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date: 02 April 2020

(p. 597) Index

(p. 597) Index

Note: page numbers in italic indicate illustrations.

Abbott, W. C. 224, 226, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232–3, 236n1
absolutism 12, 364, 401, 431, 434, 435, 543
imperial 583
parliamentary 422–3, 424
royal 30, 368, 373, 374, 584
Act for a Speedy Contribution and Loan (England, 1640) 87
Act for the Speedy and Effectual Reducing of the Rebels in His Majesty’s Kingdom of Ireland, see Adventurers’ Act
Act of Explanation (Ireland, 1665) 215–16
Act of Indemnity and Oblivion (England, 1660) 213, 476
Act of Indemnity (Scotland, 1662) 214
Act of Kingly Title (Ireland, 1541) 246
Act of Oblivion (England, 1652) 194, 410
Act of Settlement (England, 1652) 173
Act of Settlement (England, May 1662) 215
Act of Settlement (Ireland, July 1662) 256
Act of Settlement (Poor Relief Act, England, 1662) 511
Act of Uniformity (England, 1662) 212
Act of Uniformity (Ireland 1666) 215
Acts of Classes (Scotland, 1646 and 1649) 117, 132, 180, 365, 372
Adamson, John 64, 424
Adventurers 170, 173, 174
Adventurers’ Act (Act for the Speedy and Effectual Reducing of the Rebels in His Majesty’s Kingdom of Ireland, England, 1642) 87, 88, 562
Adwalton Moor, battle of (1643) 102, 270
Agreements of the People 161, 190, 268, 285, 439
Allenson, William 322
Allen, William 157
Allestree, Richard 454, 461
Althusius, Johannes 46
American Revolution 461
Anabaptism 23, 24, 210
Anderson, Margaret 367
Andrewes, Lancelot 407
Annan, William 367, 368
Annus Mirabilis (Dryden) 471, 474–7
Answer to the Nineteen Propositions (Falkland and Culpeper) 73, 400, 436, 437
anti-absolutist movement 6, 46
Anti-Cavalierisme (pamphlet) 401
antinomianism 31–2, 450, 451, 453, 454, 455
Antinous (Le Sueur) 496
anti-Puritanism 26, 29, 30, 31–2, 34, 35, 405, 511–12
and conspiracy theories 28
rise of 24–5
Antrim, earl of (Randal MacDonnell) 49, 51, 138
Antrim, marquis of (Randal MacDonnell) 264, 565, 567
Antrim Plot 54
Aphorismes of Justification, The (Baxter) 453
Apologeticall Narration, An (Dissenting Brethren) 450
Apologists (Dissenting Brethren) 450, 451
Apology (Barclay) 456
Appleby, David 270
apprentices 69, 285, 317, 339, 356–7, 359, 399
apprentice petition 206, 207, 340, 359
see also crowd actions
architecture 14, 492–5
Archpriest Controversy 29
Areopagitica (Milton) 287
(p. 598) Argyll, 1st marquis and 8th earl of (Archibald Campbell) 46, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 180, 374
and committees 248
and Engagement crisis 123, 124, 125, 126
aristocracy 9, 501–2, 503–4
intermarriage in 3 kingdoms 565–7
revolt by 565–8
armies 9, 108, 260–71
cavalry 73, 101, 103, 104, 151n31
clergy and 262–3
conscription 103, 265
field armies 98–9, 103, 271
finance for 265–8
future research 269–71
infantry 101, 103, 104, 107, 266
and politics 260–4, 268–9
recruitment 261–4
Arminians/Arminianism 31, 55, 213, 342, 416, 447, 449, 450, 452, 453
Cambridge 409
Milton and 455
neo-Arminianism 454, 461
Armstrong, Robert 139, 145, 149
Army Council 252
Army of the Engagement 265
Army Plot 67
Arrow against all Tyrants, An (Overton) 438
arts 483–92
book illustration 489, 490
and idolatry 484–6
miniatures 491–2
patronage of 13–14
portraits 489–90, 491
printmaking 487–9, 490–1
visual arts 13–14, 496, 538–43
Art of Limning, The (Norgate) 492
Arundel, 14th earl of (Thomas Howard) 485, 490
Ascham, Anthony 480
Ashcraft, Richard 530
Ashley Cooper, Anthony (later 1st earl of Shaftesbury) 206
Ashley Cooper, Anthony (3rd earl of Shaftesbury) 527
Assembly of Divines, see Westminster Assembly
Assessment Ordinance 100
assessment tax 296, 317
Association for Preserving Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers 530
Astræa Redux (Dryden) 467
astrology 13
Atherton, Ian 266
Atlantic world 15–16, 504–6, 523–4
Atterbury, Francis 530
Aubrey, John 487
Axtell, Colonel Daniel 172
Aylmer, Gerald 262
Bachilor, John 287
Bacon, Francis 33
Baillie, Robert 55, 57, 123, 124, 132, 367, 435, 451
Baker, Philip 268, 439
Bale, John 23
Balfour, Sir James 246, 368
Balfour, Robert, 2nd Lord Balfour of Burleigh 126, 373
Balfour, Sir William 69
ballads 205, 208–9, 271, 278, 297
gender issues 349
Balmerino, 2nd Lord (John Elphinstone) 46, 57, 117, 248, 364
Bampfield, Thomas 194
Bancroft, Richard 25, 29
banking industry 506–7, 520
Bank of England 507, 520
Baptists/Baptist Church 172, 175, 178, 355, 448, 512–13
American Baptists 462
attacks on 209
in Ireland 389
and mass petitioning 285
Particular Baptists 460, 461
and Quakers 456
Scotland 367
Barclay, Andrew 225
Barclay, Robert 456
Barebone, Praise-God 252
Barebone’s Parliament (Nominated Assembly) 177, 189–90, 231, 232, 252
Barry, Garrett 264
(p. 599) battle colours 564
battlefield archaeology 270
battlefield landscapes 269–70
Battlefields Trust 270
Baxter, Richard 213, 402, 409, 453, 457, 460
Beake, Thomas 194
Beddard, Robert 528
Bedford, earl of (Francis Russell) 64, 66, 68
Bedlam 276
Bellings, Richard 138, 143
Bell, John 368
Benburb, battle of 138, 146, 172, 265
Berlin, Isaiah 430
Best, Paul 455
Beza, Theodore 449
Biddle, John 455
Birch, John 193–4, 300
Bishop, Jennifer 317
Bishops’ Wars 49–53, 63, 64, 338
Black Death 508
Blacklocke, Thomas 210
Blakiston, John 571
Blickle, Peter 594n29
Boate, Gerard and Arnold 174
Bohemian Revolt 582–3, 584
Bolingbroke, Lord 507
book illustration 489, 490
Book of Sports 61, 100
bookselling trade 371
Booth, Sir George 406
Booth, John 569
Border, Daniel 279–80
Borlase, Edmund 90
Bourne, Nicholas 279
Bowen, Lloyd 262, 263
Bowles, Charles 299
Boyle, Richard, first earl of Cork 79
Boyle, Robert 455, 457, 461
Braddick, Michael 261
Bradshaw, John 158, 190, 192
Bramhall, John 459, 485
Brenner, Robert 319, 320, 523
Brereton, Sir William 562, 569–70
Brewer, John 520
Bridge, William 457
Brightman, Thomas 451
Bristol 319, 352, 510, 513
Bristol, 1st earl of (John Digby) 69, 71, 73
British empire 15–16, 180–1, 504–6, 523–4
broadsides 271, 278, 468, 470
Broghill, Lord (Roger Boyle) 178, 179, 181, 194, 198, 206, 232
Brooke, Lord 61, 64
Brotton, Jerry 495
Brown, Keith 374
Bucer, Martin 449
Buchanan, George 46
Buckingham, 1st duke of (George Villiers) 33, 34, 489
Bulkeley, John 193–4
Bullinger, Heinrich 449
Burgess, Cornelius 451
Burgess, Glenn 423, 439
Burghley, Lord (William Cecil) 25, 317
Burgh, Lord (Ulick Burke, 5th earl of Clanricarde) 565
Burley, John 304
Burnet, Gilbert 124–5
Butler, James, see Ormond, 1st marquis
Butler, Richard (Viscount Mountgarret) 143
Butter, Nathaniel 279
Bye and Main plots 29
Byrd, John 301
Calamy, Edmund 105
Callendar, earl of (James Livingstone) 364
Call to the Unconverted (Baxter) 460
Calvinism 13, 31–2, 447, 452, 453, 454
Calvin, John 447, 449
Cambridge 321
Cambridge, earl of, see Hamilton, 3rd marquis
Cambridge Platonists 453, 460–1
Cambridge University 252, 321, 408–9, 453, 492
Campbell, Archibald, see Argyll, 1st marquis and 8th earl of
Campbell clan 51
Campbell, James 125
Campbell, John, see Loudon, 1st earl of
Canny, Nicholas 151n30
Carbery, earl of (Richard Vaughan) 263
Carew, Thomas 407
Carnegie, John (1st earl of Northesk) 373
(p. 600) Cartwright, Thomas 24, 32, 470
Cary, Lucius, see Falkland, Viscount
Case for Noll Cromwells Nose, A 491
Case of Shipmoney, The (Parker) 432
Cassillis, 6th earl of (John Kennedy) 117, 126, 133n14, 374
Casway, Jerrold 138
Caus, Isaac de, see de Caus, Isaac
Cavendish, Margaret 466
Cecil, Robert 29
Cecil, William 25, 317
censorship 472–3, 526
collapse of 277–81
restoration of 287–9
censure of the presbyterian censures, A 407
Chalgrove Field, battle of (1643) 102
Chaloner, Thomas 417, 425
Champion, Arthur 83
Character of a London Diurnall, A (Cleveland) 491
Charles I, king of England 8, 34–5, 107, 336, 398–9, 401
Act for a Speedy Contribution and Loan 87
attempted arrest of Five Members 33, 69–70, 247
and Bishops’ Wars 49–53, 63
Book of Sports 61, 100
charge against (1649) 555
church reforms 61
collapse of power 60–75
death warrant 556
execution of 127–8, 148, 154–67, 556
and Irish rebellion 89, 145
and Ormond 269
and Parliament 60
Personal Rule 60–2
and prayer book 43–5, 62–3
private letters 284–5
revocation scheme 48–9
trial of 163–5
Charles I: An Historical Tragedy (Wills) 535, 536–7
Charles II, king of England 180
and Covenants 127, 129, 252
and Engagement crisis 124–5
and Scotland 128, 129–30, 557
Start plot 131
charters of incorporation 315, 316
Chateaubriand, François-René, viscomte de 543
Cheshire: impact of Irish war 568–70, 572
Cheynell, Francis 453
Chillenden, Edmund 358–9
Chillingworth, William 402
Choice ayres and dialogues 407–8
Choice novels and amarous tales written by the most refined wits of Italy 407
Choice Psalmes . . . with divers elegies upon the death of William Lawes 407
Cholmley, Henry 102, 110
Christian IV, king of Denmark 51
Church of Ireland 79–80, 175
citizenship
free-born citizenry 340–3
and manhood/gender 343
urban citizenship 312–25
Clanricarde, 5th earl of (Ulick Burke) 565
Clapp, Richard 298–9
Clarendon, 1st earl of (Edward Hyde) 70–1, 212, 261–2, 398, 400, 404, 406, 415, 525
Clarendon, 1st earl of (Edward Hyde) 77, 381
Clarendon, 2nd earl of (Henry Hyde) 206
Clarke, Aidan 150n19
Claudian (Claudius Claudianus) 401
Cleveland, John 466, 491
Cleyn, Francis 488, 490
Clifton, Robin 151n30
Clotworthy, Sir John 81, 486
clubmen movements 106, 109, 344
coffee houses 507, 526
Coffey, John 120
Coleman, Thomas 450
Coleshill, Berkshire 494
Colley, Linda 522
Collinson, Patrick 313, 456–7, 485
Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, and Other Poems (Cartwright) 470
Commission for the Conservators of the Peace (Scotland) 248
Commission on Law Reform (England, 1652) 187
Commissions of Array (England) 73–4, 98–9, 101, 262, 263
Committee anent the Losses of the Sheriffdom of Aberdeen (Scotland) 248
(p. 601) Committee for Brotherly Assistance (Scotland) 248
Committee for Compounding with Delinquents (England) 249
Committee for Indemnity (England) 249
Committee for Irish Affairs (England) 248
Committee for Managing the War (England) 248
Committee for Monies (Scotland) 248
Committee for Plundered Ministers (England) 249
Committee for Selling Forfeited Lands (Scotland) 248
Committee for Sequestrations (England) 287
Committee for the Advance of Money (England) 249
Committee for the Burned Lands in Perthshire (Scotland) 248
Committee for the Common Burdens (Scotland) 248
Committee for the Levy (Scotland) 248
Committee for the Losses (Scotland) 248
Committee for the Provision of the Army (Scotland) 248
Committee for the Sequestration of Delinquents’ Estates (England) 249
Committee of Both Kingdoms (later Derby House Committee, England) 105–6, 229, 249
Committee of Estates (Scotland) 52, 115, 116, 123, 125, 126, 246, 248, 364, 365, 369, 373
Committee of Examinations (England) 287
Committee of Safety (England) 249, 254
committees
county (England) 248, 249, 268, 296, 298, 301, 302, 305, 336
interval (Scotland) 248
joint (England) 249
Lords of the Articles (Scotland) 245, 246, 255, 368–9
session (Scotland) 248
shire (Scotland) 248, 369
shire war (Scotland) 265, 369, 370
Tables (Scotland) 45, 364
in Wales 298
Common Sense (Paine) 461–2
Commonwealth 166, 177–8, 332–3
commonwealthsmen 190, 192, 196, 197, 198, 199, 254, 410–11, 528–9
creation of 187–8
Compleat Gentleman, The (Peacham) 485
Confederate Ireland 11, 78, 80, 138–43, 147, 162–3, 562–4, 567, 570
Confederate civil war 146–8, 382
finance for armies 265–6
formation of 87–9
General Assemblies 8–9, 140, 141, 146, 250
government reaction to 141–3
historical overview 138–9
oath of association 563
Old English/Irish conflicts 88
Ormond and 137, 146–7, 148, 563–4
Confession of Faith 449–50
congregationalism 448, 450, 451
Connaught/Connock, John 570
conscription 103, 265
conspiracy theories
anti-Puritanism and 28
evil counsel 23, 26, 28–9, 31, 32–3
Puritanism and 27
consumerism, growth of 509
Conventicle Acts (England, 1664, 1670) 212
conventicles (Scotland) 47
Cook, Harold 485
Cook, John 174–5, 359
Coonan, T. L. 150n13
Cooper, Samuel 491–2
Cooper’s Hill (Denham) 407
Coote, Charles 172, 569
Coote, Sir Charles 86, 172, 206
Coote, Chidley 569
Copley, Christopher 262
Coppe, Abiezer 461
Corish, Patrick 138, 151n22
Corn Laws 508
Cornwall 263–4, 269
Corporation Act (England, 1661) 212, 325
corporations 315–25
Cosin, John 213
Cotton, John 450
Council of Chalcedon 450
Council of Nicaea 450
Council of State 289
Council of the North 322, 397
(p. 602) county committees 248, 249, 268, 296, 298, 301, 302, 305, 336
Covenanters/Covenanting movement 11, 115–16, 132, 364–5, 372–5
Bishops’ Wars 49–53, 63, 64, 338
conscription 265
convention 55
financial resources 369
grievances 47–9
monarchic authority 127
parliament 52
prayer book rebellion 62–3
revolt to revolution 43–7
Treaty of London (1641) 53–4
women in 366–7
Covent Garden 493
Coventry, Thomas 60, 321
Coward, Barry 190
Cowley, Abraham 466–7
Cowper, Spencer 529
Craig, Sir James 84
Crawford-Lindsay, 1st earl of (John Lindsay) 46, 373
Crawford, Patricia 158
Crawshaw, Richard 466
creeds 449–50
Creichton, George 84
Creighton, Lord, of Sanquar 567
Cromwell (Hugo) 15, 543, 546–50
Cromwell and Charles I (Delaroche) 15, 538–43, 539
Cromwell, Henry 181, 232, 235, 240n61, 410
and Ireland 173–6, 178
Cromwellian settlement
Ireland 173, 224–5, 380, 382
Scotland 373
Cromwell, Oliver 8, 11, 102, 104–5, 110, 170, 223–36, 405, 409
appointment as JP 61
assessment challenges 225–7
and Barebone’s Parliament (Nominated Assembly) 189–90, 231
and coalition building 227–34
and Commonwealth 177–8
early political career 228–31
and Engagement crisis 124, 125
final months 196–7
and Heads of Proposals 230, 235
and Ireland 148, 152n51, 171, 172–3, 174, 224–5, 380–4, 574n21
kingship crisis 181–2, 195–6
and Long Parliament 228–9
as Lord Protector 173, 176, 190, 253
massacres 151n30
as MP 321
negotiation and Protectoral choice 231–3
negotiation/coalition/political context 227–8
and New Model Army 265–6
paintings of 15, 538–40, 539, 541
portraits of 490–1
and print culture 365–6
and regicide 157, 162, 163
reputation 234–5
and Rump parliament 188–9, 230–1, 252
and Scotland 130–1, 176, 177–8, 365–6
second parliament 181–2
and Spain 192–3, 194
sources, lack of 223–5
and union of three kingdoms 234
and visual arts 496
Cromwell, Richard 181–2, 197–9, 234, 236, 254
Cross Petition 54
crowd actions 204–5
England 66–7, 70, 71, 81, 298
women and protest 339, 367–8
Crucifixion altarpiece (Rubens) 486
Cudworth, Ralph 405
Culpeper, Sir John 400, 404, 436
cultural legacy of English Revolution 535–50
French Romantic drama 546–50
literature 544–6
Victorian drama 536–8
visual arts 538–43
customs dues 211, 296
Cuttica, Cesare 434
(p. 603) Dalrymple, James (1st Viscount Stair) 373
Dalton, Michael 315
Danvers, Sir John 487
Davenant, John 451
Davenant, Sir William 410, 466
Davis, J. C. 431
Day, Sarah 355
debates
printing industry and 281–2
Putney debates 157–8, 160, 322–4, 357, 425, 439
de Caus, Isaac 487
decimation tax 193, 194, 410
Declaration of the Committee of Estates of the Parliament of Scotland, A (January 1650) 129
Declaratory Act 523
De Doctrina Christiana (Milton) 455
Deism 461–2
Delacroix, Eugène 539, 543
Delaroche, Hippolyte (Paul) 15, 538–43, 539
demography
England 14, 313, 507–10
Ireland 172, 380–1, 382–9
Scotland 370
Denbigh, earl of (Basil Fielding) 162, 296
Denbigh mission 162
Denham, Sir John 407, 466, 467
Denmark 578, 579, 581
Derby, countess of (Charlotte Stanley) 351
Derby, earl of (James Stanley) 102
Derby House Committee, see Committee of Both Kingdoms
De Republica Anglorum (Smith) 519–20
Dering, Sir Edward 110, 283, 287
Desborough, Major-General 194, 195, 196, 198, 254
Devereux, Robert, see Essex, earl of
Devine, Tom 371
Dickson, David 120, 364
Dieussart, François 486
Digby, George (Lord Digby) 69
Digby, Sir Kenelm 69, 466
Diggers (True Levellers) 335, 344, 358, 458: see also Winstanley, Gerrard
Digges, Sir Dudley 432, 436
Dillingham, John 279–80
Discourse of the Torments of Hell, A (Richardson) 461
Dissenting Brethren (Apologists) 450, 451
Diurnall Occurrences 279
divine right 530
Divines, Assembly of, see Westminster Assembly
Dobson, William 487, 488
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, The (Milton) 469
Donagan, Barbara 270
Dorchester 307
Dore, Norman 570
Douglas, James, see Queensbury, 2nd earl of
Dow, Frances 371, 373
Downes, Kerry 494
Dowsing, William 486
drama
French Romantic 546–50
Victorian 536–8
Drogheda massacre 172, 380
Dryden, John 181, 467, 471, 474–7
Dublin 80, 141–2, 355
Dublin Castle 77, 79, 82–3, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 206, 265, 560, 568
Dublin university 175
Dugdale, William 495
Dunbar, battle of 130–1, 178, 180
Dunfermline, 2nd earl of (Charles Seton) 57, 373–4
Dunlop, Robert 91
Dunton, John 526
Duppa, Brian 213
Durston, Christopher 193, 307–8
Dury, John 458
Dutch Revolt 577, 581
Earnshaw, Brian 494
Eastern Association 101
Ecclesiastical Congregation (Ireland) 140
economic issues 14
banking industry 506–7
demography and 507–10
Ireland 173–5, 183, 380–3, 385, 390
national debt 506–7, 520
ruling elites and 501–4
trade 504–6
wages and prices 508–9
see also taxation
Edgehill, battle of 99, 101, 266
Edwards, David 150n18
Edwards, Peter 265
Edwards, Thomas 105, 280, 405
Eglisham, Dr 33
Eikon Basilike (Charles I) 165
Eikonoklastes (Milton) 90, 171
elections 513, 514, 525–6
recruiter elections 250
Elements of Law, The (Hobbes) 432, 434–5
Elisabeth (daughter of James I) 579
Elizabeth I, queen of England 26–9
Elphinstone, John, see Balmerino, 2nd Lord
Engagement
England (1642, 1649/50) 73, 187, 341, 410, 441
Scotland (1647–8) 118, 122–6, 131, 158, 159, 178–9, 180, 263, 567
English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, The (Froude) 91
English, Josiah 488
episcopacy 12, 47, 402–3, 404, 409, 448
absence of bishops from Lords 69
Bishops’ Wars 49–53, 63, 64, 338
Ireland 215
objections to 49
Erastians 450–1
Essex, earl of (Robert Devereux) 64, 102, 104, 261, 266, 350, 487, 565
European conflicts 577–91
confessionalization thesis 585–7
political authority 589–90
political infrastructure 590–1
political legitimacy 587–9
religion, role of 585–7
Thirty Years War 578, 579–81, 583–4, 589
European Institute of Protestant Studies 90
Evelyn, John 199–200, 485, 489
Everitt, Alan 294
evil counsel, history of 23, 26, 28–9, 31, 32–3
Ewster, Thomas 473
excise tax 50, 100, 103, 190, 211, 249, 296, 369, 520
Fables of Aesop, The (Ogilby) 490
Fairfax family 262
Fairfax, Ferdinando 261
Fairfax, Thomas 122, 170, 261, 477–8, 479
and regicide 159, 165
Faithorne, William 487, 488
Falkland, Viscount (Lucius Cary) 400, 436, 466
‘Fatal Effects of Republican Principles, The’ (Association for Preserving Liberty against Republicans and Levellers) 530
Fauconberg, 1st earl (Thomas Belasyse) 198
Fell, Margaret 461
Ferdinand II, emperor 583, 589, 590
Ferdinand III, emperor 583
Ferne, Henry 400, 408, 457
feu-ferme tenure 49
Field, Nicholas 301
Fiennes, Celia 509
Fiennes, Nathaniel 194, 198
Fifth Monarchists 226, 232, 343, 354
Filmer, Sir Robert 433–4, 530
financial sector 14, 506–7
Finch, Sir John 321
First Anniversary (Marvell) 467, 471
Fisher, John 22
Fisher, Payne 491
Fisher, Samuel 461
Fitzgibbons, Jonathan 197
Five Articles of Perth 47
Five Mile Act 212
Fleetwood, General Charles 175, 176, 181, 195, 196, 199, 241n81, 254
Foard, Glenn 270
food riots 335: see also crowd actions
Forbes, Sir William, of Cragievar 119
forced loans 33, 265, 369
Ford, J. D. 372
Forerunner of revenge, The (Eglisham) 33
Fox, George 456, 461
Foxley, Rachel 438, 439
Fox, Sir Stephen 507
Fragmenta aurea (Suckling) 407
(p. 605) Fraser, Andrew, Lord Fraser 51, 119–20
Frederick V, elector Palatine 579, 582, 589
‘freeborn citizenry’ 340–3
freedom/freemen 315, 322–3
Free-Mens Petition, The 207
French, Nicholas, bishop of Ferns 146
French Wars of Religion 585
Froude, James Anthony 91
Furly, Benjamin 461
game at chess, A (Middleton) 33
Gangraena (Edwards) 105
Gaspars, Jean-Baptiste 488–9
Gataker, Thomas 451
Geddes, Jenny (Janet or Margaret) 367
Geldorp, George 489, 496
gender issues 11, 347–60
citizenship 343
male political agency 355–8
stereotypes of women 347–51
women and protest 339, 367–8
women, role of 10–11, 299
women’s agency 351–5
General Assemblies, Ireland 250
General Council of the Army 268
Gentles, Ian 261, 268, 275n33
gentry 501–3
Gerbier, Balthasar 489
Gibson, Richard 487
Gilbert, John T. 91, 138
Gillespie, George 451
Gillespie, Patrick 179
Gillespie, Raymond 83, 150n18
Glamorgan, earl of (Edward Somerset, 2nd marquis of Worcester) 145, 263, 567, 570
Glencairn’s Rising 180, 183, 370, 371
Gloucester, duke of (Prince Henry) 162
Godwin, William 90
Goldie, Mark 520
Goldsmith’s Hall 494
Goodwin, John 453
Goodwin, Thomas 450, 452
Gookin, Vincent 181
Gordon, George, see Huntly, 2nd marquis of
Graham, James, see Montrose, 1st marquis of
Grand Remonstrance 85, 247, 283, 295
Graphice (Sanderson) 492
Great Case of Transplantation in Ireland Discussed, The (Gookin) 181
Great Council of Peers 65
Great Exemplar, The (Taylor) 454
Great Sesse 266
Green, Ian 470
Grenville, Sir Richard 141
Greville, Robert, 2nd Baron Brooke 448–9
Grimston, Sir Harbottle 211–12
Guizot, François 543
Gunpowder Plot 30
Gurnay, Edmund 484
Guthrie, James 374
Habermas, Jürgen 527
Hacket, John 213
Hale, Sir Matthew 187, 305
Hall, John 408, 409, 472
Hall, Joseph 448
Hamilton, 3rd marquis and 1st duke of (James Hamilton, earl of Cambridge) 46–7, 49, 54–6, 57, 117, 122, 565, 568
and Engagement crisis 123, 124, 125
execution of 126
Hamilton, Sir James 84
Hamilton, William, see Lanark, 1st earl of
Hammond, Henry 454, 457, 460–1
Hampden, John 102
Harley, Brilliana 351, 353
Harley, Sir Robert 486
Harley Committee 100
Harper, Thomas 473
Harrington, James 181, 227, 240n62, 388, 407, 442, 458, 573
Harrison, Thomas 189
Harris, Tim 519
‘Harry whose tuneful and well-measured song’ (Milton) 407
Hartlib, Samuel 174, 312–14
Hart, Thomas 125
Hastings, Henry 73–4
Hatton, Lord (Christopher Hatton) 25, 495
Hay, Sir William, of Dalgety 134n37
Hazzard, Dorothy 352, 355
Heads of Proposals 123, 157, 230, 235
Healing Question Propounded, A (Vane) 196
hearth tax 211
(p. 606) Henderson, Alexander 46, 117, 364
Henrietta Maria, queen of England 62, 71, 102, 147, 347
Henry VIII, king of England 23, 26
Herbert, Lord, of Cherbury (Edward Herbert) 492
Herbert, Philip, see Pembroke, 4th earl of
Herle, Charles 451, 457
Heroic Stanzas (Dryden) 467
Herrick, Robert 402, 472
Hesilrige, Sir Arthur 190, 192, 193–4, 196, 198, 254, 302, 571–2
Hesperides (Herrick) 472
Hetley (Hedley), Sir Thomas 432
Heylyn, Peter 434
Hickson, Mary 91
High Churchmen 525
Hill, Christopher 186, 502, 503
Hirst, Derek 307–8
Histoire de la Révolution d’Angleterre (Guizot) 543
History (Dugdale) 495
History of Britain (Milton) 442
History of the Execrable Irish Rebellion (Borlase) 90
History of the Rebellion (Clarendon) 398, 525
History of the Royal Society (Sprat) 467
Hobbes, Thomas 234–5, 325, 430, 431, 434–5, 438, 447, 466: see also Leviathan
Holland, earl of (Henry Rich) 267
Hollar, Wenceslas 490
Holles, Denzil 228, 229
Holmes, Clive 160, 164, 240n64
Holy Dying (Taylor) 454
Holy Living (Taylor) 454
Home, 3rd earl of (James Home) 373
Hope, Sir Thomas 45
Hopton Heath, battle of (1643) 102
Hopton, Ralph 102, 107
Horatian Ode, An (Marvell) 467, 471, 478, 479, 480
Hotham, Sir John, the elder 72, 305–6
Hotham, John, the younger 305–6
House of Commons 60, 77, 251, 316, 318, 331, 400, 410, 425
and Grand Remonstrance 161, 295
and iconoclasm 337, 402
Protestation oath 342
and regicide 154
and Strafford 81
House of Lords 65–6, 68, 105, 244, 437, 503, 556, 566
abolition of 166, 187, 440–1
bishops and 97, 397
Charles I and 63, 71
and regicide 164
Howard, Henry, 6th duke of Norfolk 503
Howard, Henry, earl of Northampton 30
Howard, Thomas, see Arundel, 14th earl of
Howell, James 466
Howell, Roger 570
Hoyle, Thomas 322
Hughes, Ann 435
Hugo, Victor 15, 543, 546–50
Humble Petition and Address of the Sea-men and Watermen, The 209
Humble Petition and Advice 181, 196, 232, 244, 253–4, 452
Hunscott, Joseph 287
Huntington, Samuel 585
Huntly, 2nd marquis of (George Gordon) 51, 56, 116, 129
Hunton, Philip 400, 422
Hurry, Sir John 134n37
Hutchinson, Colonel John 495–6
Hutchinson, Lucy 405, 454
Hutton, Ronald 262
Hynes, Michael 138
iconoclasm 263, 282, 337
iconophobia 484–5
idolatry: art and 484–6
Iliad (Ogilby) 490
Inchiquin, earl of (Murrough O’Brien) 145, 147–8, 172, 264, 567
Independents 124, 178, 215, 267, 355, 367, 424–5, 460, 512
in Ireland 389
and New Model Army 123, 175, 250–1, 452
Presbyterians and 105, 230, 250–1, 288, 300, 417, 421, 422, 452
and regicide 421
(p. 607) Instrument of Government 190–1, 192, 232, 244, 252, 452
insurance 507
Interest of England in the Irish Transplantation Stated, The (Lawrence) 181
Interregnum 186–200
Committee of Safety 199
Commonwealth, creation of 187–8
legal system 377n44
Scotland 366, 372–3
interval committees (Scotland) 248
Ireland
Act of Settlement 173
battle colours 564
Catholics/Catholicism in 384–7, 561, 562–3
Commonwealth and 170
conquest and settlement in 171–6
Cromwell in 380–2
demography 172, 380–1, 382–9
depositions 78, 83–4, 85, 89–90, 91, 561–2
economic issues 173–5, 183, 380–3, 385, 390
episcopalianism 215
exiles 385–6
finance for armies 265–6
flight of the earls 82
historical overview 138–9
massacres 89, 172, 380, 561
New English population 78, 79, 80, 82–4, 86, 88, 89, 174, 175, 245, 562, 566
Old English population 78–9, 80, 81, 82, 86, 87, 88, 141, 143–4, 216, 256, 266
Old Irish population 141, 143–4, 562, 566
plague 382
plantations 79, 82–3, 84, 88, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 380–1
rebellion in 54
recruitment 264
reform in 181–3
relations with England 389–90, 560–4
and Restoration 204–6, 214–16
and Rump Parliament 171, 173, 178
Scots-Irish population 78, 79, 84
and Spain 383
transplantation 173, 181
treaty negotiations and factional politics 143–4
Wentworth/Strafford as Lord Deputy of 78–81
Ireland in the Seventeenth Century (Hickson) 91
Ireland’s Case Briefly Stated (Reily) 91
Ireland’s Naturall History (Boate and Boate) 174
Irenodia Gratulatoria (Fisher) 491
Ireton, Henry 160, 161, 173, 322, 323, 439
Irish Convention 206, 215
Irish Manuscripts Commission 91
Irish Patriot Parliament 90
Irish rebellion 77–91, 140
cessation 88–9, 90, 103, 137, 142
Ecclesiastical Congregation and 140
fall of Wentworth 78–81
historiography 89–91
Ormond and 145, 146
1641 crisis 81–5
Three Kingdoms’ crisis 84–7
Irish Rebellion, The (Temple) 90–1
Irvine, Sir Alexander, of Drum 120
James I and VI 29, 30–1, 45, 47, 79, 432, 457, 579
James II and VII 90, 217, 525, 528
Jeffreys, Joyce 299
Jephson, John 472
Jermyn, Henry 404
Johnson, David 270
Johnston, Archibald, of Wariston, see Wariston, Archibald Johnston of
joint committees (England) 249
Jones, Henry 85, 89, 91, 561–2, 569
Jones, Inigo 486, 487, 493, 494, 495
Jones, Michael 147, 148, 569
Jones, Philip 302
Jones, Theophilus 206
Jonson, Ben 33
Journal (Fox) 461
Judgment of Whole Kingdoms, The (tract) 530
Junius, Franciscus 485
Junto 5, 34, 35, 64–9, 70, 71–2, 73, 74
juries 10
England 108, 295, 298, 299, 303–5, 308, 331, 441
and regicide 165
(p. 608) justices of the peace (JPs) 179, 252, 270, 299, 303, 315, 332, 371
justification 454
Juxon, Thomas 321
Juxon, William 213
Keddell, George 210
Kelsey, Sean 160, 164, 268–9, 488
Kennedy, John, see Cassilis, 6th earl of
Kerr, William, see Lothian, 3rd earl of
Killigrew, Thomas 466
Killinchy (Meikle) 90
Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer 279
King Johan (Bale) 23
King’s Cabinet Opened, The 284–5, 347, 348
kingship crisis 181–2, 195–6, 225
King, Sir Robert 569
Kishlansky, Mark 162, 525
Knocknanuss, battle of 147–8
Knoppers, Laura Lunger 491
Koran 452
Lachrymae Musarum 467
Lake, Peter 138
Lambert, Major-General John 132, 190, 195, 205, 252, 267, 496
Lamont, William 422
Lanark, 1st earl of (William Hamilton, 2nd duke of Hamilton) 55–6, 117, 122, 123, 126
land taxes 249
Large Petition 159–60, 161
Larner, William 357–8
Laslett, Peter 318
Laud, Archbishop 322, 338–9
Lauderdale, 2nd earl of (John Maitland) 123, 125, 128, 373, 567
Laudianism 13, 32, 447–8
Lawes, Henry 407–8
Lawrence, Henry 198, 454
Lawrence, Colonel Richard 181
legal system 295, 298, 332
in cities 315–16
Interregnum 377n44
juries 303–5, 308
justices of the peace 303
and martial law 306
Scotland 371–2
and sexual offences 308
Leigh, Edward 454
Leighton, Alexander 433
Lely, Peter 487, 489–90
Lenihan, Pádraig 139, 149, 151n31
Leslie, Lieutenant-General David 119, 121–2, 129, 130
Leslie, John, see Rothes, 7th earl of
L’Estrange, Roger 208, 286–7, 289, 525
Le Sueur, Hubert 496
Levellers 324, 341, 343–4, 357, 442, 458
female agency 352–3, 356
Large Petition 159–60, 161
political thought 438–9
women and mass petitioning 458
women as 11
Leviathan (Hobbes) 182, 441, 452, 459–60, 461
liberty 13, 430–43
in English Revolution 430–1
in free state 440–1
and parliamentary sovereignty 436–9
and sovereignty before English Revolution 432–5
Lightfoot, John 450
Lilburne family 426, 571–2
Lilburne, George 571–2
Lilburne, Henry 572
Lilburne, John 110, 232, 280, 324, 430–1, 438, 458
and Agreement of the People 268
imprisonment 425, 571–2
and Remonstrance 161
trial of 441
Lilburne, Robert 178, 180, 426–7, 572
Lincoln’s Inn Fields 493
Lindsay, John (1st earl of Crawford) 46
Linlithgow 125
Lisle, Sir George 159
Lisle, Viscount (Philip Sidney) 147, 567
literature 13, 466–80, 544–6
publishing statistics 468–71
romances 469
Livingstone, James (earl of Callendar) 364
(p. 609) local government 9–10, 294–309, 502–3
accountability 301
national state demands on 295–7
participation in 297–300
and the poor 510–11
reformation of manners 307–8
regional corruption 301–3
representativeness 303–7
in Wales 296–7, 300, 301
Locke, John 461, 530
Lockhart, Sir James, of Lee 373
Loftus, Adam 79
Lombart, Pierre 489, 490, 491
Long Parliament 53, 63, 199, 245, 247, 249, 254–5
and collapse of royal power 64–70
Cromwell and 228–9
Triennial Act 8–9, 66
Lord Justices’ proclamation 86
Lords of the Articles committee (Scotland) 245, 246, 255, 368–9
Lothian, 3rd earl of (William Kerr) 374
Loudoun, 1st earl of (John Campbell) 46, 117, 123, 126
Lovelace, Col. Francis 472
Lovelace, Richard 466, 471, 472–3
Lovell, Benjamin 262–3
Low Churchmen 525
Lowry, John 321
Lucas, Sir Charles 159, 342–3
Lucas, Sir John 321–2
Lucasta (Lovelace) 471, 472–3
Ludlow, Edmund 197, 205, 232, 388
Lunsford, Thomas 69
Mabbott, Gilbert 287
MacCarthy, Donough, see Muskerry, Viscount
MacColla, Alasdair 116, 138, 151n32, 265–6, 269, 370
MacDonald clan 51
MacDonnell, Alexander 144
MacDonnell, Randal, see Antrim, earl of; Antrim, marquis of
Macinnes, Allan 115, 116, 134n37, 364
MacIntosh, Gillian H. 257
Mackenzie, Sir George, of Rosehaugh 373
Mackenzie, Sir Thomas, of Pluscardine 128–9
McKeon, Michael 475
MacMahon, Hugh 82
McShane, Angela 261
Mandeville (Godwin) 90
Maguire, Connor, 2nd Lord Eniskillen 82, 568
Maguire, Rory 83
Maitland, John, see Lauderdale, 2nd earl of
Major-Generals 192–3, 194, 232, 305, 306–7
Malcolm, Noel 441
Manchester, earl of (Edward Montague) 104–5
Manchester quarrel 229
Manning, Brian 111n8
Man’s Mortalitie (Overton) 454–5
Markham, Sir Clements 262
Marprelate affair 24–5, 36n14
Marshall, Stephen 451
Marston Moor, battle of 104, 106–7, 270
Marten, Henry 155–6, 417, 424–5, 486
Martyr, Peter 449
Marvell, Andrew 13, 181, 410–11, 467, 469, 471, 472, 477–80
Marx, Karl 501
massacres 89, 142, 151n30, 382, 559
Bartholomey massacre 570
Drogheda 172, 380
mass petitioning 73, 86, 97, 209, 282–3, 340–1, 356–7, 527
apprentice petition 206, 207, 340, 359
Cross Petition 54
Free-Mens Petition 207
Large Petition 159–60, 161
Petition of Right 33, 72, 433
against Prayer Book 44, 49
Twelve Peers Petition 64
‘Well-Affected Householders and Freemen’ petition 207
women and 339, 352–3, 458
see also crowd actions
Maurice, Prince, of the Palatinate 107, 570
Maxwell, John, bishop of Ross 44
Maxwell, Robert, see Nithsdale, 1st earl of
May, Thomas 401
Mede, Joseph 451
Meehan, C. P. 138
Meikle, James 90
(p. 610) Mercurius Aulicus 279, 350
Mercurius Britanicus 282, 285
Mercurius Civicus 279
Mercurius Elenchtus 491
Mercurius Melancholicus 279
Mercurius Pragmaticus 285
Mervin, Colonel Audley 144
Michael, Thomas 301
Michelson, Margaret 367
Middleton, 1st earl of (John Middleton) 364
Middleton, Thomas 33
Militia Acts 211
Militia Bill 68, 194, 253
Militia Ordinance 71, 72, 73, 97–8, 211, 247, 297, 415
militias 50, 72, 97, 98, 108–9, 193, 318, 584
millenarianism 13, 451, 457
Mills, Peter 494
Millstone, Noah 37n28
Milton, John 90, 171, 231, 407–8, 438, 441, 442, 458–9, 469, 473–4
and Arminianism 455
challenge to Reformed orthodoxy 454, 455
on church and state 461–2
and Commonwealth 190
cultural identity 467
on episcopacy 448
and licensing of printing industry 287
on superiority of men 359
on theatre 470
and theology 461
miniatures 491–2
Moderate, The 279, 424
Monck, George 171–2, 177, 199, 236, 267, 324–5
and Restoration 205, 206–7, 208
and Scotland 178, 179, 180, 182, 370
Monro, Robert 265–6
Monteith, Lewis 125
monthly maintenance 50, 369
Montrose, 1st marquis of (James Graham) 56, 104, 107, 116, 128, 129, 151n32, 567
More, Thomas 22, 317
Morley, George, bishop of Worcester 212
Morrill, John 151n30, 188, 224, 268, 416
mortgages 503, 507
Moseley, Humphrey 407, 473
Mountgarret, Viscount (Richard Butler) 143
Mowl, Timothy 494
Munro, General Robert 86
Musculus, Andreas 449
Muskerry, Viscount (Donough MacCarthy) 143, 144, 145
Namier, Lewis 472
Naseby, battle of 106, 107, 270, 347–8
National Covenant 45–6, 62–3, 365
constitutional grievances 49
economic grievances 47–8
long-term significance 366–8
religious grievances 47
national debt 506–7, 520
navies 14, 50–1, 98, 108, 266, 295, 296, 297
and trade 295, 505–6
Navigation Act 180, 187, 505–6
Nayler, James 194, 276, 280, 287
Neale, Archbishop 322
Nedham, Marchamont 231, 280, 285, 289, 407, 442
Negative Confession 45
Nelson, Eric 458
Newburn, battle of 52, 63
Newbury, first battle of 102
Newbury, second battle of 104
Newcastle 52, 570–1
Newcastle, countess of (Margaret Cavendish) 352
Newcastle, earl of (William Cavendish) 72, 102, 104, 266, 406, 570
New Confession 452
Newman, P. R. 262, 270
New Model Army 105–7, 229, 267, 324
finance for 268
invasion of Scotland 130–1
Officer Corps 318
political interventions 268–9
and regicide 157–62
Remonstrance 160–2
rise of 106–7
New Model Ordinance 106
Newport Treaty 211, 251
news culture 34–5
newsbooks 176, 271, 279, 280, 282, 424
newspapers 279, 526
Nicholas, Sir Edward 404
(p. 611) Nineteen Propositions 73, 98, 295–6, 399, 420, 436
Nithsdale, 1st earl of (Robert Maxwell) 49, 56, 116
Nominated Assembly (Barebone’s Parliament) 177, 189–90, 231, 232, 252
Norgate, Edward 492
Northern Association 267
Northesk, 1st earl of (John Carnegie) 373
Northumberland 570–2
Northumberland, 10th earl of (Algernon Percy) 73, 156, 487, 489
Nurse of Pious Thoughts 484
Nye, Philip 450, 460
O’Brien, Henry, 4th earl of Thomond 567
Ó Bruadair, David 216
Observations on some of his Majesties late answers and expresses (Parker) 437, 438
Observations on the Articles of Peace (Milton) 171
Oceana (Harrington) 181, 388, 442, 573
O’Connelly, Owen 82
O’Donnell, Rory, earl of Tyrconnell 82
Odyssey (Ogilby) 490
Of Baptism (Lawrence) 454
Ogilby, John 489, 490
Ó hAnnracháin, Tadhg 139, 144, 147, 149
Ohlmeyer, Jane 138, 139, 144, 149, 264
Oliver Cromwell: An Historical Tragedy (Richards) 535, 536–8
Oliver Cromwell on Horseback (Lombart/Walker) 489
Oliver Cromwell with a Page (Lombart/Walker) 489
O’More, Rory 82
O’Neill, Hugh, earl of Tyrone 82
O’Neill, Owen Roe 82, 138, 143, 146, 148, 172, 264, 265
O’Neill, Sir Phelim 82, 83, 86, 144, 561
ordinances 97–8
Assessment Ordinance 100
Militia Ordinance 71, 72, 73, 97–8, 211, 247, 297, 415
New Model Ordinance 106
Self-Denying Ordinance 105, 106, 229
Sequestration Ordinance 100
Ormond, 1st marquis of (James Butler) 88, 89, 128, 139, 142, 143, 151nn28&31, 162–3, 215, 265, 381, 565
and Charles I 269
and Confederate Ireland 137, 146–7, 148, 563–4
and Irish rebellion 145, 146
and peace faction 143
Ó Siochrú, Micheál 261
Overton, Mary 356
Overton, Richard 356, 425, 438, 454–5
Owen, John 452, 453, 454, 456, 460
Oxford parliament 103, 250
Oxford treaty 99, 420
Oxford University 252, 408–9, 454, 531
Paine, Tom 461–2
Palmer, Herbert 433
pamphlets 5, 24–5, 50, 71, 72, 85, 105, 109, 400
anti-roundhead 401–2
anti-royalist 401
and domestic news stories 279, 282, 284
gender issues 349
on Ireland/depositions 561–2
Leveller pamphlets 357
Nayler 276
Ranter pamphlets 452–3
and regicide 156, 158
see also news culture
Panegyrick (Waller) 410
Paradise Lost (Milton) 455
Paraeus, David 449
Paraphrase and Annotations on all the Books of the New Testament, A (Hammond) 454
Parker, Henry 278–9, 359, 419, 422, 432, 437, 438
Parker, Martin 278
parliamentarianism 12, 400, 401
beliefs and theories 418–20
fragmentation 420–3
motivation for 415–18
radicalization 423–6
varieties of 414–27
women’s agency 353
(p. 612) parliaments 8–9, 243–57
in 1640 244–6
and 1650s written constitutions 251–5
constitutional settlements (1640–2) 246–7
covenanters’ 52
England 244–5, 246–7, 249, 255, 256
future research 256–7
impact of war on (1642–9) 248–51
Ireland 245–6, 247, 250, 251, 256
Irish Patriot Parliament 90
Oxford parliament 103, 250
parliamentary representation 316
Protectorate parliaments 191, 193–5, 253, 254
and Restoration 255–6
Scotland 245, 246, 248–9, 251–2, 255, 256, 369
Short Parliament 52, 63, 245
three-kingdom parliaments 252–3
Parry, Graham 485–6
Parsons, Sir William 82
partisanship 524–5
Patriarcha (Filmer) 433–4, 435, 530
Paulet, Lord William 529
Peacham, Henry 485
Peake, Robert 487
Peake, William 488
Pembroke, 4th earl of (Philip Herbert) 415, 417, 487
Penruddock, Sir John 192
Pepys, Samuel 496
Percy, Algernon, see Northumberland, 10th earl of
Perfect Diurnall 279
periodicals 526
Personal Rule 60–2
petitioning, see mass petitioning
Petition of Right 33, 72, 433
Pettigrew, William 523
Petty, William 173, 381
Peyto family 494
Philiphaugh, battle of 370
Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein) 479–80
Philp, Mark 528
Pincus, Steve 519, 523–4
plague 32, 121, 370, 382, 508
Playford, John 407
Plunkett, Colonel Richard 82, 147
Plunkett, Nicholas 146
Pococke, Edward 409
Pocock, J. G. A. 313
Poems (Carew) 407
Poems (Waller) 407
Poems of Mr. John Milton (Milton) 407, 467, 469, 473–4
Polišenský, Josef 586
Political Aphorisms (tract) 530
political thought 430–43
liberty and parliamentary sovereignty 436–9
liberty in English Revolution 430–1
liberty in free state 440–1
liberty/sovereignty before English Revolution 432–5
politics
armies and 260–4, 268–9
elections 513, 514, 525–6
franchise 526
kirk and 120–1
political culture 524–8
political discourse 528–31
political divisions 513–14
political theory 12–13
politics, English 21–35
administrative/political escalation (1643) 99–103
early Stuart 30–4
Elizabethan 26–9
Elizabethan/rise of anti-Puritanism 24–5
Interregnum 186–200
mobilization and radicalization of 107–10
and popularity 33
post-Reformation 21–3
and public sphere - Presbyterian/papist conflict 25–8
war, outbreak of 96–9
(p. 613) politics, Scottish
church/state relationship 368–70
Civil War politicians 116–18
committee of estates 115, 116, 123, 125
conventions 115
economic and social change 371–2
Engagement crisis 122–6
Interregnum 366, 372–3
invasion and conquest 128–32
political landscape 118–21
popular politics 363–6
and regicide 127–8
Restoration 205, 214, 373–4
Scottish involvement in English civil wars 121–2
poll tax 68
Pontefract Castle 493
Poole, Elizabeth 163, 354
poor laws 14, 510–11
Poor Relief Act (Act of Settlement, England, 1662) 511
poor relief system 317
popular politics 10, 330–44, 363–6
culture and English Revolution 343–4
and English Revolution 336–8
politics of subsistence 334–5
popular protest 340–3
street politics in English Revolution 338–40
see also crowd actions
Portland, 2nd earl of (Jerome Weston) 567
portraits 489–90, 491
Portugal 577
poverty 14, 509–10
Power of Love, The (Walwyn) 454
Power of the Keyes, The (Hammond) 454
Poyning’s Law 81, 88, 245–6, 247, 256
Poyntz, General Sydenham 268
Practical Catechism (Hammond) 454
Prat, David 51
Pratt, Sir Roger 494
prayer book 43–5, 49, 62–3
predestinarianism 31–2, 447, 450
Presbyterians/Presbyterianism 13, 25–6, 250, 251, 421–2, 448, 451
and episcopacy/church government 47
in Ireland 388–9
persecution of 512–13
Presbyterian/papist conflict 26–32
in Scotland 388
Preston, General Thomas 146
Preston, Nicholas, Lord Gormanston 82
Prideaux, Edmund 302
Pride, Colonel Thomas 161–2, 251
Pride’s purge 161–2, 251
printing industry/print culture 9, 97, 276–90, 585
authors, rise of 280
ballads 205, 208–9, 271, 278
broadsides 271, 278, 468, 470
censorship 277–81, 287–9
and corruption in local government 302–3
coverage of Irish rebellion 85
Cromwell and 365–6
and debates 281–2
Grub Street 280
influence of 228
legacy of printing revolution 289–90
licensing 287–9
and political revolution 281–6
politics of religion 337
presbyterian/papist conflict 26
print ‘explosion’ 277–81
and public participation in political life 285–6
restorative revolution/regulation of 286–9
Scotland 365–6
treasonable language 156
printmaking 487–9, 490–1
Private devotions (Andrewes) 407
Protectorate 190–2, 225
establishment of 190–1
fall of 197–9
first parliament 191–2, 253
kingship crisis 181–2, 195–6, 225
Major-Generals 192–3, 194, 232, 305, 306–7
second parliament 193–5, 253
third parliament 254
Protestation oath 67, 70, 72, 282, 341–3, 356, 399
Providentialism 212, 398, 585–7
(p. 614) Prynne, William 156, 209, 278–9, 405, 422, 438, 454, 459, 470, 496
purges 130–1
Pride’s Purge 161–2, 251
1648 125–6
Puritanism 12, 29, 30, 31, 32–3, 34, 456, 512
and conspiracy theories 26, 27
Putney debates 157–8, 160, 322–4, 357, 425, 439
Pym, John 63, 64, 66–7, 68, 71, 72, 85, 101, 418
Pyne, John 302
Quaker Act 212
Quakers 175, 178, 194, 285, 324, 338, 357, 448, 456
attacks on 209
in Ireland 389
persecution of 512
Scotland 367
and slavery 461
women’s agency 354
Quatre Stuarts, Les (Chateaubriand) 543
Queensbury, 2nd earl of (James Douglas) 373
Querela Cantabrigiensis 408
rabbinic commentaries 458
Racovian Catechism 452–3
radicalism 12, 13, 16, 119, 206, 365, 423–6, 528
Rainborough, Thomas 323, 357, 358, 425
Ranters 324, 452–3, 456
Rathmines, Ireland 152n51
Rawdon, Sir Marmaduke 320–1
Reade, Thomas 124
reasons of the present judgement of the University of Oxford, The 408
recipe books 457
Recissory Act 374
Redemption Redeemed (Goodwin) 452
Reeves, John 530
Reformed Pastor, The (Baxter) 460
Regall tyrannie discovered (Leveller publication) 156
regicide 127–8, 154–67
final negotiations 162–3
impact of 166–7
military and 268–9
New Model Army and 157–62
treasonable language 155–7
trial 163–5
Rehearsal Transpros’d, The (Marvell) 467
Reily, Hugh 91
religious issues
ejectors 191
religious divisions 511–13
role of 585–7
triers 191
Religious Peace of Augsburg 588
religious thought 447–62
challenge to reformed orthodoxy 452–6
confessional orthodoxy 448–52
legacies 460–2
scientific and political thought 456–60
theological crisis 447–8
religious toleration 522, 529–30
remonstrances 50, 80–1, 85, 89, 91, 131, 133n14, 194–5, 196, 286, 253, 254, 372, 437
army Remonstrance 160–2, 286
Grand Remonstrance 85, 247, 283, 295
Remonstrance of Diverse Remarkable Passages Concerning the Church and Kingdom of Ireland, A (Jones) 85, 89, 91
republicanism 199–200, 458–9
Rescissory Act 214, 374
Resolutioners 120, 178–9, 372–3
resolution of the Roundheads, The (pamphlet) 402
resolving of conscience upon this question, The (Ferne) 400, 408
Restoration 7, 9, 204–17
England and 204, 206–8
government membership 373–4
Ireland and 204–6, 214–16
parliaments and 255–6
Restoration settlements 210–14
road to 205–10
Scotland and 205, 214, 373–4
songs about 205, 208–9
Retired Man’s Meditations, The (Vane) 455
Reynolds, Edward 213
Richards, Colonel Alfred Bate 535, 536–8
(p. 615) Richardson, Samuel 461
Richer, Ludwig 489, 490
Richmond, duke of (James Stewart, Duke of Lennox) 71, 72, 162, 565
Rinucccini, Giovanni Battista 138, 144, 146, 148, 182
riots
food riots 335
prayer book riots 43–4, 45
Scotland 363–4
Stour Valley riots 337–8, 342–3
tax riots 335
see also crowd actions
Roberts, Stephen 263
Robinson, Henry 287
Roche, Isabel 547
Roger, John 355
romances 469
Roots, Ivan 241n88
Rothes, 7th earl of (John Leslie) 373–4
Rothes, 6th earl of (John Leslie) 46
Roundway Down 102
Rous, Francis 458
Rowlett (probably relation of Thomas Rowlett) 487
Rowlett, Thomas 488
royalism 12, 13, 397–411, 528
and elite culture 404–9
and English constitution 398–401
persistence of 409–11
and religion 401–4
Royalist party, formation of 70–4
Welsh 263
Royal Society 461, 467
Roy, Ian 262, 322, 324
Rubens, Peter Paul 486
Rump Parliament 127, 187–9, 199, 254, 208, 251
Act of Oblivion 194, 410
Commonwealth, formation of 187–8
Cromwell and 188–9, 230–1, 252
downfall of 188–9
and Ireland 171, 173, 178
and Scotland 171, 177, 178, 179
Rupert, Prince, of the Rhine 104, 107, 570
Russell, Conrad 61, 70, 71, 75, 236, 415, 416
Rutherford, Samuel 120, 124, 451, 457, 459
Sacheverell, Henry 522, 525, 529
St Albans, earl of (Ulick Burke, 5th earl of Clanricarde) 565
St John, Oliver 494
St Leger, Sir William 567
St Paul’s Cathedral 495
Saints Everlasting Rest, The (Baxter) 460
Salisbury, earl of (William Cecil) 399
Salteran, George 484
Saltmarsh, John 156, 484
Sancroft, William 213
Sanderson, Robert 213
Sanderson, William 492
Savoy Confession 452
Saye and Sele, Viscount (William Fiennes) 61, 64, 66
Scally, John 123
Scarampi, Pietro Francesco 142
Scarrifholis, Ulster 172, 173
Schwoerer, Lois 521
Scobell, Henry 452
Scotland 171
battle colours 564
and Charles II 128, 129–30, 557
church/state relationship 368–70
civil war 370
commissioners 121
conquest and union with 176–80
conventions 115
demography 370
economic issues 119–20, 124, 126, 132, 182–3, 369–70, 371, 372
Engagement crisis 122–6
estates 115
and execution of Charles I 556
financial issues 53, 182–3, 265, 267
Incident (royalist plot) 54
and Interregnum 366, 372–3
invasion and conquest 128–32
involvement in English civil wars 121–2
legal system 371–2
plague 121, 370
popular politics 363–6
prayer book rebellion 62–3
and regicide 127–8
relationship with England 556–60
and Restoration 205, 214, 373–4
royalist rising 121–2
and Rump Parliament 171, 177, 178, 179
taxation 48, 50, 369
Tender of Union 177, 181
War of the Three Kingdoms 104
Scott, David 114, 267
Scottish Claim of Right 522
Scottish Revolution 43–57
covenanters’ grievances 47–9
Cross Petition 54
revolt/revolution 43–7
Solemn League and Covenant 54–6
Treaty of London 53–4
Scott, Jonathan 440, 519
Scott, Thomas 190, 192, 193–4, 196, 198, 254, 432, 433
Scott, Walter 15, 543, 544–6
Scripture and Reason Pleaded for Defensive Arms (tract) 433
Seaman, Lazarus 451
Second Defence of the People of England, The (Milton) 190
Selden, John 449, 450
Self-Denying Ordinance 105, 106, 229
sequestration of estates 103, 249, 287, 296–7, 369, 372
campaigns against 354
sequestrators 268, 298
Sequestration Ordinance 100
session committees (Scotland) 248
Seton, Charles, see Dunfermline, 2nd earl of
Settlement of Ireland 251
Sexby, Edward 157, 323
Shaftesbury, 1st earl of (Anthony Ashley Cooper) 206
Shaftesbury, 3rd earl of (Anthony Ashley Cooper) 527
Sharpe, Kevin 488
Shaw, John 263
Sheldon, Gilbert 213
Shepley, William 210
ship money 61, 63, 397, 432
Short Parliament 52, 63, 245
shire committees (Scotland) 248, 369
shire war committees (Scotland) 265, 369, 370
Sibbald, Colonel William 134n37
Sidney, Philip, see Lisle, Viscount
Siegfried, Susan L. 552n18
Sinclair, 9th Lord (John Sinclair) 373
Sindercombe, Miles 195
Sinfulness and Unlawfulness of making or having the picture of Christ’s humanity, The (Vicar) 484
Sion’s Plea (Leighton) 433
Skinner, Quentin 430, 431, 432, 439, 440
Skippon, Sergeant Major 70
Slack, Paul 316–17
slavery 430–1, 432, 434, 443, 461
Slingsby, Sir Henry 322, 402–3
Smith, Sir John, of Grothill 120
Smith, Sir Thomas 519–20
Smuts, Malcolm 486
Socinianism 455–6, 461
Solemn League and Covenant 16, 54–6, 89, 103, 114, 118–19, 356
Somerset, Edward, see Glamorgan, earl of
Souch, John 488
Southampton, 4th earl of (Thomas Wriothesley) 493
Southampton House, Bloomsbury 493
Soveraigne Power of Parliaments (Prynne) 422, 438
Spelman, Sir John 436
Spencer, William 312–13
Spinoza, Benedict 461
Spottiswood, Captain John 134n37
Sprat, Thomas 467
Sprigge, Joshua 425–6
Stair, 1st Viscount (James Dalrymple) 373
Stanley, Thomas 466
Stanwood, Owen 523
staple of news, The (Jonson) 33
Star Chamber 211
Start plot 131
State: transformation of 519–24
State Papers Domestic 61
Stationers’ Company 287, 473
Stevenson, David 119, 138, 371
(p. 617) Stewart, Laura 265, 369
Stewart, Sir Robert 84
Stewart, Sir William 84
Stone, John 494
Stone, Nicholas 494
Stour Valley riots 337–8, 342–3
Stoyle, Mark 114, 262, 263–4, 416
Strafford, earl of (Thomas Wentworth) 51, 63, 66–7, 77, 78–81, 246, 247, 322
Strickland, Sir William 194
Stuart, Katherine (Lady Aubigny) 350
Stubbe, Henry 460
Suckling, Sir John 67, 407, 466
Swift, Jonathan 389
Sydenham, William 194, 195, 196
synods
Galloway (1662) 214
1652 368
Tables (committees) 45, 364
Tanner, Roland J. 257
Tany, Thomas 280, 456
Tawney, R. H. 501–2, 503
taxation 295
assessment tax 296, 317
customs dues 211, 296
decimation tax 193, 194, 410
excise tax 50, 100, 103, 190, 211, 249, 296, 369, 520
hearth tax 211
land taxes 249
monthly maintenance 50, 369
and national debt 506–7
poll tax 68
Scotland 48, 50, 369
ship money 61, 63, 397, 432
tax riots 335
tenth penny 265, 369
Wales 296–7
Taylor, Jeremy 454, 460–1
Taylor, John 280, 281–2
Temple, Sir John 90–1
Tender of Union 177, 181
Ten Propositions 247
tenth penny tax 265, 369
Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (Milton) 438, 441
Third Dutch War 505
Thirteen Years War 578
Thirty Years War 578, 579–81, 583–4, 589
Thomason, George 448, 472
Thomond, 4th earl of (Henry O’Brien) 567
Thompson, E. P. 502, 503
Three Poems on the Death of O. C. 467
Thurloe, John 194, 198, 225, 235, 289, 494
Tillotson, Archbishop 461
tithe commutation 48
Tithe Commutation Act (1836) 304
tobacco trade 180
To His Sacred Majesty (Dryden) 467
Toleration Acts 187, 512, 522
toleration, religious 421, 425
Totney, Thomas, see Tany, John
Towards the Vindication of the Second Commandment (Gurnay) 484
Townshend, Aurelian 466
trade 14, 504–6
colonial trade 505
rivalry with Dutch 504–5
spice trade 505
tobacco trade 180
woollen cloth 504–5
trained bands 295, 297
Transylvania 582
Trapnel, Anna 299, 353
Traquair, earl of (John Stewart) 44, 54, 56
Treason in Ireland (tract) 85
treatise against images and pictures in churches, A (Salteran) 484
Treatise of Divinity (Leigh) 454
Treaty of Berwick (1639) 52, 63
Treaty of London (1641) 53–4
Treaty of Ripon (1640) 52–3, 63
Trevillian, William 491
Trevor, John 194
Triennial Acts
England (1641) 8–9, 66, 207
England (1664) 211
Scotland (1640) 52, 246
Trinitarianism 450
True Levellers, see Diggers
(p. 618) True Subjects Wish, A (Parker) 278
Truth’s Discovery or a Black Cloud in the North (pamphlet) 571
Tucker, Captain William 141
Tuckney, Antony 409
Tuck, Richard 423
Tweeddale, 1st marquis of (John Hay) 373
Twells, Robert 321
Twelve Peers Petition 64
Twelve Years Truce 577
Twenty-Eighth of July: Liberty Leading the People, The (Delacroix) 539
Twisse, William 451–2
Two Treatises of Government (Locke) 530
Tyacke, Nicholas 519
Tyrconnel, earl of (Rory O’Donnell) 82
Tyrone, earl of (Hugh O’Neill) 82
Underdown, David 300, 418
Unlawfulness of Subjects Taking up Armes, The (Digges) 436
Upon Appleton House (Marvell) 13, 477–9
urban citizenship 312–25
and civil war 318–24
structures of 315–18
Ussher, James 175, 451
Utopia (More) 317
Van Dyck, Anthony 486, 540, 541
Vane, Sir Henry, the younger 196, 301, 448–9, 455
Venables, Robert 569
Verney, Mary, Lady 354–5
Vernon, Elliot 268
Vicar, John 484
Villiers, George, see Buckingham, 1st duke of
Vindiciae contra tyrannos 156, 422
Vines, Richard 451
visual arts 13–14, 496, 538–43
Vote of No Addresses 158, 159, 162, 268
Vow and Covenant 101, 341, 415
Vox Populi, Vox Dei (tract) 530
Wales
committees in 298
division under Major-Generals 193
local government in 296–7, 300, 301
parliamentary representation 252
royalism in 263
Walker, Sir Edward 566–7
Walker, Henry 280, 281–2, 287
Walker, Robert 489, 491
Waller, Lady Anne 350
Waller, Charles 102, 104
Waller, Edmund 181, 233–4, 403, 407, 410, 466
Waller, Sir William 350
Wallington, Nehemiah 417
Wallis, John 457
Walpole, Robert 529
Walwyn, William 414–15, 438, 454, 461
Wanklyn, Malcolm 262
ward and relief tenure 49
Warde, Thomas 296
Ward, Seth 457, 461
Wariston, Archibald Johnston of 46, 49, 50, 57, 117, 130, 365, 373
War of the Three Kingdoms 103–6
Warwick, earl of (Robert Rich) 64, 487
Warwick, Sir Philip 399, 403
Waterhouse, Ellis 489
Watt, Tessa 485
Webb, John 487
Webb, Colonel William 304–5
Wedgwood, C. V. 165, 241n88, 262
Weil, Rachel 261
‘Well-Affected Householders and Freemen’ petition 207
Wentworth, Thomas, see Strafford, earl of
Western Association 130, 131, 133n14
Western Design 192–3
Westminster Assembly (Assembly of Divines) 101, 449–52, 457–8
Shorter Catechism 460
sola scriptura 449
Westminster Confession 452, 460
Westphalian Peace congress 578, 581
Wharton, Lord (Philip Wharton) 249
Whichcote, Benjamin 453
Whitehall debates 425–6, 439
Whitelocke, Bulstrode 194, 267, 417–18
Whitgift, John 24–5, 32
Whole Duty of Man, The (Allestree) 454
(p. 619) Widdrington, Thomas 571
Wildman, John 268, 323, 324, 439
Wilkins, John 457, 461
William, prince of Orange 129
Williams, Archbishop 69
Williams, Griffith 457
Williams, Roger 462
Willis, Sir Richard 406
Wills, W. G. 535, 536–7
Wilson, Peter 151n27
Winstanley, Gerrard 358, 441, 442, 458, 461
witches/witchcraft 126, 348, 354, 371
witch-hunts 179, 182
Wither, George 420–1
Withington, Phil 520
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 479–80
women 347–60
in Covenanting movement 366–7
Leveller women 458
and mass petitioning 339, 352–3, 458
and preaching 355
and protest 339, 367–8
publications by 448
Quakers and 461
role of 10–11, 299
stereotypes 347–51
women’s agency 351–5
women’s rights 461
Woodford, Robert 61–2
Woodstock (Scott) 15, 543, 544–6
Woolrych, Austin 269
Wootton, David 156, 424
Worcester, battle of 132, 177, 178
Worcester, 5th earl of (Henry Somerset) 503
Worcester, marquis of, see Glamorgan, earl of
Worden, Blair 196, 440
Works of Publius Virgilius Maro, Translated, Adorn’d with Sculpture and Illustrated with Annotations, The (Ogilby) 489, 490
Wormald, Jenny 371
Worsley, Giles 493–4
Wren, Christopher 213
Wren, Keith 553n39
Wren, Matthew 228
Wright, Beth S. 540
Yeoman, Louise 366
York 65, 71, 104, 322, 323
Yorkshire Engagement (Yorkshire Magna Charta) 266
Young, John 119, 249
Zankey, Jerome/Hieronymous 569–70
Zwingli, Huldrych 447, 449