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date: 17 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

The chapter deals with two important approaches in Islamic theology, defining the terms that apply to these two trends and elucidating their main teachings. Scripturalist theology characterizes small groups in Islam which finally disappeared in the Middle Ages, however, leaving some traces on other theological schools. Contrary to the disappearance of the scripturalist theology, the traditionalist theology has remained the core of Islamic theology. It was a flexible theology that used both the Qurʾān and the Sunna and rational considerations. Through these two devices it challenged the rationalist theology and tried to refute both the rationalist methods and specific theological issues based on reason.

Keywords: scripturalism, traditionalism, rationalism, Ẓāhirīs, Ibn Ḥazm, taqlīd, qiyās, Mutakallimūn, Muʿtazilites

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