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date: 30 March 2020

Abstract and Keywords

At the close of the eighteenth century, Kant attempted to anchor morality in freedom. A series of nineteenth-century thinkers, though impressed with the claim that there is an essential connection between morality and freedom, argue that Kant has misunderstood the nature of the self, agency, freedom, the individual, the social, the natural sciences, and philosophical psychology. The chapter traces the way in which several central figures rethink the connection between morality and freedom by complicating the analyses of the aforementioned notions. In particular, the chapter discusses Schiller’s demand for a unified self; Hegel’s attention to the socially and historically situated agent; Feuerbach’s and Büchner’s turn to natural science; Marx’s materialism; Schopenhauer’s philosophical psychology; and Nietzsche’s attempt to anchor normative demands in will to power.

Keywords: morality, ethics, freedom, Schiller, Hegel, Feuerbach, Büchner, Marx, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche

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