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date: 13 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter explores philosophy in the Islamic world. It begins with an overview of ancient Greek philosophy, focusing on how the ideas of Aristotle and Plotinus relate to the teachings of Islam. It then considers the philosophical theology of al-Kindī, the first philosopher of the Islamic world, and his rejection of the Aristotelian conception of God as an intellect who gives rise to an eternal motion by thinking about Himself. It also discusses the philosophical views of thinkers who were known as the falāsifa (practitioners of falsafa) in the relevant period, including al-Fārābī and Avicenna. The chapter treats Avicenna as the culmination of ‘philosophy’, since thinkers after him by and large respond to him rather than to Aristotle and other authors of the Greek tradition.

Keywords: Greek philosophy, Aristotle, Plotinus, Islam, philosophical theology, al-Kindī, falāsifa, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, philosophy

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