Abstract and Keywords
The background for the emergence in the third/ninth century of the Karrāmiyya as an intellectually aggressive form of traditionism lies in the strongly Ḥanafī anti-Jahmī milieu of the Eastern Islamic world. Although they never played a major role in the history of Islamic theology comparable to that of their rivals the Mu`tazilīs, Ash`arites, and Māturīdīs, the Karrāmiyya did leave indelible traces in theological literature by virtue of their vigorous and elaborate defence of a number of controversial teachings. These include their definition of faith (īmān) exclusively in terms of a verbal profession, their assertion, likely under Stoic influence, that God is corporeal and stands in a spatial relation to his throne, and their analysis of divine action as necessarily involving a process within God that others saw as undermining God’s immutability and timelessness.
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