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date: 12 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter focuses on two trends among the Zaydīs during the end of the third/ninth century: those who were close to the ḥadīth folk and thus opposed to Muʿtazilism, and those who had adopted Muʿtazilite doctrines. It considers Zaydism in Rayy, northern Iran and Khurāsān, where several Zaydī families played an important role in studying and expounding Bahshamite theology among the Zaydīs of Iran during the fifth/eleventh and early sixth/twelfth centuries. It also examines the roles played by Abū Zayd al-ʿAlawī, the author of the Kitāb al-Ishhād which is a refutation of the Twelver Shīʿīs’ notion of the imamate, addressing specifically their belief in the occultation (ghayba) of the ‘hidden Imam’, and had a profound impact on the literary genre of Zaydī refutations of Twelver Shīʿism. The chapter concludes by discussing different literary traditions among the Zaydīs in Iran.

Keywords: Zaydīs, ḥadīth, Muʿtazilism, Zaydism, Iran, Bahshamite theology, Abū Zayd al-ʿAlawī, Twelver Shīʿism, al-Hārūnī

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