Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses Sufism’s engagement with scholastic theology and the development of theological doctrines that are distinctive to particular traditions within Sufism. In respect to the former, attention is paid to how Sufi texts addressed, explicitly and implicitly, major questions such as the nature of God, the soul, cosmology, theodicy, prophecy, soteriology, and eschatology. Issues of special importance to Sufi worldviews, such as walāya/wilāya (‘friendship with God’) and miracles are also covered. In regards to distinctive Sufi doctrines, the article examines various understandings of the states and stations of the Sufi path (ṭarīqa) as well as notions of experiential knowledge (maʿrifa), divine union and encounters, oneness of being (waḥdat al-wujūd), and love (maḥabba, ʿishq). Also addressed are the mystical refigurations of notable religious personalities such as the Prophet Muhammad and Iblīs. The article closes with a brief look at socially deviant renunciant movements that develop in response to the institutionalization of Sufism.
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