161
funerary process in, 428, 430, 432–437
models of interaction in, 166–169
modes of interpretation for, 151–152
political authority in, 153, 154
pottery from, 128
relationship with early Roman horizon, 117, 118, 126, 128
shrine structures in, 270–271
transitions in, 125, 126, 127
Latinitas Britannica (Jackson), 584–585, 588
Latinization, 574, 579, 591
Latin language
adoption of nomenclature from, 583–584
Celtic–Latin bilingualism, 577–578, 579, 584, 588, 591
on coinage, 574–576
on curse tablets, 110, 585–587, 586f
in elite contexts, 584, 588, 592n11
emergence in Britain, 575
filiation markers in, 582–583, 583f
inscriptions in, 5, 8, 18, 106, 240, 290–291
levels of, 577
literacy in, 168, 576, 579
loanwords from, 577–578, 584–585, 587, 593n12
nature of British Latin, 584–588, 592n8
on Ogam stones, 588–590
in post-Roman Britain, 591
on tombstones, 439
Latour, Bruno, 485, 488, 499
Laurence, R., 307, 767–768
(p. 883) Laying-out ceremonies, 429–431
Lazzari, M., 233
Lead
in coffins, 309, 348, 430, 431
in diet, 308, 427
isotope analysis using, 213–214
sites for extraction of, 535, 533f
techniques for working with, 535, 537
uses of, 532, 538, 540, 540f, 548
Leaf-gilding technique, 534
Leather products, 410
Lewis, M. E., 307–308, 309
Lewis, M. J. T., 29
Lexden burial site, 160, 165, 352, 429
LIA. See Late Iron Age
Life course, 321–340. See also Age
age identity and, 304
childhood in. See Childhood and adolescence
future research needs, 334
gender in, 305
infancy in. See Infancy
local and regional identities in, 331–333
older adulthood in, 329–331, 330t
overview, 321–322
as social construct, 305, 306
in theory and practice, 322–324
young adulthood in, 328–329, 328t
Lilley, I., 214
Limes Congress, 56, 27
Ling, R., 105
Linguistics. See Sociolinguistics
Literacy. See also Inscriptions; Textual evidence
defined, 102
inscriptions and, 291
in Latin, 168, 576, 579
in military community, 104–105, 471–472
in Roman Britain, 102–102, 104–106, 166
Liversidge, J., 76, 77, 78, 384
Livia, 408
Locker, A., 801
Lockyear, K., 84
Londinium
in early Roman horizon, 119–120, 121, 122–123
material culture in, 124–125, 130
public buildings at, 123, 124
Lost-wax casting technique, 539
Love, J. R., 534
Lucas, G., 65, 71, 73–74, 75
Lucy, S., 225
Lullingstone site
burials at, 348
church structures at, 409, 668–669
sculptures from, 608
textual evidence from, 105, 106f
wall paintings at, 151, 409, 668–669, 669f
Lysons, Samuel, 9
Macaulay, Thomas, 150, 151
MacDonald, George, 24
MacDonald, J. L., 384
MacKinnon, M., 798
Mackreth, D. F., 412, 415, 420
MacMullen, R., 287, 622
Magnentius, xxxiv, 663
Magnesian Limestone ridge, 49, 703
Magnetometry, 701, 702f
Magnus Maximus, xxxv, 135
Make-up, 409, 416
Males. See Gender
Maltby, Mark, 791
Mann, J., 592n5, 622
Mann, M., 233
Manning, W., 79
Manufacturing process for textiles, 407–408
Marchitello, Howard, 5–6
Market economy, 138–139, 608
Market gardening, 817, 823, 826
Marriage, age at, 305, 329
Martial, 7, 254, 410
Martin, M., 109
Martin of Tours, 143
Martyrdom, 662
Maryport site, 55, 294, 298, 454
Material culture. See also Artefact studies; Materiality
at burial sites, 145, 236–237, 349–352, 350f, 352f, 437–438
Christianity and, 663–665, 665f
in decapitated burials, 393f, 394–396 (p. 884)
of early Roman horizon, 124–125, 130–131
ethnicity and, 136, 206
food as, 822, 826
in frontier zones, 188–194, 191f, 226
gender identification through, 367–371
of Hadrian's Wall, 234–236
homosexuality represented in, 364–364
hybrid forms of, 188
identity and, 206–207, 226
in Iron Age, 10, 26, 155, 159, 167, 689
memory and, 682–683
of military community, 451–452
mobility and, 206–207, 255–258
multiculturalism and, 233–234
in rural areas, 712, 714
selection processes for, 190
transformations in, 491–492, 493–494, 496
Materiality, 481–519. See also Artefact studies; Material culture
agency and, 484, 486–487, 489, 497
in contemporary archaeological thought, 487–489
continuity and, 495
globalization and, 484, 489
historical approaches to, 482–484
imperialism and, 481, 482, 489, 492–493
interdisciplinary studies of, 485, 487–488
material horizons in Roman Britain, 489–496
theoretical approaches to, 485–487, 488–489, 499–500
Matthews, C. L., 384
Matthews, K., 364–365
Mattingley, David, xxvii, 56, 102, 109, 228, 238, 449, 579, 624, 628, 689, 722, 745, 749, 851
Mauss, Marcel, 485
Maximian, xxxiii, xxxiv
Mays, S., 311–312
McKinley, Jacqueline, 435
McManus, D., 585
McWhirr, Alan, 27
Media coverage of Romano-British archaeology, 51–52
Medicinal herbs, 822
Medicine, 555–572
anthropological studies of, 555, 556
bioarchaeology and, 567
collyrium stamps and, 560–562
doctors and, 563, 564
herbs in, 822
historical overview, 556–557
hospitals and, 563, 565–566
instrumentation used in, 558–560
in military community, 562–567
Romanization of, 555–556, 557
Vindolanda tablets and inscriptions regarding, 562–564
vision remedies, 561, 562
Memoria Romana project (Galinsky), 684
Memory, 681–696
archaeology and, 682–684
collective, 681, 682, 691
history of, 681–682
landscapes and, 683
limitations of, 688, 691
material culture and, 682–683
overview, 681
prospective, 683, 688, 691
retrospective, 683, 687, 688, 691
in Roman Britain, 685–691
in Roman society, 684–685
visibility of, 691
Men. See Gender
Menarche, 305, 307
Merrifield, R., 82, 440
Meskell, L., 233
Metabolic disease, 308
Metal detectors, 53–54
Metals and metalworking, 532–554
blacksmithing, 548, 549
brass, 532, 538, 541
bronze, 493, 532, 538, 540, 839, 844
copper and copper alloys, 532, 538–542, 540–541f, 548–549
in Iron Age, 490
lead. See Lead
as motivation for Roman conquest of Britain, 548
overview, 532
pewter, 532, 542
precious metals. See Gold; Silver
in Scotland, 181 (p. 885)
tin, 532, 542, 548
in urban areas, 782, 783
zinc, 532, 538, 540, 541
Middle ground theory, 168
Migration. See Mobility
Miles, David, 32
Military community, 448–477
armour and weaponry of, 452, 464–468
burial practices within, 457
Christianity in, 454
clothing of, 416–417, 419–420, 452
cult practices within, 453–458
daily life in, 470–471
epigraphic evidence for, 471
epigraphic habit in, 95, 237
extramural settlements associated with, 450–451, 470, 471, 472–473
on Hadrian's Wall, 227–231, 229f, 230–231t
identity of, 417, 448–449, 451–459
inscriptions by, 14, 287, 288–291, 295–296, 628
literacy in, 104–105, 471–472
material culture of, 451–452
medicine and hospitals within, 562–567
multiculturalism in, 227–231, 229f, 230–231t, 458–459
overview, 448–449, 464–465
personal belongings of, 468–470
population estimates for, 464
in rural areas, 712
servants of, 450
sociolinguistics within, 578–579
veterans in, 459–460
women in, 473
Military districts, 14, 15f, 16, 17–18
Miller, D., 233, 488
Millett, Martin, xxvii, 46, 22, 231, 343, 483–484, 519, 699, 721, 722, 723, 724, 729, 730, 748, 755, 774
Milne, J., 557
Mionnet, Théodore Edme, 64
Mithras, cult of, 456
Mnemonics, 682
Mobility, 203–223, 245–258
archaeological evidence for, 204
cultural change and, 274–275
diaspora theory and, 214–215, 217
epigraphy in study of, 204–206, 205f, 248–249, 2