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date: 26 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses the social setting and function of Ashʿarī and Māturīdī Sunni theology. It surveys briefly the religious policies of rulers and the process of integration of the learned hierarchy into the state bureaucracies in Mamluk and Ottoman times. It then addresses the causes for conflict between the Ashʿarī and Māturīdī schools and tries to explain how both came later to see each other as two equally valid versions of Sunni theology that only differed about minor points while uncompromisingly ḥadīth-minded traditionalists seem to have been marginalized in the religious field. The last paragraph tries to explain the conservatism and continued relevance of traditional and in some respects dated patterns of kalām in religious education under the Mamluk and Ottoman empires.

Keywords: Ashʿarism, Māturīdism, ḥadīth-mindedness, theology, social function, theology, political function, Mamluks, Ottomans

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