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date: 30 March 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Politics is prominent in nineteenth-century German philosophy. Kant, Fichte, and Hegel draw philosophical consequences from the French Revolution; articulating the structures of a powerful government, subjected to the rule of law, which enables individual and social freedom. Romantic philosophers and Schelling have reservations about the connection between politics and freedom, because for them politics makes human interactions more mechanical. Similarly, if for Marx a radical transformation of the world has a strong politics meaning, it is still predicated upon a resetting of the world’s social and economical organization. Conservative thinkers, however, are concerned that the rule of law proposed by liberal thinkers would be a denial of the religious roots of the law. In the second half of the nineteenth century, nationalistic and racist types of thinking appear in Germany: the forerunners of National Socialism. Nevertheless some German philosophers like Schopenhauer and Nietzsche would rather walk away from politics.

Keywords: Fichte, Hegel, Kant, Marx, liberty, nation, politics, revolution, Romanticism, state

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