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date: 15 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter traces revolutionary events in Scotland from July 1637 until January 1644. Revolution was sparked off by a riot in Edinburgh against Charles’s new prayer book; Charles’s divided regime was unprepared for the scale of resistance, which rapidly became a Scottish-wide movement united by the National Covenant (February 1638). The covenanters’ grievances were religious, constitutional, and economic. They resisted royal attempts to suppress them in the Bishops’ Wars of 1639 and 1640, and even invaded England in 1640 to precipitate the downfall of Charles’s English regime. After the outbreak of the Irish rebellion and the English civil war, the covenanters sent an army to Ulster and then, in August 1643, agreed the Solemn League and Covenant by which they would send an army to assist parliament in England. The chapter concludes with an analysis of allegiance, stressing covenanting success in coalition-building and royalist disunity.

Keywords: Scotland, National Covenant, Solemn League and Covenant, covenanters, revolution, Bishops’ Wars, allegiance

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