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date: 03 April 2020

(p. 853) Index

(p. 853) Index

Adickes, Erich 283
Adorno, Theodor W. 278, 433, 501, 822, 822 n.69, 823, 823 n.70
and Bildung 695, 696
Aeschylus 509, 840
aesthetics 496–513
Dilthey’s threefold synthesis of 511–13
and empathy: the projection of emotion into art 510–11
Nietzsche 198–202, 504, 508–10
Rosenkranz 506–7
Schelling: art as the organon of philosophy 503, 599–501
Schiller 706–7, 757, 761–3
Schleiermacher 40, 506
Schopenhauer: art as cognitive therapy 501, 502–4
Vischer 507–8
Winkelmann 753–9
algebra of logic 407–9
alienation 4, 842 see also estrangement
altruism 689
American Revolution (1775–83) 517
Anaxagoras 437, 439
Andronikos of Rhodes 570
Anquetil Duperron, A. H. 720, 725, 726
antiquity, the burden of 751–76
freedom, and the Greeks 752–3, 756–8, 759
freedom, after Winckelmann 759–69
Gesner 769–70
Goethe 770
Hegel and the System Program 766–9, 767 n.67, 768 n.76
Herder 754, 755, 759, 770
Hölderlin 753, 766–9, 771
Kant’s centrality of ‘freedom’ 759–61
New Humanist Phase, Göttingen 769–70
Nietzsche and the Greeks 4, 188–9, 682, 714, 772–6
and ‘the Oldest System Program of German Idealism’ 766–9
overcoming of Greece 771–6
and the rise of classical philology 769–71
Schiller 761–3, 770–1
Schlegel 753, 763, 765–6
Schleiermacher 763–5
tyranny of Greece over Germany 751–3
Winckelmann, and the dream of freedom 753–9
Apelt, Ernst 340, 346–8
Aristotle 3, 48–9, 56, 399, 417, 496–7, 503, 570, 572, 589, 802, 824
on barbarians 824
conception of the soul 60
dialectics 653
ethics 156, 160
logic 57, 58, 398–404
syllogism 401–2
on women 825
Arnim, Achim von 467
Arnoldt, Emil 283
Arrhenius, Svante 616
Asher, David 685
Ast, Friedrich 418–19, 427
atheism 3, 829–49
Feuerbach 829–30, 832, 833–7, 841, 842
Hegel’s account of ‘unhappy consciousness’ 807–8, 835–6
Hegel’s system 829–30
marginalization of Hegelianism 832–3
Nietzsche 844–9
from pantheism to atheist humanism 833–7
Schopenhauer 844–5, 847
Stirner 842–4
Strauss 831–2
Athenaeum, journal 26, 68, 262
Athens 756
Auerbach, Erich 469
Autenrieth, J. H. F. 275
Ayer, A. J. 574
Bacon, Francis 346
Baer, Karl Ernst von 344
Bahnsen, Julius, and Realdialektik 131–4
Barthes, Roland 670–1
Basel University 187
Bauer, Bruno 150–1, 156, 157, 258, 832, 808, 810–11, 837–40, 842
Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb 387, 496, 623
Becker-Cantorino, Barbara 536, 546
Beethoven, Ludwig 198, 200, 201
Beiser, Frederick 68, 599, 601, 763, 781, 784–5, 788, 790–1, 801–3
Beißner, Friedrich 270
Beneke, Friedrich Eduard 284–7, 290, 467, 597
Benjamin, Walter 269
Bergmann, Carl 344
Bergson, Henri 333
Berkeley, Bishop Georg 48, 231
Berlin Academy 27, 458–61
Berlin Annals 832
Berlin Physical Society 596
Berlin, salon culture (1790s) 535–7
Berlin University 20, 27, 47, 60, 283, 454, 460–1, 467, 595–6, 704–5, 709, 786–7
Bernasconi, Robert 738, 745
Bhagavad Gitā 720, 722–4, 726, 729–30
Bildung 6–7, 457–61, 695–716
as education to freedom 702–5
Enlightenment prelude 697–8
Fichte 699, 700–1
Goethe 458
Hegel 709–11
Herder 702–3
Mann 695–6
new ideal of humanity 698–701
Nietzsche 713–15
Pestalozzi 703–4, 705
Schelling 710
Schiller 706–7, 757
Schopenhauer 711–13
transcending subjective idealism 706–11
see also education
Bismarck, Otto von 530, 798
Bizet, Georges 509
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich 677, 680, 737, 789 n.54
Boeckh, August 422, 429–30
Boltzmann, Ludwig 351
Bolzano, Bernard 373, 424–6, 589
logic 405–7
philosophy of language 386–91, 397
Bonn University 467
Boole, George 407–8, 410
Boolean algebra 407
Bopp, Franz 466–7
Bradley, Francis Herbert 584
Brandom, R. B. 92, 580–1 n.13
Brentano, Clemens 467
Brentano, Franz 407
Brudney, Daniel 810 n.21, 821
Buchanan, Allen E. 167
Büchner, Ludwig 189, 289, 293, 349, 362–3, 365, 367, 481–2, 598, 607, 610, 612, 617, 846
Buckle, Henry Thomas 599, 800–1
Buhle, Johann Gottlieb 723
Burckhardt, Jacob 792, 798–9
Burke, Edmund 528, 781
Butler, E. M. 751
(p. 855) Calvin, John 235
Camus, Albert 300, 306, 310–11, 588
Cantor, Georg 224, 409, 410
capitalism 153–5, 163–7, 484, 527, 816
Carlsbad Decrees (1819) 782
Carnap, Rudolf 224, 573–4, 594, 604, 619
Cartesian dualism 358–9
Cartesian skepticism 557, 560–2, 567
Carus, Carl Gustav 366, 681
Cassirer, Ernst 282, 285, 296
Caucasian supremacy 691
Chakrabarty, Dipesh 779, 790
Chamberlain, Houston S. 530–1
Chinese thought, classical 720
Chladenius, Johann Martin 418, 623–5
Chomsky, Noam 359, 378, 381, 383, 824
Christ, Johann Friedrich 770
Christianity 150, 451, 608, 728, 731, 741, 769, 776, 830–1, 839, 848
as bedrock of European civilization 829–30
compared with Greek paganism 759
and cultural development 679
Fichte and 739–40
Hegel’s critique of 807–8, 810–11 n.24, 813–14, 830–1, 833, 839
Kierkegaard and belief 140–4
Marx’s critique of 807, 808–11
moral values 4, 6
rationality and ethics 739–41
religious art 64
Cieszkowski, August von 150
Clark, Maudemarie 203, 204
Cohen, Hermann 282, 289, 291–3, 295–6, 564, 566
Colebrooke, Henry Thomas 720, 723
Comenius 456
commodity exchange 163–6
communist society 527
Comte, Auguste 172, 175, 177–8, 595, 799, 801
Confucianism 720, 727, 729
and Hegel 724–5
Confucius 723, 728
Congress of Vienna (1814–15) 782
consciousness 50
Dilthey’s condition of 173
Fichte’s model of 354–8
Hartmann’s philosophy of 130–1
Marx 161–2
Nietzsche 192–3
Schlegel’s history of 76–7
Coppet Circle 467
Cotta, Johann Friedrich 70–1
Creuzer, Friedrich 64
Croce, Benedetto 584
Curtius, Ernst Robert 468
Czolbe, Heinrich 289, 363, 404, 598
Damm, Christian Tobias 770
Danto, Arthur 631
Daoism 724
Darwin, Charles 95, 367, 587, 596, 616, 687, 756, 846
evolution theory 7, 95, 610–12, 614, 674–5, 685
and Romanticism 681–2
Daston, Lorraine 793
Davidson, Donald 378, 380–1, 387, 423–4, 824
de Staël, Madame 467
Dedekind, Richard 409–10
Deleuze, Gilles 670, 749
Democritus of Abdera 773
Descartes, René 393, 566–7, 825 see also Cartesian
Deussen, Paul 728, 730–2
dialectics 274, 651–71
Aristotle 653
Fichte 657–60
Marx 62, 668–70
not a method 670–1
Schlegel 36
Schleiermacher 34–8, 660–2
Diethe, Carol 548
Diez, Carl Immanuel 270
Diez, Friedrich 468
(p. 856) Dilthey, Wilhelm 6–7, 171–85, 277, 376, 594–5, 692, 781
‘acquired psychic nexus’ 178–9
aesthetics, threefold synthesis of 511–13
analysis of understanding 599–602
common objective contexts and productive systems 181–4
conditions of consciousness 173
‘cultural systems’ 176
delimiting explanation and understanding 175–9
historical life 181–2
historicism 801–2
human science 172–5
idealism of freedom 184–5
institutional systems 176
Jena romanticism 269
‘life-moods’ 184
methodology of the sciences 603–5
and natural science 5
naturalism 184–5
objective idealism 184–5
psychology 172, 176
sociology 182
spirit of people (Volksgeist) 182
structural cognitive systems 178
theory of history 599–602
theory of knowledge 183–4
‘transcendental reflection’ 179–80
world-views 184–5
Dilthey-Windelband debate 594–5, 603
Diogenes Laertius 773
division of labour 162, 165
dogmatism 76, 93
Dohm, Hedwig 547–8
Droysen, Johann 5, 599
‘historical sense’ 792, 799, 800–1
dualism:
absolute 126
Cartesian 358–9
Du Bois-Reymond, Emil 365, 595–6, 691
Du Bos, Jean-Baptiste 497
Dummett, Michael 425
DuMont, Emerich 685
Dupré, Louis 301
Eastern thought 720–34
and early German Orientalists 721–2
Emerson 728–30
Hegel 722–5, 733
Nietzsche 728, 730–2
Schopenhauer 725–8
Confucianism; Laws of Manu; Upaniṣads
Ebbinghaus, Hermann 179
education 6, 453–69
Bildung and freedom 702–5
citizenship and 458–9
eighteenth century German 454–7, 771
Fichte 460–3
Froebel 459, 463
Gymnasia 7, 460–2, 554
Herbart 463–4
Herder 6, 456–8, 463
Humboldt 453–4, 457–62, 465
modern philology and Weltliteratur 464–9
‘new humanism’ and the new university model 457–61
Pestalozzi 7, 454–5, 459, 463, 701
rise of psychology 462–4
Rousseau 453–4, 456, 462–3
school reforms, Prussia 461–2
Schiller 6, 457–8
university reforms 459–61
see also Bildung
Eichhorn, Karl Friedrich 788
Elster, Jon 818–19
Emden, Christian 785–6, 792, 796, 798–9
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 721
and Eastern thought 728–30
empathy 510–11
Engels, Friedrich 151, 403, 482, 610, 689, 819, 841, 843
Enlightenment 697–8, 784–5
Entwicklung and evolution 674–8, 681–5
epistemology 290–3, 327, 330, 821
Neo-Kantian 290–3
Erdmann, Benno 283
Erkenntniskritik 564–7
Erlangen University 454
(p. 857) estrangement 157, 165–6
Marx and 152–8, 161–2
see also alienation
ethics and ethical systems 8, 61, 473–93, 815
Aristotle 156, 160
Feuerbach 480–1
Fichte 17–20
Hegel’s Moralität and Sittlichkeit 478–9
Hegel’s socially and historically constructed self 477–80
Kant’s attempt to anchor morality in freedom 473–5, 479–80
Kierkegaard 138–40
and natural science 480–4
Nietzsche’s inescapable aims of life 488–93
Schiller, and the aspiration for a unified self 475–7, 480
Schleiermacher 38–9
Schopenhauer and philosophical psychology 484–8
Schopenhauer’s inversion of Fichte 116–18
eugenics 689
Euripides 509
evolution 674–93
and Entwicklung 674–8, 681–5
Fichte 678–9
Haeckel’s monism 690–2
Hegel 682–5
Herder’s Entwicklung 676–7
Kant’s Entwicklung 676–8
Lamarckian model 690
and materialistic philosophies 690–2
Nietzsche 687–9
Schelling, and romanticism 679–82
Schopenhauer 685–8
evolution theory (Darwinism) 7, 95, 610–12, 614, 674–5, 685
and social Darwinism 687, 689, 693
existentialism 8, 103, 299–313
becoming who you are 309–13
and the death of God 300–9
Dupré 301
Heidegger 302–3
Kierkegaard 299–310, 313
Nietzsche 299–313
Schelling 304–6, 308, 311–13
expressionism 692
fascism 695
Fechner, Gustav Theodor 561, 597
feminism 534–50
and anti-feminism 547–8
and Berlin salon culture (1790s) 535–7
early German romanticism, and philosophical feminism 549–50
and the Jena Circle 535–6
and the ‘republic of despots’ 535–40
romantic sociability 540–7
socialist utilitarian 547
and symphilosophy 29–33, 268, 540, 542–3, 544, 708
woman at the end of the nineteenth century 547–9
Feuerbach, Ludwig 150–1, 155–7, 162, 165, 189, 361–2, 449, 450, 584, 587, 615, 691, 692, 807–11, 813
atheism 832–7, 841–2
critique of Hegel 813, 829–30
ethics 480–1
idealism 258
and Judaism 740–1, 748
materialism 608–10
religious critique 807–11
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 8, 11–24, 32, 34, 44, 46–7, 52, 68, 70–6, 81–2, 88–9, 92, 98, 109–13, 120–1, 124, 129, 139–40, 144, 150, 154, 262–4, 267–8, 294, 453, 528
act of ‘recognition’ 15–16
Bildung 699, 700–1
Christianity 739–40
citizenship and education 458–9
conscience as ethical arbiter 18
consciousness model 354–8
dialectics 657–60
and the drive to self-activity 117
early and later philosophies 21–2
education 460–3
ethical system 17–20
evolution 678–9
freedom 11–12, 13, 18–19, 24
(p. 858) ‘I’ and ‘not-I’ 238–40, 250, 658–9, 700
and ‘intellectual intuition’ 13
language, philosophy of 384
law, philosophy of 15–17
metaphysics 575, 581–2
methodology of the sciences 595
moral philosophy 12, 18, 72–3
nationalism 529, 531
‘natural drives’ 19
nature, philosophy of 323–4
and the new European order 23
as philosophical teacher and public intellectual 20–2
political philosophy 22–4, 531
‘positing’ 13–14
purpose of philosophy 20–2
rationalism 285–7
reason 12–13
self-consciousness 271–2
skepticism and epistemology 555–9
and the state 16–17, 19–20
‘subject-objectivity’ 14
Tathandlung 13, 238, 239
theory of the self 145
transcendental philosophy 74
transcendental science 13–15
Filmer, Robert 528
Fischer, Karl 364
Fischer, Kuno 171, 283, 286–8, 290–3
Flaubert, Gustave 615
Fogelin, Robert 624
Forel, August 616
Forster, Georg, and pluralist cosmopolitanism 746–7
Forster, Michael N. 75 n.24, 252 n.38, 355–8, 374–80, 737, 747–8
Foucault, Michel 433, 628–9, 799
Frank, Manfred 69, 71, 88
Frankfurt School 822
Frederick William IV 462, 789, 832
freedom 144, 146, 150
and Bildung through education 702–5
and causality 577
Dilthey’s idealism of 184–5
Fichte and 11–13, 18–19, 24
Kant’s attempt to anchor morality in 235, 473–6, 479–80
Kant’s centrality of 117, 759–61
Schelling 90–1, 95–102
as self-determination 139
Frege, Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob 5, 207–26, 373, 378, 380, 424–5, 426, 589
1891/92 essays 215–18
anti-psychologism 211
Begriffsschrift 409–13
cardinality concept 213–14
early work 211–15
language, philosophy of 209–10, 221, 224–6, 386–97
legacy 222–6
logicism 207–8, 215–23
principle of extensionality 212–13
quantified logic 208–9
Russell’s paradox 219–20
truth-value 217–18
value-range 209, 219–20, 223–4
French Revolution (1789–99) 28–9, 46, 235, 254, 270, 453, 520, 528, 740, 781–2
and Hegel 517–18, 782
and the Romantic movement 524–5
Freud, Sigmund 100 n.36, 290, 354, 366, 431, 692
Friedman, Maurice 299–300
Friedrichsmeyer, Sara 540–1
Fries, Jakob Friedrich 284–7, 290, 530, 562
and the philosophy of science 339–40, 346
Froebel, Friedrich 459, 463
Gabler, G. A. 254
Gadamer, Hans-Georg 419–20, 432, 512, 698 n.8
hermeneutics 396, 594–5
Galison, Peter 793
Gardner, Sebastian 368
Gemes, Ken 205
Gentile, Giovanni 584
Gentz, Friedrich von 528
Gerard, Alexander 497
German Historismus 779–81, 783
German idealism see idealism (German)
(p. 859) Gesner, Johann Matthias 455, 769–70
Geuss, Raymond 739, 822 n.68
Gloy, Karen 660
Gobineau, Arthur de 530
Gödel, Kurt 223, 413
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 68, 82 n.39, 198–201, 259, 271, 274, 431, 537, 595, 682, 696, 705–6, 784, 833
and education 453–6, 458
and Greek culture 753–5, 759, 762, 770
nature, philosophy of 319 n.1, 341–2, 681
science, philosophy of 341–2, 348
Weltliteratur 465–6
Gontard, Susette 274
Görres, Joseph 467
Gotha programme (1875) 167
Göttingen University 283, 454–5, 770
Graßman, Günther 407
Graßman, Robert 407
Greece, ancient:
and freedom 752–3, 756–8, 759
Goethe 753–5, 759, 762, 770
Hegel 64–5
Herder 754–5, 759, 770
Hölderlin 753, 771
Humboldt 770–1
Lessing 754
Nietzsche 188–9, 682, 714, 772–6
Schiller 753, 763, 770–1
Schlegel 753, 763, 765–6
Greek tragedy 714
Nietzsche on 628
Gregory, Frederick 365
Grimm Brothers 467
Grunow, Eleonore 26
Gruppe, Otto Friedrich 5, 393, 396, 404
Gymnasia 7, 454, 460–2
Haar, Michel 634
Habermas, Jürgen 89, 105, 420, 433–4
Haeckel, Ernst 95, 348–9, 596, 614, 616–17, 846
and Darwinism 690–2
Hagen, Friedrich Heinrich von der 467
Halle University 27, 34, 454–5
Haller, Karl Ludwig von 528
Hamann, Johann Georg 3, 5, 142 n.23, 422, 588
philosophy of language 373–7, 390, 392, 396, 416–17, 421
Hardin, C. L. 824
Hardtwig, Wolfgang 796–8, 803
Harris, Henry 57
Hartkopf, Werner 660
Hartmann, Eduard von 132–4, 293–4, 488–9
philosophy of the unconscious 130–1, 366–8
Hartmann, Klaus 249
Haym, Rudolf 293
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 2–3, 8, 23, 46–65, 68–70, 76–7, 88–94, 98, 103, 109, 112–13, 120 n.65, 124, 130–1, 149–52, 154–5, 158, 167, 178, 181, 189, 270, 274, 286, 376, 378, 413, 475 n.3, 525, 527, 529–30, 583–4, 601, 691, 700 n.16, 721, 832, 844
‘Abstract Right’ 61
aesthetics 63–5, 496, 502, 504–5, 506–7
‘being’ 54
Bildung 709–11
Christianity, critique of 807–8, 810–11 n.24, 813–14, 830–1, 833, 839
concept of recognition 158
Confucianism 724–5
consciousness, ‘experience’ of 50–3, 55–6
consciousness, model of 354–8
Daoism 724
death 789
dialectic 54, 63, 131, 150–1, 254, 274, 402–4, 652, 657, 662–70
dissolution of the mind-body problem 358–61
Eastern thought 722–5, 733
‘essence’ and ‘appearance’ 54–5
ethics 61, 485, 489
evolution 682–5
and the French Revolution 517–18, 782
Greek art and culture 64–5
history, philosophy of 5, 177, 436–9, 441–5, 448–51, 605, 684, 780, 786–8, 791
history, world 62–3
‘I’ and ‘not-I’ conjecture 250
and idealism 1, 48–9, 245–55, 383, 518–24
(p. 860) Jena romanticism 259–61, 268–9
‘judgement’ 56–7
language, philosophy of 384–6, 393
metaphysics 569, 573–91
Moralität and Sittlichkeit 478–9
nature, philosophy of 7, 59–60, 320, 327–9, 332, 679
‘objective spirit’ 52, 181
and the Other 6, 747–8
phenomenology 710–11, 747
Phenomenology of Spirit 49–51, 245, 573, 807–11
political philosophy 531
religion, philosophy of 150, 608
science, philosophy of 346
self-consciousness 52, 843
separation of state and religion 747
skepticism and epistemology 555, 559–61, 567–8
socially and historically constructed self 477–80, 483
spirit 52, 60, 61–5
subjective consciousness 64
‘syllogism of reflection’ 56–8
system 829–30
the Oldest System Program 766–96
unconscious mental processes 50
‘unhappy consciousness’ 807–11, 835–6
Vorstellungen 65
writing 101–2
Hegelianism see Left Hegelians
Heidegger, Martin 88–9, 105, 146, 249, 296, 420–1, 427–8, 430–2, 512, 587, 692, 733
debate with Carnap 594
existentialism 302–3
hermeneutics 396, 594, 595
on Hölderlin 277–9
metaphysics 576, 581, 585–6, 588
Heidelberg School 282
Heidelberg University 47, 283
Heidelberger, Michael 365–6
Heine, Heinrich 102, 240 n.12, 261
Hellingrath, Norbert von 277
Helmholtz, Hermann von 189, 283, 286, 289, 290, 331, 596, 801
philosophy of science 344–6
skepticism and epistemology 562–4, 567
Hempel, Carl 604–5
Hengstenberg, E. W. 832
Henning, Leopold von 402
Henrich, Dieter 278, 278 n.31
Heraclitus 570, 634–6, 638
Herbart, Johann Friedrich 284–7, 290–3, 459
education 463–4
methodology of the sciences 597
Herder, Johann Gottfried 3, 5, 75 n.24, 267, 273, 422, 539 n.13, 588, 595, 624, 739, 784, 795
and Bildung 702–3
critique of Kant’s championing of race 743–6
‘cultural’ nationalism 782
education, philosophy of 6, 456–8, 463
Entwicklung 676–7
Greek art and culture 754–5, 759, 770
hermeneutics 601, 603
language, philosophy of 373–9, 382, 390, 392, 416–17
and the Other 6, 746–7
pluralist cosmopolitanism 737–8
Weltliteratur 465–6
Hermann, Wilhelm 349–50
hermeneutics 180–2, 416–34, 601, 603
aesthetic and ethical dimensions 427–9
emergence of modern 417–19
explanation and understanding 429–31
Gadamer 396, 594–5
Heidegger 396, 495, 595
psychologism and semantics 424–7
reader-text relationship 417–19
Schlegel and classical 377–81
of suspicion 431–4
Herms, Ernst 35
Herodotus 757
Herz, Henriette 536, 539, 546
Hess, Jonathan M. 740
Hess, Moses 155–7, 162, 348
Heyne, Christian Gottlob 455, 770
Hilbert, David 220–2, 365 n.31, 412
(p. 861) Hintze, Otto 804
historicism 3, 174–5, 779–804
angst, ‘existential’ and ‘epistemological’ strains 796–804
Burckhardt’s ‘age of revolution’ 792, 798–9
Christian faith ‘crisis’ 796–8
Droysen 792, 799–80
German Historismus, emergence of 779–81, 783, 786–92
Hardtwig 796–8, 803
as hermeneutic-critical method 792, 796
historical school 786–92
historical ‘sense’ 793–6
Humboldt 792–6
Marx and Nietzsche 448–51, 798–9
Meinecke 783–4, 797
‘Methodological Controversy’ 803
methodology of historical research 800
and neo-Kantianism 801–2
Niebuhr 786–7, 800
Nietzsche 436, 448–51, 798–9
‘philosophical history’ 795
philosophy of 5, 436–51, 795
philosophy and history dialectic 785
‘Prussian School’ of German history 790
Ranke 786, 789–92, 797, 800
Rickert 295, 571, 781, 802–3
Savigny 786–9
Schlegel and method 84–5
and ‘science’ 784–5
Troeltsch 781, 796–7, 804
Windelband 802
Hobbes, Thomas 519, 589
Hogrebe, Wolfram 88, 94
Hölderlin, Friedrich 46, 47, 245, 275 n.24, 525, 696
and Greek art and culture 753, 771
and romanticism 270–9
Oldest System Program 766–9
Home, Henry, Lord Kames 497
Hotho, H. G. 504
Houlgate, S. 684
Howard, Thomas 796
‘humanism’ and German education 457–61
Humboldt, Alexander von 7, 320, 596, 681
methodology of the sciences 595
and scientific knowledge 332–3
Humboldt, Wilhelm von 5, 378, 386, 422, 467, 588, 601, 701, 721, 787
Bildung 6–7, 704–5, 757
and education 453–4, 457–8, 459–62, 465
essays on the Bhagavad Gitā 723–4
and Greek culture 770–1
‘historical sense’ 792–6
language, philosophy of 381–3, 396
Oriental literature 722
as pluralist cosmopolitanism 747
Hume, David 111, 142, 191, 346–7, 557, 572, 576
metaphysics 573, 577
methodology of the sciences 597
perspectivism 624–5
Husserl, Edmund 179, 182, 290, 378, 565, 733
phenomenology 692
Huxley, Thomas H. 615
‘I’:
absolute 75
concept 55
‘I’ and ‘not-I’ conjecture 55, 238–40, 250, 658–9, 700
idealism 1–2, 46, 48–9, 109–10, 112–13, 121–2, 126–8, 133–4, 140, 172, 231–55, 284, 320, 330, 420
aftermath 254–5
Hegelian 245–54, 518–24
‘I’ and ‘not-I’ conjecture 55, 238–40, 250, 658–9, 700
modifying from within 129–30
and the philosophy of language 383–6
in reaction to Kant 234–6
Schellingian 1–2, 74, 90, 95, 240–7, 254–5, 383
transcendental 1, 74–7, 82–3, 59, 88–90, 94–5, 231–4, 289, 383, 501
(p. 862) ideology 806–27
art and culture 822–3
art and Marx’s theory 816
competing group interests and Marx’s theory 823–6
conscious/unconscious intentions 819
development of Marx’s theory 811–16
economics and Marx’s theory 815–16
as empirical theory 813
extensions of Marx’s theory 822–6
falseness as essential feature 820–1 n.65, 822
gender and ideology 825
genetic fallacy 817, 820
communicating 818
and civil law 814–15
nations and ideology 824–5
objections to Marx’s theory 817–22
origins of Marx’s theory 806 n.3, 807–10
philosophy serving as 813–14, 824–6
politics as ideology 814
and the rights of man 814
selective focus mechanism 822–3
sentimental association mechanism 823
species and ideology 825–6
training in conformity mechanism 823
Iggers, Georg 790–2
immaterialism 48
incompleteness theorem 223
Islam 727–8
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich 29, 241, 270, 288, 586, 736, 833, 836
Jakobson, Roman 388
James, William 587
Jäsche, Gottlieb 400
Jaspers, Karl 89
Jena Circle 70, 240, 245, 261–9, 544, 550
and feminism 535–6
Jena University 20, 46–7, 74, 207, 234, 237, 459, 463, 596
and romanticism (1790s) 259–61
Jesus of Nazareth 64–5, 150, 830
Jewish ‘realism’ 742–3
Jews and Judaism 31, 708, 740–1, 748
Jones, William 720, 728
Kähler, Martin 797
Kant, Immanuel 3, 8, 16, 23–4, 28–9, 32, 45–6, 49, 70, 88–9, 93–4, 103, 108–9, 112–13, 124, 126–9, 133, 139, 142, 174, 180, 190, 200, 203–4, 208, 259–60, 264, 321–2, 328, 385–6, 390, 394, 398, 417, 420–1, 425, 433, 441, 443–4, 459, 465, 526, 528, 543, 562, 567, 678, 686, 707, 712, 795
aesthetics 63, 500–3, 505, 507–9, 512
aesthetics, twofold synthesis of 496–9
Bildung 699–700
Categorical Imperative 61, 295, 474–5, 477–8
‘critical philosophy’ 270, 289
Critique of Pure Reason 21, 49, 51, 54, 112, 121–2, 172–3, 232, 251 n.36, 258–9, 338, 373, 400, 556–7, 576, 654, 677, 738
dialectic 662, 664
education 6, 455
empirical/rational distinction 602
Entwicklung 676–8
ethics 485, 489
freedom 117, 233, 706, 759–61
hermeneutics 416
history of human development 22
‘I’ concept 55
‘immanent purposiveness’ 182
intellectual heritage of, and philosophy of science 337–40
intuition-concept dichotomy 60
logic 400–3
metaphysics 570, 572–4, 576–81, 585–6
‘metaphysics of experience’ 13–14
morality and freedom 235, 473–6, 479–80
moral philosophy 19, 72–3, 196, 233, 760–1
moral philosophy, Schiller’s critique of 761–3
natural sciences, model for 597–8
‘organism’ 343–4
perpetual peace 72–3
philosophy as criticism 288
political philosophy 531
principle of action (maxims) 18
principle of enlightenment 13
the reflective turn 372–4
science, philosophy of 341, 347, 348
and self-consciousness 271–2
skepticism and epistemology 555–8, 567–8
source of value 113
synthesis, theory of 119
transcendental dialectic 51–4, 58, 291, 378, 654–6, 662, 664
twofold relation to reality 11–12
on women 825
Kehr, Eckart 803
Kepler, Johannes 440
Kierkegaard, Søren Aabye 89, 137–46, 588
aesthetic view of life 137–8
agency theory 144–6
anxiety 146
Christian belief 140–4
despair 138–40, 145–6
ethical standpoint 138–41
existentialism 299–305, 308–10, 313
and Jena romanticism 269
religious standpoint 140–4
the self 144–6
Kind, Amy 356
kindergarten movement 463
Kodifikationsstreit (1814) 788
Köhnke, Klaus Christian 282
Kraus, Karl 395
Kriegel, Ulrich 355–7
Krug, W. T. 59, 63
Kühn, Sophie von 544
Kuhn, Thomas 331, 605
Lachmann, Karl 468
Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe 69
Lamarckian model of evolution 690
Lambert, J. H. 49, 387
Lamprecht, Karl 803
Lange, Friedrich Albert 188–90, 283, 286, 289–90, 349, 365, 481, 488, 584, 618
language, philosophy of 5, 8, 371–97, 209–14, 216, 384
anti-psychologism and lingualism 390–2
Bolzano 386–91, 397
critique of 392–6
Hegel 384–6, 393
hermeneutic tradition 371–2, 377–81
and the idealists 383–6
Kant’s legacy 372–4
Nietzsche 393–5, 396
Schelling 384, 421
Schlegel and Humboldt, birth of Western linguistics 381–3, 396
Laocoön sculpture group 754, 758
Lask, Emil 282, 289, 295–6
Laws of Manu 728, 730–1
Lazarus, Mortiz 176, 600–1
Le Sage, Georges-Louis 321
Lebensphilosophie 68
Lee, Vernon 510
Left Hegelians 65, 89, 258, 527, 840
and Marx 149–51
Legge, James 720
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 18, 48, 56, 114–15, 127, 252, 374, 385–7, 391, 404, 413, 576 n.5
characteristica universalis 399
and Eastern thought 720
logic 57, 58, 399
perspectivism 622–3
Leibnizian-Wolffian school 112–13, 133
Leo, Heinrich 780, 832
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 270, 833
Greek art and culture 754
Leuckart, Rudolph 344
Levin, Rahel 536
Levine, Joseph 356
Lichtenberg, G. Chr. 392–3, 396
Liebert, Arthur 283
Liebig, Justus 331
Liebmann, Otto 283, 286, 290–1, 293
Link, Heinrich Friedrich 341
Lipps, Theodor 510, 511
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh 752
Locke, John 347, 519, 520
and education 456
methodology of the sciences 597
Loeb, Jacques 616
(p. 864) logical empiricism 619
logical positivism 574, 692
logicism 8, 207–8, 211–14, 398–413
and algebra 407–9
and Ancient Greece 399
Aristotle 57, 58, 403
Bolzano 405–7
Frege and Begriffsschrift 409–13
Kant 400–3
Leibniz 57–8, 399
and medieval universities 399
quantified 208–9
Schröder and the algebra of logic 407–9
as the standpoint of philosophy 53–8
Lott, Tommy L. 738
Lotze, Rudolf Hermann 171, 292, 363, 410
Lovejoy, Arthur 685
Luther, Martin 235, 418
Lvov-Warsaw school of logic 407
Mach, Ernst 350–1
philosophy of science 336
Magnus, Gustav 596
Mandelbaum, Maurice 802
Mandeville, Bernard 589
Mannheim, Karl 796
Mann, Thomas 692
and Bildung 695, 696
and education 454
Marburg school 285
Marburg University 283
Marheineke, P. K. 837
Marquard, Odo 330
Marshman, Joshua 723
Marx, Karl 3–4, 48, 149–68, 189, 254, 268, 431, 439, 490, 518, 587, 589–90, 736, 803, 833
art and culture as ideology 822–3
atheism 840–2, 843
capitalism 153–5, 163, 165–6
capitalist society 153–4, 163–4
Christianity, critique of 807–11
class interests 813
conscious/unconscious intentions and ideology 819
consciousness 161–2
critique of political economy as theory of justice 166–8
and Darwinism 692
dialectic 62, 668–70
division of labour 158, 161
economics and ideology theory 815–16
essentialism 156
estrangement 152–5, 156, 158, 161–2
exchange-value 163–4
fetishism 164–5, 816
and ‘freedom’ 752
historical materialism 161–3
historical mutability of sensory experience 821
history, philosophy of 5, 157, 436, 448–51, 604, 780
ideology theory 806–16
ideology theory, objections to 817–22
institutions that communicate ideology 818, 818 n.56
labour and action concept 152
Left Hegelian background 149–51
and materialism 610
mechanisms of indoctrination 818
metaphysics 584
money 157, 164–5, 816
morality, critique of 162–3, 815
morality and ethics 432–3, 482–4, 489, 815
objectification model 152–3, 155, 158
objectual species being 155–7
and the Other 748
political economy critique 163–6, 815
private property 153, 158, 161
recognition as critical background 157–60
recognition as a positive counter project 160–1
and scientific theory 7, 819–20
sensual-physical human being 155
and slavery 158
and socialism 527–8
social ontological model 156–7
wage labour 158
materialism 7, 8, 189–91, 288–90, 607–19
anthropological 608–9
and Darwinism 690–2
and ethics 480–4
monistic dilution 616–17
as non-philosophy 613–15
as a political reform programme 614–15
reception of 617–19
scientific 610–13
as worldview 613–14
as ‘Zeitgeist’ 615
Mauthner, Fritz 5, 395–6
Mayer, Robert 345
McTaggart, John 584
Megill, Allan 796–7
Meier, Georg Friedrich 387, 418
Meillassoux, Quentin 93
Meinecke, Friedrich 783–4, 797
Mendelssohn, Moses 270, 288, 497
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 429
Merz, John 595–6
metaphysics 8, 575–9
abstract reflection and the constitution of performative forms 579–81
achievements and shortcomings 585–91
critiques of 569–91
defined 570–3
empiricism concept 572
Fichte 575, 581–2
freedom and causality 577
Hegel 569, 573–91
Heidegger 576, 581, 585–6, 588
Hume 577
scientism and the technical image of the world 581–3
and ‘transcendence’ concept 572
widening transcendental analysis 574–5
methodology of the sciences 594–605
Dilthey 599–605
Geistwissenschaften and Naturwissenschaften 598–603
history and methods 604–5
Kant 597–9
Mill 597
nineteenth century context 594–8
Metternich, Klemens von 528, 530
Meyer, Jürgen Bona 283, 286–7, 289–90, 293, 564
Michaelis, Johann David 537
Mill, John Stuart 175, 390, 547, 595, 747, 801
methodology of the sciences 597
Miller, R. D. 762–3
Mills, James 149
mind, philosophy of 8, 354–68
Hartmann’s theory of the unconscious 366–8
Hegel’s dissolution of the mind-body problem 358–61
Materialismusstreit 361–7
Nietzsche’s mind and action theory 191–5
Reinhold-Fichte-Hegel model of consciousness 354–8
Moleschott, Jacob 189, 349, 365, 481, 484, 598, 610, 612, 614, 617, 846
defining poverty in scientific terms 615
money 157, 164–5
monism 616–17
and Darwinism 690–2
Montagne uprising (1848–51) 814
morality:
Christianity and 4, 6
Fichte 12, 18, 72–3
Kantian morality and freedom 19, 72–3, 196, 233, 235, 473–6, 479–80, 760–3
‘laws’ 12
and Neo-Kantianism 294–6
Nietzsche’s ‘ascetic’ moral ideal 771–2
Schiller’s moral beauty 761–3
Schlegel 72–3
Schleiermacher 31–3, 763–5
see also ethics
Morrison, Robert 727
Müller, Friedrich Max 720, 726
Müller, Johannes 289, 343, 344, 596
Müller’s law 345
Muslims 741
Nagel, Thomas 94
Nägeli, Carl 688–9
Nancy, Jean-Luc 69
Napoleon Bonaparte 11, 23, 27, 453
National Socialism 531, 689
nationalism, and the politics of race 529–31
(p. 866) Natorp, Paul 282, 296, 350, 564–7
natural science, and ethics 480–4
naturalism 191
Dilthey 184–5
Heraclitean 634–6, 638
Nietzsche 191, 202–5, 634–5, 645–6
nature, philosophy of 7, 319–34
decline and survival of 329–34
Fichte 323–4
and freedom 322
Goethe 319 n.1, 341–2, 681
rise of 319–20
Schelling’s Naturphilosophie 7, 90, 93–5, 319–27, 329, 332–3, 338–9, 341, 348, 588, 616, 679–82
Schlegel, and the unity and completeness of 763, 765–6
Schopenhauer 320, 329–30
and scientific knowledge 332–3
Nazi ideology 687, 689
Nazianzenos, Gregor 572
Nelson, Leonard 282
neo-Kantianism 282–97, 596, 692
‘analytic’ method 285–6
the challenge of pessimism 293–6
crisis and controversy 287–90
death and decline of 296–7
effects of materialism 618
epistemology 290–3
die Existenzfrage287
morals and ethics 294–6
and the philosophy of science 349–50
and ‘psychologism’ 290–2
from psychology to logic 290–3
reaction against speculation 285–7
skepticism and epistemology 564–8
‘synthetic’ method 286
topography and chronology 282–5
World War I and 296–7
New Humanist Phase, Göttingen 769–70
Newton, Isaac 252, 328, 346–7
account of colour 342
mechanics 341, 597
Newtonian science 173, 337–9, 596, 677
Niebuhr, Barthold, and the historical school 786–7, 800
Niethammer, Immanuel 71–3, 260–1, 271, 274
Nietzsche, Elisabeth 187
Nietzsche, Friedrich 3–5, 7, 108–9, 113 n.28, 133–4, 187–205, 277, 366, 378, 431–3, 439, 534, 550, 584, 587, 721, 781
aesthetic ‘justification’ of existence 198–202
aesthetics 504
Apollonian and Dionysian ‘drives’ 508
and the ‘ascetic’ moral ideal 771–2
atheism 844–9
Beyond Good and Evil 22, 639–42
Bildung 713–15
critique of morality 196–8, 201
and Darwinism 687–9
Dionysian attitude 200–2
education 462
‘eternal return’ idea 199
and existentialism 299–313
and feminism 547–9
free play, rediscovery of 508–10
freedom and experience 193
genealogical method 4, 194–5
genealogy of morality 194–5
Greek art, culture and philosophy 4, 188–9, 628, 714, 772–6, 772–3 n.95
Hindu and Buddhist thought 728, 730–2
history, philosophy of 436, 448–51
history, use of 798–9
inescapable aims of life 488–93
‘intoxication’ 201
language, philosophy of 393–6
laughter 642 n.41
life and intellectual formation 187–90
and logic 636–7
materialism and the sciences 618–19
mind and action, theory of 191–5
the monumental world 203–5
naturalism 191, 202–5, 634–5, 645–6
perception of the Other 749
perspectivism 622, 625–46
politics, withdrawal from 531–2
Protagoreanism 203
Ressentiment 4, 732
skepticism 629–33, 642–6
style and philosophy 190–1
truth, knowledge and perspectivism 202–5, 625–46
(p. 867) the unconscious mind 192
and the will to power 193–4
will to power and morality 490–3
willing, conscious experience of 192–3
Noë, Alva 579
Noiré, Ludwig 685
nomothetic explanations 604–5
nomothetic (law-governed) foundations of physical or natural sciences 594–5
Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg) 29, 47, 70–1, 78, 271, 319 n.1, 428, 525, 535, 539
feeling 264
ordo inversus aspects 264–5
and the ‘Romantic School’ 261–9, 272, 279
romantic sociability/symphilosophizing 540, 542–4
Nussbaum, Martha 716 n.70, 824
Odebrecht, Rudolf 43 n.83
Oersted, Hans Christian 331
Oexle, Otto 784, 796
Ogden, C. K. 368
Oken, Lorenz 690
Oldenberg, Hermann 731
Ossian craze 258
Ostwald, Wilhelm 350, 613, 616
happiness formula 616–17
monism 617
science, philosophy of 336
Other, the 5–6, 736–49
Christian rationality and ethics 739–41
Fichte and Christianity 739–40
Hegel 6, 747–8
Herder’s critique of Kant’s championing of race 743–6
Herder’s impact on the perception of the other 6, 746–8
the immanent framework 736–7
Jewish ‘realism’ 742–3
Jews and Judaism 740–1
Kant and race 737, 738–40, 743–6
Marx 748
Nietzsche 749
pluralist cosmopolitanism 737–8, 746–7
Schlegel 746
Schleiermacher 746
Schopenhauer’s homogenous universalism 737–43
Wagner’s anti-Semitism 740–3
Owen, Richard 681
Paley, William 677
Parmenides 570
Paulsen, Friedrich 283, 293–4
Peirce, Charles Sanders 407–9
perspectivism 622–46
Chladenius 623–5
historical varieties of 622–5
Hume 624–5
Leibniz 622–3
the logic of self-refuting speech 631–3
Nietzsche 622, 625–46
Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil 22, 639–42
Nietzsche on logical ‘fictions’ 637–9
normative tensions: variations 626–31
and painting 622
rational and irrational responses 633–7
Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich 7, 454–5, 459, 463, 701
and Bildung 703–5
phenomenology 182
and Hegel 710–11, 747
Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit 49–51, 245, 573, 807–11
and Husserl 692
phrenology 57
Pippin, Robert 749
Plato 27, 32–3, 35, 416–17, 442 n.14, 460, 496, 503, 570, 581–2
the dialectic 644, 651–3, 660–1
Platonism 48, 243
Plotinus 140
Ploucquet, Gottfried 56–7, 96
polis 46
political philosophy 8, 517–32
conservatism: Stahl 528–9
idealism: Kant, Fichte and Hegel 518–24, 531
rise of nationalism: towards a politics of race 529–31
Romanticism: Schelling 524–7
Schlegel 524–5
socialism and Marx 527–8
withdrawal from the political 531–2
(p. 868) Popper, Karl 582, 687, 779–80
post-Darwinism 588
post-Kantian philosophy 46–7, 70, 89, 92, 102, 110, 119–21
postmodernism 69
power positivism 687
private property 154, 159–60, 164–5
Prussian Academy of Science 171
Prussian Reform Movement 789
‘psychologism’ 290–2
psychology
Dilthey 172–3, 176
Schopenhauer and philosophical psychology 484–8
Pyrrhonian skepticism 557–8, 632, 639
quantified logic 208–9
Quine, W. V. O 380–1, 423, 579–80 n.10, 604, 824
Ranke, Leopold von 595, 784
and the historical school 786, 789–92, 797, 800
Rawls, John 824
Realschulen (secondary schools) 462
Reginster, Bernard 491
Reichart, Mathilde 365
Reill, Peter Hanns 793
Reinhold, Karl Leonhard 8, 46, 50, 120 n.65, 233, 236, 240, 259–61, 262, 285, 289, 597
model of consciousness 354–8
Ricardo, David 589
Richards, Robert 333, 681
Richardson, Alan 193, 349
Richardson, Samuel 537
Rickert, Heinrich 282, 289, 295–6, 571, 781, 802–3
Ricoeur, Paul 431
Riehl, Alois 283, 289, 291–4, 296
Ringer, Fritz 798
Ritter, Johann Wilhelm 331
Robespierre, Maximilien de 518
Rolph, William 688
Romanticism 2–3, 68, 258–61, 421, 428, 460, 463, 468
and gender 3, 535–40
Heidelberg 467
Hölderlin 270–9
and philology 465–6
and philosophical feminism 549–50
‘Romantic School’ 2, 261–9, 272, 279, 280
Schleiermacher 29–33, 236, 499
and sociability 540–7, 544 n.29, 546, 549–50
Rosen, Michael 817–18
Rosenkranz, Karl, and aesthetics 506–7
Rössler, Beate 425
Röth, Eduard 721–2
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 28, 61–2, 297, 465, 519
and education 453–4, 456, 462–3
Roux, Wilhelm 688
Royce, Josiah 733
Rubens, Peter Paul 511
Rudolphi, Carl 341, 343
Ruge, Arnold 832, 833
Rush, Benjamin 275
Russell, Bertrand 208, 223–4, 359, 396, 412–13, 574
and Frege’s paradox 219–20
Said, Edward 469
Salomé, Lou 548
Sandys, J. E. 770
Sartre, Jean-Paul 146, 588, 819
existentialism 299–300, 306–9, 313
Saussure, Ferdinand de 424
Savigny, Friedrich Karl von, and the historical school 786–9
Scheiden, Matthias Jakob 615
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph 33, 46–7, 59, 68–9, 72, 76, 81, 88–105, 109–10, 112–13, 120–2, 124–5, 128, 144, 270, 274, 340, 538, 595, 691, 832
anthropic principle 94
art as the organon of philosophy 499–501, 503
Bildung 710
dogmatism and criticism 93–4
‘essence’ 97–8
existentialism 304–6, 308, 311–13
freedom 90–1
(p. 869) freedom and creativity 98
Freedom Essay 95–102
‘good’ and ‘evil’ 100–1
‘history of self-consciousness’ 105
language, philosophy of 384, 421
metaphysics 575
Naturphilosophie 7, 90, 93–5, 319–27, 329, 332–3, 338–9, 341, 348, 588, 616, 679–82
negative and positive philosophy 103–5
objective idealism 92, 95
‘phenomenalization’ 94
rationalism 285–7
‘Real-Idealismus’ 98
Romanticism, and evolution 679–82
Romanticism, and political philosophy 524–7
science, philosophy of 346
skepticism and epistemology 559
sociability/symphilosophizing 540, 543
subjectivity 91–2
System of Transcendental Idealism 74, 90, 95
‘theogonical process’ 91
theory of potencies 103–4
theory of predication 96–8, 104–5
‘transcendental past’ 93
truth-value and truth-makers 97–9, 104
unground 96–8
unprethinkable being 104–5
Schiller, Friedrich 46, 64, 261, 263, 271, 273–4, 508
aspiration for a unified self 475–7, 480
Bildung 706–7, 757
and education 6, 457–8
Greek culture 753, 763, 770–1
and moral beauty 761–3
Schlegel, August Wilhelm 46–7, 78, 261–2, 465, 535–8, 721
Orientalism 722
philology and Weltliteratur 466, 467
Schlegel/Schelling (née Michaelis), Caroline 537–9, 546, 549
Schlegel, Dorothea (née Brendel Mendelssohn) 534, 536–9, 546, 549, 708
and Lucinde 541–2
Schlegel, Friedrich von 26, 29, 32, 43, 46–7, 68–86, 102, 376, 420, 439, 465, 535
aesthetics 64
classical hermeneutics 377–81
consciousness, history of 76–7
critique of first principles 81–4, 86
dialectic 36
Eastern thought and philology 720–1
education 453, 455, 457
Germanic Philology 466
Greek art and culture 753, 763, 765–6
historical method 84–5
history of philosophy 74–7
‘incomplete’ systems 77–81
and the ‘individual’ 78–80
irony 266–9
language, philosophy of 381–3
Lebensphilosophie 68
literary devices 69
Lucinde 537, 541–2
moral philosophy 72–3
music and natural organism 79–80
philosophical significance 85–6
philosophical systems 73–4, 77–81
pluralist cosmopolitanism 746
political philosophy 524–5
postmodern interpretations of 69–70
and the ‘Romantic School’ 2, 261–9, 272, 279, 280
romantic sociability 546–7, 549–50
‘system of fragments’ 77–81, 83, 86
unity and completeness in nature 763, 765–6
Schleiden, Matthias Jakob 332
Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst 26–45, 78, 262, 535–6, 539, 595, 597, 616, 801
actuality and hermeneutics 423–4
aesthetics 40, 506
Bildung 707–9
classical hermeneutics 377–81
‘critique of morals’ 31–3
dialectic 34–8, 660–2
and early Romanticism 29–33
and education 7, 417, 453, 457, 459–61
ethics 38–9
hermeneutics 43–4, 419–24, 431, 432, 433, 434, 601, 603, 660–2, 748, 787
(p. 870) hermeneutics, psychologism and semantics 426–9
and the historical school 786–7
and Kant’s morality autonomy critique 763–5
knowledge 37–8
pedagogy 42
philosophical system 33–5
pluralist cosmopolitanism 746
psychology 44
and religion 836
religion as intuition 30–1
Romanticism 2, 3
romantic sociability 544–7
symphilosophy 29–33
theory of the state 41–2
Schlick, Moritz 619
Schlözer, August 465 n.51
Schopenhauer, Arthur 2, 108–34, 124–6, 188–91, 196, 199–200, 293–4, 297, 367–8, 394, 490, 508, 584, 588, 721, 740
absolute dualism 126
aesthetics 133–4, 501
art as cognitive therapy 502–4
atheism 844–5, 847
axiological premise 113–15
between Kant and German Idealism 126–8
Bildung 711–13
concept empiricism 111–12
contraction of the principle of sufficient reason 110–16, 118, 122–4, 126–7, 132
Eastern thought 725–8
evolution 685–8
Fourfold Root 110–11, 134
homogenous universalism 741–2
idealism 1, 255
inversion of Fichte’s ethical system 116–18
and the meta-critical problem 119–20
nature, philosophy of 320, 329–30
Objektivation 124–6
philosophical psychology 484–9
post-Schopenhaurian development 128–34
system architecture 121–2
transcendental subjectivity 119–20
Wille and Vorstellung 121–2, 124–7
Wille as ground of the world as representation 122–5
withdrawal from politics 531
Schröder, Ernst 413
algebra of logic 407–9
Schulz, Walter 103
Schulze, Gottlob Ernst 236 n.7, 260, 355, 357, 560
Schulze, Johannes 461
Schwann, Theodor 344
Schweitzer, Albert 797
science, Newtonian 173, 337–9, 596, 677
science, philosophy of 7–8, 336–51, 595, 597
Appelt and the theory of induction 346–8
critiques of classical physics and scientific realism 350–1
critiques of Naturphilosophie 341
Fries’ extension of Kant 339–40
Goethe 340
Helmholtz 344–6
Humboldt 332–3
and neo-Kantianism 349–50
philosophy of organism 434–4
popular philosophy of science at mid-century 348–9
Schelling and Naturphilosophie 338–9, 341
vital force 344
scientific knowledge and nature 332–3
scientific materialism 610–13
Searle, John 356, 824
self-consciousness:
Fichte 271–2
Hegel 52, 843
Kant 271–2
Schelling 105
Sellars, Wilfrid 571
Sepper, Dennis 342
set theory 209, 224
Siemens, Werner von 596
Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph 235
Signorelli, Luca 511
Simmel, Georg 781, 803
(p. 871) Sinclair, Isaac von 274–5
Sittlichkeit 61–2
skepticism 555–68, 577
Cartesian 557, 560, 562, 567
development after Hegel 561–2
and epistemology 8
Erkenntnis/Wissen distinction 556–7
Erkenntniskritik (critique of knowledge) 564–7
Fichte 558–9
Helmholtz 562–4, 567
neo-Kantianism 564–8
Pyrrhonian 557–8, 632, 639
Smith, Adam 158, 589
social contract tradition 15–16
social Darwinism 687, 689, 693
social equality 17
socialism 157, 548
sociality 708
sociology 172, 177, 182
Socrates 140, 496, 570
Solger, K. W. F. 268–9
Sophists 188, 652–3
Spencer, Herbert 510, 688–9, 846
Spengler, Oswald 531
Spielhagen, Friedrich von 366
Spinoza, Baruch de 2, 29, 32–3, 75–6, 93, 127, 140, 190, 241–3, 288, 616, 726, 833–4
value indifference 114
Stahl, Friedrich Julius, and conservatism 528–9
state, the 15–17
Steffens, Heinrich 34
Steinthal, Heymann 176, 600–1
Stendhal 200
Stirner, Max 156–7, 161–2, 584
atheism 842–4
Stoic logic 56
Strassburg University 283
Strauss, David Friedrich 150, 608, 614, 618, 797
atheism 831–2
and Hegelianism 838
Strich, Fritz 469
Stubenrauch, Samuel Ernst Timotheus 26
Sturm und Drang 258
Sufi mysticism 728
surplus-value 166–7
Sybel, Heinrich von 600
symphilosophy 29–33, 268, 540, 542–3, 544, 708
systematicity 73–4, 77–81
Tarski, Alfred 407, 413
Tathandlung (Fichte) 238, 239, 263
Taylor, Charles 846
Taylor, Harriet 547
Thales 188
Theognis 773
Thibaut, Anton Friedrich 788
Thucydides 188
Tieck, Johann Ludwig 262
Tihanov, Galin 465
Tilliette, Xavier 89
Toews, John 789–92
Tolstoy, Leo 47–8, 454
transcendental idealism see under idealism
transmutation of species 686, 690
Treitschke, Heinrich von 530
Trendelenburg, Friedrich Adolf 171–2, 404, 410, 561, 588–9
Trinitarian Christianity 65
Troeltsch, Ernst 781, 796–7, 804
Turgenev, Ivan 607
Twardowsksi, Kazimierz 407
Tyndall, John 615
unconscious, the 130–1
Hartmann’s theory of 366–8
Hegel 50
Nietzsche 192
Upaniṣads 486, 720, 725–6, 729
use-value 165
utilitarianism 197
Vacher de Lapouge, Georges 530
Vaihinger, Hans 283
Varnhagen, Rahel 709
Veit, Dorothea 550
Vierhaus, Rudolf 790
Vischer, Robert 507–8, 510–11
Volkelt, Johannes 282, 283, 293, 294, 510
Voltaire 465, 720
Vorstellungen 65
wage labour 154–5, 158, 160, 165–6
Wagner, Andreas 362–3
Wagner, Richard 188, 508–9, 530, 714, 845
anti-semitism 740–3
Wagner, Rudolph 288–9, 361–2, 365, 610
Weber, Max 803–4
Weierstrass, Karl 410
Weimar Gymnasium 454
Weisse, Christian Hermann 561
Wellek, René 469
Weng, Gustav 685
Wheeler, Samuel 425
Whewell, William 598
Whitehead, Alfred North 223
Whorf, Benjamin 383
Wieland, Christopher Martin 466 n.53, 696
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von 771–3
Wilkens, Charles 720
Wille:
Nietzsche 192–4, 490–3
Schopenhauer 121–7
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim, and the dream of freedom 753–9, 762, 764, 767–9, 773
Windelband, Wilhelm 179–80, 282, 289, 291–6, 571, 594–6, 781, 802
methodology of the sciences 602–4
Windelband-Dilthey debate 594–5, 603
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 133, 376, 378, 380, 390, 397, 413, 427, 429, 576, 584
Wittkau, Annette 792
Wolff, Christian 374, 455, 720
Wolf, Friedrich August 7, 455, 461–2, 770, 773
Wundt, Wilhelm 430, 597, 801
Zajonc, Arthur 341–2
Zeller, Eduard 283, 286–8, 290, 602
Zend tradition 741
Zermelo, Ernst 224
Zhu Xi 727
Ziche, Paul 336
Zoroastrianism 64
Zwilling, Jakob 274