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date: 15 October 2019

(p. 667) Index

(p. 667) Index

Ackema, P 383–4, 385
and Parallel Representation 526
action modality, and compound meaning 119–20
Adams, V, and verbal compounds 6 n1
Adjacency Condition 182
adjectival compounds:
in Danish 411–12
in Dutch 375–7
in German 388
in Hungarian 528
in Mapudungun 606–7
in Polish 474–7
colour terms 477
context of 477
coordinate compounds 477
linking elements 474–5
structural range 477
suffixes 475–6
verbal heads 476–7
adjectives:
and absence from Mohawk 572
and ascriptive attribution 187–8
and associative attribution 188–90
affixes:
and Asymmetry Theory 156–9
and compounds 327–8
and distinguishing from bound roots 5–6
and distinguishing from roots 5–6
in Dutch 371
in Maipure-Yavitero 586–7
in Mapudungun 597–8, 601, 604–5
and meaning 79
and origins of 327
and semantic skeleton 81–2
and semantics 327–8
and semi-affixes 327
and theoretical status of 327
and typology of 156–8
affixoid 208, 209
agnation 254
agrammatic aphasia 110, 112
agreement morpheme 131
Aikhenvald, A Y, and Baniva 585, 586, 590
Ainu, and compounds 344–5
Aitchison, J 20
Allan, K, and noun classification 84
Allan, R 407
Allen, M R 278, 357
and ‘IS A Principle’ 366, 497
and lexical stratification 180
and lexicalist compounding rules 72–3
and plural markers 13 n8
and ‘Variable R’ 353
and verbal compounds 76
allomorphy 179
ambiguity:
and compounds 59, 64, 116
and scope ambiguity 150
analogy 235–6
and analogy-based model 278
analysability 237
anaphoras, in Spanish 448–50, 451
anaphoric island constraint 520
Anderson, S R 485
Andrews, S, and processing of compound words 267
Antisymmetry framework 151
appositive compounds, and classification of compounds 42, 51, 52
appropriately classificatory (AC) relationship 277
Aranovich, R 596
Araucanian, see Mapudungun
Arawakan, and limited use of compounding 586
argument relations 148
in Dutch 373
in German 397–8
in Hungarian 529–30, 531–3, 535
in Japanese 516–18
and subordinate compounds 88
argument selection, and Distributed Morphology 134
Aronoff, M 323
ascriptive attribution 186–8
(p. 668) Aspects model 178–9
association, and symbolization 234
associative attribution 188–91
Asymmetry Theory 148–51, 177
and behavioural support for 176
and compound processing 176
and compounding and derivation 156–62
natural languages 160–1, 177
typology of affixes 156–8
and compounds 146, 147, 149–51
unifying property 147
and configurational asymmetries 154–6
and derivation of compounds:
functional compounds 173–4
morphological phases 165–8, 175
operation of morphological workspace (Dm) 162–5
root compounds 168–70
verbal compounds 170–3
and Distributed Morphology 148
and Interface Interpretability Condition 175
and interpretability 175–7
and language faculty 148, 175–6
and lexicalist approach 148
and medial F-tree 151–4
and morphological compositionality 176–7
and morphological relations 149, 150
and Strict Asymmetry of Morphology 149
ATAP compounds, and classification of compounds 51–3
Athapaskan, see Slave
attribution:
and ascriptive attribution 186–8
and associative attribution 188–91
and intersective attribution 191
and lexicon-syntax divide 192–5
coordination 193
independent modification 193–4
pro-one 194–5
and subsective attribution 191–2
attributive compounds:
in Chinese 481
headedness 484
and classification of compounds 45, 46–7, 48, 49, 51, 88
and definition of 45
in English 362–3
in Greek 458
and lexical semantic analysis 97
endocentric attributive 97–8, 104
exocentric attributive 98–9
in Slave 545, 559–60
Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
Augst, G, and linking elements 392
Augusta, F J de 594, 603 n5
Autolexical Syntax 107
Baayen, R H, and word-processing 259, 266
back-formation, and compound verbs 361
bahuvrīhi compounds:
and classification of compounds 36, 41, 42, 53, 332
and exocentric compounds 351
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 337
Baker, M C 521, 525, 573, 594, 596, 597, 600
Bally, C:
and classification of compounds 39, 43–4
and syntagma principle 61
Bambara 345
Baniva, see Maipure-Yavitero
Bare Phrase Structure (BPS) theory 138
Bare Stem Constraint 457
Barlow, M:
and language use 243
and schematization 239
Barz, I, and linking elements 390
Basbøll, H 404
base form:
and definition of 324
and morphological systems 324–5
Basic Variety (BV):
and evolution of language capacity 111–12
and morphology 114
and protolanguage 112, 114
and second-language competence 112
Bates, E 266–7
Bauer, B, and nominal apposition 334
Bauer, L 357
and classification of compounds 41, 42
and composition and derivation 224 n9
and compound structure 368
and definition of a compound 4, 5, 6, 14, 325–6
and neoclassical compounds 364
and order of elements 349
and possessive compounds 351
and roots and stems 323
and stress 8
and verbal compounds 6 n1
Benczes, R 244
and blending theory 251
and creative compounds 245–6
and types of compounds 245
Berman, R A, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 309
Bickerton, D, and evolution of language capacity 111–12
(p. 669) Bilev, R 309
binomials 26
Bisetto, A:
and classification of compounds 44–7, 87–9, 479
new proposal 49–52
selection in compounding 48–9
and V + N compounds 424
Blank, A, and onomasiological theory of word formation 224
compounding 225
overall model of 224
blending theory, and cognitive linguistics 240–2, 250–2
blends:
in German 398–9
and metacompounds 488 n11
Bloomfield, L:
and classification of compounds 39, 43
and stress 185
Booij, G:
and attributive compounds 362
and classification of compounds 41, 42
and linking elements 380–1
and Non-Redundancy Constraint 476
and test for compoundhood 384
Borer, H 492
and argument structure 148
and morphophonological merger rules 507
and Parallel Morphology 526
and word properties of constructs 506
Botha, R P 357
and phrasal compounds 363
bound morphemes 74
bound roots, and distinguishing from affixes 5–6
boundedness, as semantic feature 80
Bracket Erasure Convention 182, 183
Brekle, H E 353
and compounding 68–9
Bresnan, J, and phrasal compounds 364
Brugmann, K 58
and bahuvrīhi compounds 337
and definition of a compound 325, 328
Bundgaard, P F, and blending theory 251–2, 253
Busa, F, and agentive nominals 119
C3 model 277
Camico, H, and Baniva 585, 586, 591
Caramazza, A, and Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
CARIN theory, and meaning interpretation 275–6
Carnie, A, and phrases 143 n12
Carreiras, M, and processing of compound words 267
categorization, and cognitive linguistics 238
Ceccagno, A:
and classification of compounds 479
and headedness in Chinese 483, 484
Chafe, W 580
Chao, Y R:
and headedness 484–5
and headedness in Chinese 482–3
Chichewa 354
children, and acquisition of compound constructions 298–9
and age-related development patterns 307
comprehension 307–9
form and structure 311–13
lexico-semantic factors 309–11
and coining compounds 108, 146
and cross-linguistic comparisons 302–7
Dutch 304, 305
English 303, 304, 306, 307
French 303, 306
Germanic languages 303–4, 305
Hebrew 303, 305–7
Icelandic 303
Swedish 304, 305, 306
and functional load 318–19
and future research 321–2
alternative devices 321
binominal constructions 321
input/output relation 321
semantic relations 321–2
and Hebrew 300, 301 n8, 302, 313–14
basic morphosyntax 314–15
comprehension 308, 309
double compounds 316–17
early word combinations 314
form and structure 312, 313
functional load 318
lexico-semantic factors 309
morphosyntax of compound construction 315–16
productive compounding 316
unanalysed lexical items 314
and interpreting novel compounds 110
and learned compounds 110
as multifaceted task 299–302
and nature of compounds 299
and research on 298–9
and structural complexity 317–18
and target language typology in form/function interrelations 319–21
frequency of occurrence 319–20
linguistic register 320–1
(p. 670) Chinese (Mandarin Chinese) 355, 478–9, 489–90
and attributive compounds 481
headedness 484
and classification of compounds 479–80
and coordinate compounds 481–2
headedness 484–6
and endocentric compounds 484–6
and exocentric compounds 486, 487
and headedness:
among macro-types 484–6
Head Position Principle 489
in metacompounding 486–8
theoretical approaches to 482–4
and productivity 478
and subordinate compounds 480–1
headedness 484
and verbal compounds 484
Chomsky, N:
and kernel sentences 58
and lexicalist approach 70
and lexicalist hypothesis 70, 77
and the lexicon 59
and phase concept 165, 166 n15
and recoverability of deleted material 60, 67
and recursivity 146
and ‘Remarks on Nominalization’ 179–80
and X-bar theory 75
Chukchi 345, 355
Cienki, A, and categorization 238
Clackson, J, and internal syntax of compounds 329
Clark, E V:
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 305, 306, 307, 309, 311, 312, 317–18
and coining compounds 108
classification of compounds 34–5, 52–3
and Bisetto and Scalise's framework 44–7, 87–9, 359
assumption of 44
attributive compounds 45, 46–7, 88
coordinate compounds 46–7
copulative compounds 88
neoclassical compounds 47
new proposal 49–52
phrasal compounds 47
selection in compounding 48–9
subordinate compounds 45, 46–7, 88
and criteria for:
heterogeneity of 38
inconsistency in 37, 42–3
review of 38–44
and endocentricity 38, 41–4, 89
and exocentricity 38, 41–4, 89
and Lees' approach 56–7
and neglected categories 37–8
and problems in 35, 52–3
and terminological problems 35–7, 44
and unsatisfactory nature of existing proposals 34
classificatory relevance 277
clausal compounds, in Maipure-Yavitero 590–2
cocomposition, and compound meaning 120–1, 124–5
coercion 122, 127–8
Cognitive Grammar 202
and analysability 237
and Parallel Architecture 107
and productivity 235
cognitive linguistics 233
and basic tenet of 234
and cognitive abilities 234
comparison/categorization 238
composition 236–8
conceptual blending 240–2
lexicalization 236
metaphor 240
metonymy 240
schematization 235–6, 238–40
symbolization 234–6
and cognitive analyses of compounding 243, 252–3
analysability 244
compositionality 244
compound attributes 246–7
conceptual blending 250–2
creativity 248–50
endocentric/exocentric distinction 244–6
future research 253–4
language processing 250–2
modifier-head analysis 247–8
schematization 248–9
and usage-based approach of 242–3
coindexation:
and attributive compounds:
endocentric attributive 98
exocentric attributive 99
and coordinate compounds:
endocentric coordinate 90
exocentric coordinate 92
and Parallel Architecture 118
and principle of 82, 94, 95, 96–7
and subordinate compounds:
endocentric subordinate 94, 95
exocentric subordinate 95–7
and verbal compounds 101, 102–3
collocations, and idiomatic expressions 21, 22
(p. 671) combining forms 326
in Polish 472
comparison, and cognitive linguistics 238
competition, and meaning interpretation 275–7
complex nominals, and Levi 65–7
complex verbs:
in Hungarian 531
in Warlpiri 620
complex words:
in English 365–6
and processing of compound words 260, 266
constituent frequency 261–2
frequency of related words 262–3
influence of semantics 266–7
integration 268–9
meaning construction 269–70
processing issues 267–8
psycholinguistic methods 260
recent exposure to related items 263–5
word family size 263
word frequency 261
and representation of 256–7
Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
decomposition 257–8
Morphological Race model 258
morphology 258–60
complexity:
and compounds 7
and Conceptual Semantics 128
‘composed of’ compounds, in Slave 552–4
composed of individuals (CI), as semantic feature 80
composite structures:
and cognitive linguistics 236–7
and word formation 229–30
compositionality:
and cognitive linguistics 236–8, 244
and compounding 225
and compounds as idiomatic expressions 28–30
in Czech 19
in German 19–20
and gradient character of 23 n5
and idiomatology 23–5
and limits of 115
and literalness 23, 28, 29–30
and predictability 24, 30–1
and principle of 394
as scalar phenomenon 23, 33
and semantic unity 24
and variability 23, 28
compound markers, in Greek 455–6
Compound Stress Rule 162–3
compounds:
and coining of 108–9, 146
and component problem 18
and criteria for 6–8, 14
inflection 13
inseparability 11–12
linking elements 13–14
modification of first term 12
other languages 11
semantic 9–11
stress in English 8–11
syntactic criteria 11–12
and definition of 32, 130, 218, 325–6, 343–4, 543
lexeme-based 326
problems with 4–8, 17, 326–7, 345, 355
and derivation 218
and elements of 5
and functions of 123–4
and headedness 7, 348–9
and incidence of 592–3
and interface properties 146
and internal inflection 346–7
and internal syntactic structure 109
and interpretation of novel 110–11
and interpretation problem 17
and languages with limited use of 592–3
and linguistic diversity 354–5
and natural language 160–1, 177
and non-existence of 14
and non-productivity 140
and order of elements 349–50
and origins of, univerbation in Indo-European 328–31
and paraphrasing 115–16
as part of human language 145, 146, 177
and phonological marking 345–6
and principles of compounding 110
and productivity of 109, 110
and properties of 145–6, 147
as protogrammatical phenomenon 113
as relic of protolanguage 111–14
and types of 245
and unifying property 147
and universality of 344–5
comprehension:
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 307–9
and compounds, interpretation of meaning 25, 31, 32
and context 24, 31
concepts, and meaning construction 269–70
conceptual blending, and cognitive linguistics 240–2, 250–2
(p. 672) Conceptual Semantics:
and complexity 128
and goal of 114
and meaning 114–15
and Parallel Architecture 114–15
and paraphrasing compounds 115–16
conceptual-intentional (CI) system 175
and compounds 146
Configuration Hypothesis, and idiomatic expressions 25
configurational asymmetries, and Asymmetry Theory 154–6
Constituent Structure Morphology, and inheritance trees 206
construction:
and constructional schemas 202
and linguistic structure 202
and morphological patterns 202
and word-formation process 201–2
Construction Grammar 216
and basic idea of 202
and compound-like phrases 214–16
and headedness issues 210–11
and inheritance trees 206
and synthetic compounds 212–14
and word-formation schemas in hierarchical lexicon 203–9
constructional idioms 207, 210, 211
context:
and compounds 26, 28, 32–3
and interpretation of meaning 31
and meaning 24
and stress 8
control 382–3
coordinate compounds 351–2
in Chinese 481–2
headedness 484–6
and classification of compounds 45, 46–7, 48, 49, 52, 332
in Danish 410
and definition of a compound 46
in English 359–60
in French 429–30
in Greek 458, 459
in Hungarian 540
in Japanese 514–15
and lexical semantic analysis 89
endocentric coordinate 90–1
exocentric coordinate 91–3
in Polish 473, 477
in Spanish 441
and types of 352
Coordinate Structure Constraint 507, 508
coordination:
and classification of compounds 36, 38, 42, 43, 44
and lexicon-syntax divide 193
copulative compounds:
and classification of compounds 41, 42, 43, 88, 332
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 334
in German 396
and onomasiological theory of word formation 230
in Polish 473
Corbin, D 417, 422, 430
correspondences, and composite structures 237
Costello, F J, and C3 model 277
Coulson, S, and blending theory 250–1
creative compounds 245
creativity:
and cognitive analyses of compounding 248–50
and coining compounds 245–6
and word formation 280
cross-linguistic issues, and lexical semantic analysis 83–4, 85
Crystal, D, and definition of a compound 543
cumulative association 24, 31, 32
Cuyckens, H, and cognitive linguistics 233
cyclic domains 166 n15
Czech:
and compounds 19, 219–20
and meaning predictability 273–5
and spelling of compounds 7
Danish 400
and adjectival compounds 411–12
and characteristics of 400–2
and compounding in 402–4, 416
and compounds in other word-classes 415
and endocentric compounds 404–10
adjective + noun compounds 408–9
coordinate compounds 410
linking elements 405–7
verb + noun compounds 409
and exocentric compounds 410–11
and non-compounds 415–16
and productivity 410
and pronunciation 402
and semantic analysis 404–5
and stress 402, 404
and verbal compounds 412–15
Danish Language Council 402
Danon, G 494 n1, 506 n8
(p. 673) Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council) 402
Darmesteter, A, and French compounds 422, 424–5
decomposition, and representation of complex words 256–8
Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
Morphological Race model 258
Decomposition Hypothesis, and comprehension of meaning 25, 32
deep structure 56, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69–70, 73
default inheritance, and word formation 206
deictic compounds 6
deleted predicates 64–7
delocutive derivation 418, 424
Dene, see Slave
derivation:
and Asymmetry Theory:
functional compounds 173–4
morphological phases 165–8, 175
operation of morphological workspace (Dm) 162–5
root compounds 168–70
verbal compounds 170–3
and compounding 218
in Hebrew:
idioms 508
incorporation 508–10
in Hungarian 539–40
and incidence of 593
and word formation 4
derivational morphology, and inheritance trees 206
Derivation-by-Phase model, and Asymmetry Theory 162
determinative compounds 332
and classification of compounds 42, 43
in Greek 458
determinatum 4
determiner phrases (DP)
and failure of incorporation 140–2
in Mohawk 570–2
and one-replacement 134–5
and phrasal compounds 142–3
and synthetic compounds 136
deverbal compounds:
in Hungarian:
action nouns as heads 529–36
agent nouns 536–7
argument relations 529–30, 531–3, 535
complex verbs 531
event reading 533–4
morphological regularity 530–1
simple verbs/particle verbs 534–6
in Maipure-Yavitero 589–90
Di Sciullo, A M 423
and classification of compounds 44
and French compounds 425
and syntactic word 446
Diaz, A, and stress 8
DiGiovanna, James 129, 142
Dirven, R:
and categorization 238
and cline of transparency/analysability 244
and word formation 227 n12
Distributed Morphology 526
and Asymmetry Theory 148
and compounding 129–30
and incorporation:
failure of 140–2
modificational synthetic compounds 137–9
phrasal compounds 142–4
primary (‘root’) compounds 139–40
synthetic compounds 136–7
and modificational synthetic compounds 137–9
and one-replacement 133–5
and phonological representation (PF) 130, 131
and phrasal compounds 142–4
and primary (‘root’) compounds 139–40
and Roots 130, 131–2, 144
argument selection 134
failure of incorporation 140–2
modificational synthetic compounds 137–9
one-replacement 133–5
phrasal compounds 143–4
primary (‘root’) compounds 139–40
synthetic compounds 135–7
and semantically interpretable object (LF) 130, 131
and structure of framework 130–3
and synthetic compounds 135–7
and terminal nodes 130–1
feature bundle 131, 132, 133
Roots 131–2
and word formation 129
Dixon, RMW, and noun classes/classifiers 84 n5
Dobrovie-Sorin, C 506 n8
Dokulil, M:
and meaning predictability 273–5
and onomasiological theory of word formation 219
compounding 221
impact of 219
onomasiological categories 219–20, 274 n2
overall model 219–21
(p. 674) Donalies, E:
and classes of compounds 394
and criteria for compounds 6–7
and self-compounding 388 n2
and stress in German 393
Downing, P 278, 576
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 311
and coining compounds 108
Dravidian languages 347
Dressler, W U 356
dummy compounds, in English 365
Dunabeitia, J A, and processing of compound words 267
Dunkel, G E, and origins of compounds 330
Dutch:
and adjectival compounds 375–7
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 304, 305
and compound characteristics 370–3
and compound-like phrases 214–15, 216
and derivational affixes 371
and endocentric compounds 205–6
and exocentric compounds 378–9
and headedness 371
left-headed compounds 379
and linking elements 372, 380–1
and nominal compounds 370–1, 373–5
and order of elements 349
and productivity of compound formation 370, 375
and recursivity 371, 374
and stems 371–2
and stress 375, 379–80
and synthetic compounds 212–14, 382–5
and verbal compounds 377–8
and verb-argument relation 373
and word-formation schemas in hierarchical lexicon 203–9
dvandva compounds 187
and classification of compounds 36, 41–2, 332
and coordinative compounds 351
dvigu 332
dynamism, as semantic feature 80
Elsewhere Principle 131, 181, 192
embedded productivity, and synthetic compounds 212–14
embedding, and generalized transformations 56
emergent signification, and conceptual blending 241
endocentric compounds:
in Chinese 484–6
and cognitive linguistics 244–6
in Danish 404–10
adjective + noun compounds 408–9
coordinate compounds 410
linking elements 405–7
verb + noun compounds 409
and distinguishing from exocentric compounds 350–1
in Dutch 205–6
in English:
attributive compounds 363
coordinate compounds 359
subordinate compounds 360–2
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 332
in Greek 459
in Maipure-Yavitero 588–9
in Polish 473
in Spanish 437–8
N + A compounds 444
N + N compounds 441
V + N compounds 439
and ‘Variable R’ 353
in Warlpiri 612–13
and word-formation process 201–2
and word-formation schemas 204
endocentricity:
and attributive compounds 97–8, 104
and classification of compounds 38, 41–4, 89
and coordinate compounds 90–1
and subordinate compounds 93–5
English:
and attributive compounds 362–3
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 303, 304, 306, 307
comprehension 307–8
form and structure 311–12
and complex words 365–6
and compound verbs 361
and compounds 184–6, 355, 357–8
compound-phrase distinction 184–5
and compounds as idiomatic expressions 27–8
compositionality 28–30
interpretation 31
predictability 30–2
range of compounds 28
and coordinate compounds 359–60
and dummy compounds 365
and endocentric compounds:
attributive compounds 363
coordinate compounds 359
subordinate compounds 360–2
and exocentric compounds:
attributive compounds 362–3
(p. 675) coordinate compounds 360
subordinate compounds 362
and headedness 348, 349, 366–7
and identical-constituent compounds 364–5
and inflection 369
and internal inflection 347
and internal structure of compounds 367–8
and interpretation of compounds 368–9
and linking elements 369
and neoclassical compounds 364
and phrasal compounds 363–4
and root compounds 358–9
internal structure 367
and spelling of compounds 7
and status of verbal compounds 5–6
and stress as criterion for determining compoundhood 8–11
and subordinate compounds 360–2
and synthetic compounds 358, 360–1
internal structure 367–8
entrenchment 235
and productivity 235
Estonian, and internal inflection 346
Evenki 355, 593
evolutionary psychology, and compounds 146
exocentric compounds 332
in Chinese 486, 487
and cognitive linguistics 244–6
in Danish 410–11
and distinguishing from endocentric compounds 350–1
in Dutch 378–9
in English:
attributive compounds 362–3
coordinate compounds 360
subordinate compounds 362
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 332, 336–7
in German 396
in Greek 459–60
and headedness 211
in Hungarian 540
in Japanese 515–16
in Maipure-Yavitero 589–90
in Mapudungun 606
and onomasiological theory of word formation 230
in Polish 473–4
in Spanish 437–8, 448–50, 451
N + A compounds 443–4
P + N compounds 440
V + N compounds 439
exocentricity:
and attributive compounds 98–9
and classification of compounds 38, 41–4, 89
and coordinate compounds 91–3
and nature of 78, 100
and subordinate compounds 95–7
expansion, and word formation 4
Fabb, N:
and classification of compounds 40, 42
and compounding of indirect objects 517
and definition of a compound 543
Fauconnier, G, and blending theory 241, 251
feature percolation 75
Fernando, C, and idiomaticity 25–6
Ferris, C, and prototypical adjectives 187
Fikkert, P 305
Finnish 345
and internal inflection 347
Fiorentino, R, and morphophonological decomposition 176
Fitch, W T, and recursivity 146
folk-etymology 229, 230, 232
Fongbe 354, 356
and recursivity 350
Forster, K I, and representation of complex words 256–7, 266
free combinations 20, 22, 26–7, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33
French:
and Asymmetry Theory 159–60
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 303, 306
and compounding in 434–5
and headedness 349
and lexical categories in compounds 420–2
and N + N compounds 428–34
coordinate compounds 429–30
identificational 433–4
subordinate compounds 430–1
two-slot nominal constructs 432–3
and Principle A and compounds 417–20
and productive compound patterns 421
and V + N compounds 422–8
gender 424
morphological construction 422–3
nature of first constituent 423–6
noun 427–8
phonological constraints 428
semantic relationship of constituents 426–8
syntactical construction 422–3
verb 426–7
fricative voicing, in Slave 545 n3, 560–1
and attributive compounds 560
and ‘composed of’ compounds 553–4
and exceptions to generalizations about 562–3
and subordinate compounds 557–8
(p. 676) Frisian, and compound-like phrases 215
F-tree hypothesis, and Asymmetry Theory 151–4
Fukushima, K, and lexical VV compounds in Japanese 100–3
Full Entry Model 71–2
functional compounds, and Asymmetry Theory 173–4
Gagné, C L:
and ‘competition’ concept 275–7
and processing of compound words 269
Geeraerts, D, and cognitive linguistics 233
Gelman, S A, and coining compounds 108
gender:
in French 424
in Mohawk 568 n2
in Polish 468–9
generative grammar:
and Parallel Architecture 107
and protolanguage 113
generative linguistics:
and emergence of 63–4
in Germany:
Brekle 68–9
Kürschner 69–70
and Lees 54
and legacy of early work 77
and revision of Lees' compounding theory 64–5
Levi's revision of 65–7
and rewrite rules 74–5
feature percolation 75
and verbal compounds 75–7
Generative Semantics 107
generative syntax, and compound structure 368
genitive compounds, in Maipure-Yavitero 588–9
Georgian, and coordinate compounds 91
German:
and argument structure 397–8
and borderline cases of compounds:
blends 398–9
Zusammenrückungen 399
and compounds 19–20
length of 386
structural diversity 386–7
terms for compounding 387
and copulative compounds 396
and exocentric compounds 396
and headedness 348, 387–90
adjectival compounds 388
nominal compounds 387–8
verbal compounds 388–9
and internal inflection 347
and interpretation of compounds 394–7
and linking elements 346
and neoclassical compounds 399
and non-compositional compounds 396–7
and phonological form:
linking elements 390–3
stress 393–4
and productivity 386
and synthetic compounds 397
Germanic languages:
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 303–4, 305
and compound-like phrases 215–16
and headedness 210
and linking vowels 153
and recursivity 350
Germany, and transformational approach to compounding 67
Brekle 68–9
Kürschner 69–70
Gerrig, R J, and processing of compound words 269
Ghomeshi, J, and identical-constituent compounds 365
Giegerich, H J:
and compound-like phrases 215
and stress 9
Gilij, Filippo S 585, 586, 591, 592
Gleason, H A 254
Gleitman, H:
and interpreting compounds 287
and paraphrasing compounds 115–16
Gleitman, L R:
and interpreting compounds 287
and paraphrasing compounds 115–16
Golluscio, L A 596
González Ñáñez, O, and Baniva 585, 586, 591
Gorog, R de 218 n4
Gorrie, M C, and processing of compound words 269
Government-Binding theory 368
Grace, G W, and idiomatology 21
grammar, and division from lexicon 108
Granville Hatcher, A 353
Greek (modern):
and attributive compounds 458
and borderline cases of compounds 461–3
and categories of compounds 453–4
and compound markers 455–6
and compound structure 456–7
and compound-like phrases 215
and coordinate compounds 458, 459
and determinative compounds 458
(p. 677) and endocentric compounds 459
and exocentric compounds 459–60
and headedness 459–60
and inflection 454, 455, 457
and linking elements 346, 454–5
and linking vowels 153
and recursivity 457
and relation between constituents of compounds 458–9
and stress 454, 457
and subordinate compounds 458
and synthetic compounds 460–1
Greenlandic 355
Grimshaw, J 357
Grinevald, C, and social interaction 85
Grynberg, H 464 n1
Grzega, J:
and coining of new words 218 n2
and onomasiological theory of word formation 227–9
compounding 229–30
linguistic sign model 227–8
Gunter, T C, and processing of compound words 268–9
Haas, W De 374
and Dutch word formation 208
and stress in Dutch 380
Halle, M, and the lexicon 71
Hansen, A 409
Hargus, S, and Witsuwitʼen 544, 545, 546
Harley, H 510 n14
Haspelmath, M, and classification of compounds 40, 41, 42, 43
Hauser, M D, and recursivity 146
headedness:
in Chinese:
among macro-types 484–6
Head Position Principle 489
metacompounding 486–8
theoretical approaches to 482–4
and compounds 7, 348–9
and Construction Grammar 210–11
in Dutch 371
left-headed compounds 379
in English 348, 349, 366–7
in German 387–90
adjectival compounds 388
nominal compounds 387–8
verbal compounds 388–9
in Greek 459–60
in Italian 210–11
in Japanese:
double-headed compounds 514–15
headless compounds 515–16
left-headed compounds 514
right-headed compounds 513–14
in Mapudungun 598–600, 602–3
in Polish 464, 473
and Right-hand Head Rule 203, 210
in Slave 551
in Spanish 210
in Warlpiri 614–15
Hebrew:
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 300, 301 n8, 302, 303, 305–7, 313–14
basic morphosyntax 314–15
comprehension 308, 309
double compounds 316–17
early word combinations 314
form and structure 312, 313
functional load 318
lexico-semantic factors 309
morphosyntax of compound construction 315–16
productive compounding 316
unanalysed lexical items 314
and compound structure 302 n9
and compound-like phrases 215
and constructs and compounds 491–2, 511
definiteness spreading 496–7
differences in constituent structure 494–6
distinctions between 509
phonological similarities 492–3
semantic headedness 497
syntactical similarities 493–4
and derivation of properties of compounds 508–10
idioms 508
incorporation 508–10
and existence of compounds in 491
and internal inflection 347
and modificational (M-)constructs 497–8
compared with R-constructs 498–9
definite article 500–3
distinction from compounds 503–5
similarity to compounds 500
spoken Modern Hebrew 500
syntax of 498–9
and nominal constructs:
absence of syntactical uniformity 507–8
coordination of non-heads 507
referential non-head 506–7
word properties of 507
and stress 492–3
Hector, J 266
Hellenic languages, and linking vowels 153
(p. 678) Henderson, L 256
Heringer, H J 395
Hervás y Panduro, L 591
Heyvaert, L 254
hierarchical lexicon 202
and word-formation schemas in 203–9
Hirt, H 331 n14
Hoeksema, J, and phrasal compounds 364
Hoekstra, J:
and compound-like phrases 215
and linking elements 381
Hohenhaus, P:
and dummy compounds 365
and identical-constituent compounds 365
Hoosain, R, and processing of compound words 263
Horecký, J, and onomasiological theory of word formation:
compounding 222
overall model of 221–2
Householder, F:
and criticism of Lees 59
and rewrite rules 74
Huang, H-C, and headedness in Chinese 483
human computational system (Chl), and compounds 146, 147
Hungarian 527–8, 540–1
and adjectival compounds 528
and complex verbs 531
and coordinate compounds 540
and derivation processes 539–40
and deverbal compounds:
action nouns as heads 529–36
agent nouns 536–7
argument relations 529–30, 531–3, 535
complex verbs 531
event reading 533–4
morphological regularity 530–1
simple verbs/particle verbs 534–6
and exocentric compounds 540
and German influence 528
and inflection 539
and language reform movement 527–8
and nominal compounds 528–9
and particle verbs 534–6, 538
and productivity 528–9
and root compounds 528–9
Hunzib 354
Hyönä, J, and processing of compound words 261
Icelandic, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 303
iconemes 226, 229
identical-constituent compounds, in English 364–5
idiomaticity 20–1
in Mohawk 579
idiomatics 20
idiomatology:
and compounds as idiomatic expressions 26–7, 32–3
commonalities between 26
compositionality 28–30
compounds as ‘cross-cutting’ class 25–7
English compounds 27–8
interpretation 31
literalness 28, 29–30
predictability 30–2
range of compounds 28
variability 28
and definition of 20–1
and definition of idiom 26
and idiomatic expressions 21
commonality with compounds 26
compositionality 23–5
interpretation of meaning 25, 31
literalness 22–3
predictability 24
variability 21–2
imperative compounds 332, 336
incipient compounding, in Maipure-Yavitero 592
incorporation:
and compounds in Hebrew 508–10
and Distributed Morphology:
failure 140–2
modificational synthetic compounds 137–9
phrasal compounds 142–4
primary (‘root’) compounds 139–40
synthetic compounds 136–7
and failure of 140–2
in Japanese:
post-syntactic compounding 524–5
verb incorporation 521–3
Verbal Noun (VN) incorporation 523
independent modification, and lexicon-syntax divide 193–4
Indo-European:
and compounding as result of univerbation 328–31
and genesis of compounds 331–2, 339–40
bahuvrīhi compounds 337
copulative compounds 334
exocentric compounds 336–7
karmadharāya compounds 333–4
(p. 679) prepositional rectional compounds 338
synthetic compounds 334–6
verbal compounds 338–9
and inflection 329–30
and primary compounds 329
and secondary compounds 329
Inferable Eventual Position or State (IEPS), as semantic feature 80
inflection:
and compound structure 456
and criteria for compounds 13
in English 369
in Greek 454, 455, 457
in Hungarian 539
and Indo-European 329–30
and internal inflection 346–7
and origins of compounds 329–31
in Spanish 437
inflectional languages, and compounds 5
inflectional morphology 112
inheritance trees 206
Inhoff, A, and processing of compound words 268
inseparability, and criteria for compounds 11–12
integration, and processing of compound words 268–9
Interface Interpretability Condition 146, 148, 165, 175
and morphological phases 166
interfixes, see linking elements
intermorphs, see linking elements
internal inflection, and compounds 346–7
interpretability, and Asymmetry Theory 175–7
interpretation:
and compounds 110–11, 115
and English compounds 368–9
and German compounds 394–7
intersective attribution 191
Iroquoian, see Mohawk
isolating language 325, 355
Italian:
and headedness 210–11
and root compounds 36
iterative compounds 332
Jackendoff, R:
and ‘architecture of grammar’ 18, 34
and Full Entry Model 71–2
and Lexical Conceptual Structures (LCSs) 79
and phrasal verbs 12
and protolanguage 112
and reversible compounds 95
and X-bar theory 74, 75
Jacobi, H G 328, 330 n11
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 333, 334–5, 337
Jangala, Paddy P 612
Japanese:
and characteristics of compounds 512–13
and compounds 176
and coordinate compounds 514–15
and exocentric compounds 515–16
and headedness 513
double-headed compounds 514–15
headless compounds 515–16
left-headed compounds 514
right-headed compounds 513–14
and lexical compounds 512–13
contrast with post-syntactic compounds 524–5
head structure 513–16
verb incorporation 521
and metonymy 515–16
and phrase-like compounds 518
argument inheritance from non-heads 520–1
phrasal compounds 518–19
possessive compounds 518, 519
Word Plus compounds 518, 519–20
and productivity 512, 516
and recursivity 516
and rendaku 345–6
and syntactic compounding 521
post-syntactic compounding 524–5
verb incorporation 521–3
Verbal Noun (VN) incorporation 523
and verbal compounds 100–3
argument relations in 516–18
Javanese, and order of elements 349–50
Jespersen, O 58, 357
and compound-phrase distinction 185, 195
and interpreting compounds 122
and sense-relations 128
Johnson-Laird, P N 285
Jones, D, and stress 9
Jong, N H de 308
Juhasz, B J, and processing of compound words 261, 262
Kageyama, T:
and Modular Morphology model 526
and post-syntactic compounds 524
karmadharāya compounds 332, 333–4
Kashmiri, and internal inflection 347
Kastovsky, D 61
Kayardild 354
(p. 680) Kayne, R, and Antisymmetry framework 151
Keane, M T, and C3 model 277
Keller, R E 403–4
Kemmer, S:
and language use 243
and schematization 239
kennings 27
kernel sentences 56, 58
Khmer, and linking elements 346
Kingdon, R, and stress 8
Kiparsky, P 6 n1
Kisi, and order of elements 349
Klein, W, and Basic Variety (BV) 112
Koch, Peter, and onomasiological theory of word formation 225
compounding 226
overall model of 225–6
Koester, D, and processing of compound words 268–9
Kornfeld, L 448–9
Kougious, P, and representation of morphology 260
Krieger, H-U 206
Krott, A, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 308–9
Kuku Yalanji, and linking elements 346
Kürschner, W, and compounding 69–70
Kwakwala 355
Labov, W, and predictability 290
Ladd, R D, and stress 9 n3
lambda-abstraction, and profiling 118
Lambrecht, K, and Construction Grammar 202
Lane, N M, and coining compounds 108
Langacker, R:
and comparison/categorization 238
and composite structures 237
and entrenchment 235
and language use 242–3
and lexicalization 236
and schematization 235–6
and symbolization 234
and valence relations 237
language capacity, and evolution of 111–12
language faculty:
and Asymmetry Theory 148, 175–6
and compounding 146
and recursivity 146, 177
and syntactic component 175
language processing, and cognitive analyses of compounding 250–2
language system, and units of 234–5
Laughren, M 610, 615, 617, 619–20
Lees, R B 357
and classification of compounds 56–7
and generative semantics 54
and Marchand's criticism of 60–3
and paraphrasing compounds 115
and stress patterns 57
and transformational account of compounding 55
context of work 57–8
impact of 57
influence in Germany 68–70
initial criticism 58–60
Levi's revision of 65–7
main elements of 55–7
reviews of work 58
revised approach 64–5
Levi, J N 353, 357
and complex nominals 65–7
and compound structure 368
and recoverably deletable predicates 277
lexemes:
and compound formation 4, 5, 6
and definition of 324
and definition of a compound 326
and meaning 79
and semantic skeleton 81–2
lexical compounds:
in Japanese 512–13
contrast with post-syntactic compounds 524–5
head structure 513–16
verb incorporation 521
in Spanish 20, 437
Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS) 79, 525
and classification of compounds 49
lexical integrity 520
Lexical Integrity Principle 183, 185–6, 191
and coordination 193
and German 390
and independent modification 193–4
and lexical status 192, 195
and pro-one 194–5
Lexical Representation Hypothesis, and idiomatic expressions 25
lexical semantic analysis 78, 79–82
and attributive compounds 97
endocentric attributive 97–8, 104
exocentric attributive 98–9
and compounds 104
and coordinate compounds 89
endocentric coordinate 90–1
exocentric coordinate 91–3
(p. 681) and cross-linguistic issues 83–4, 85
and exocentricity 100
and relationship of skeleton and body 83
and semantic features 80–2
and semantic/grammatical skeleton 79
semantic features 80–2
and semantic/pragmatic body 79, 82–3
structure 83–4
systematic layer of meaning 83–6
unsystematic layer of meaning 83
and subordinate compounds 93
endocentric subordinate 93–5
exocentric subordinate 95–7
and verbal compounds 100–3
lexical stratification 180–2
and compounding 199–200
Lexicalism:
and Aspects model 178–9
and Chomsky's ‘Remarks on Nominalization’ 179–80
and function of the lexicon 180
and lexical stratification 199–200
and lexicon-syntax divide 180, 182–3
attribution 192–5
coordination 193
independent modification 193–4
mismatches involving opacity 198
mismatches involving stress 196–7
pro-one 194–5
and meaning of term 178
and mismatches 196
involving semantic opacity 198
involving stress 196–7
and morphology 180
and origins of 179–80
and problem of English compounds 184–6
compound-phrase distinction 184–5
and structure and scope of the lexicon 180
lexical stratification 180–2
and syntax-lexicon continuum of attribution 186
ascriptive attribution 186–8
associative attribution 188–91
intersective attribution 191
subsective attribution 191–2
lexicalist approaches 70
and Asymmetry Theory 148
and compounds in the lexicon 70–2
and lexicalist compounding rules 72–3
lexicalization 236
and compounds 7
lexicon 70
and Aspects model 178–9
and composition of 107
and compounds 70–2, 110
and division from grammar 108
and function of 180
and introduction of 59
and lexicon-syntax divide 180, 182–3
attribution 192–5
coordination 193
independent modification 193–4
mismatches involving opacity 198
mismatches involving stress 196–7
pro-one 194–5
and meaningful constructions 107–8
and new compounds 108
and structure and scope of 180
lexical stratification 180–2, 199–200
and verb phrases (VPs) 107
and word-formation schemas in hierarchical lexicon 203–9
Libben, G, and processing of compound words 268
Lieber, R 357
and complex words 366
and compound structure 368
and phrasal compounds 364
and rewrite rules 75
and theory of representation 48
Linear Correspondence Axiom 151
linguistic sign model 227–8
linking elements:
and compounds 7, 13–14, 346
in Danish 405–7
in Dutch 372, 380–1
in English 369
in German 390–3
in Greek 454–5
in Polish 466–8, 474–5
in Russian 346
in Spanish 437
linking vowels (LVs) 153–4
literalness:
and compositionality 23, 28, 29–30
and idiomatic expressions 22–3
loan renditions, and word formation 226, 229, 230
loan translations, and word formation 226, 229, 230
location, as semantic feature 80
logical structure 65 n3
Loncon, E 599 n2, 605
McCawley, J D, and linguistic publications 67
MacLeod, C, and processing of compound words 263
Maipure, see Maipure-Yavitero
(p. 682) Maipure-Yavitero 584
and affixation 586–7
and branch languages 584–5
availability of grammatical outlines 585
classification of 585
and characteristics of 585
and characteristics of compounds 587–90
meaning 587
stress 587, 592
and deverbal compounds (exocentric) 589–90
and genitive compounds (endocentric) 588–9
and incipient compounding 592
and limited use of compounding 586, 593
and phrasal and clausal compounds 590–2
Makah 592, 593
Mandarin Chinese, see Chinese (Mandarin Chinese)
Maori:
and compounds 355
and linking elements 346
and order of elements 349
Mapudungun 594–5, 608
and adjectival compounds 606–7
and functional categories 607–8
and noun + noun compounding 598–601
affixes 601
headedness 598–600
head-non-head order 600
morpheme order 600–1
noun incorporation 600
and ordering principles in compounds 594
as polysynthetic language 594
and verb + noun compounding 595–8, 605–6
affixes 597–8
head-non-head order 597
noun incorporation 596–7
and verb + verb compounding 601–5
affixes 604–5
exocentric compounds 606
headedness 602–3
morpheme order 604–5
ordering principles 604
relationship between verbs 602
verb incorporation 603–4
and word order 594
Marantz, A 510 n14
Marchand, H 357
and classification of compounds 39, 43
and coining of new words 218
and complex words 365–6
and criticism of Lees 60–3
and definition of a compound 5, 325
and definition of words 326
and derivation 218
and linking elements 369
and stress 8
and word formation 4
Masson, M, and processing of compound words 263
materiality, as semantic feature 80
Matsumoto, Y 523
Mchombo, S, and phrasal compounds 364
meaning:
and action modality 119–20
and cocomposition 120–1, 124–5
and Conceptual Semantics 114–15
and construction of 269–70
and functions of compounds 123–4
and interpretation of compounds 25
ambiguity 116
multiple meanings 117
paraphrases 115–16
reversible compounds 122–3
structural principles 125–7
and profiling 117–19
meaning predictability, and novel context-free compounds 272–3, 279
and extralinguistic knowledge/experience 294–5
and onomasiological structure rules 287–9
and onomasiological theory of word formation 279–80
and onomasiological types 280–2
type 1 282–3
type 2 283–4
type 3 284–7
type 4 284
and predictability rate 290–1
objectified predictability rate 291–3
and predictability-boosting factors 296–7
and productivity 289–90
and prototypical features 293–4
and related theories 277–8
Costello and Kean's ‘constraints’ concept 277
Dokulil's concept of 273–5
Gagné, Shoben and Spalding's ‘competition’ concept 275–7
and single (rarely two) dominant meanings 296
and structural transparency 296
meaningful constructions 107–8
Meier-Brügger, M 331 n14, 333 n18
Mellenius, I, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 302, 304, 305, 306, 310
mental spaces, and cognitive linguistics 240–1
(p. 683) metacompounding:
and blends 488 n11
in Chinese 486–8
metaphor:
and cognitive linguistics 240
and compounds 245, 246
metaphorical compounds 27
metonymy:
and cognitive linguistics 240
and compounds 245–6
in Japanese 515–16
Michaelis, L A, and Construction Grammar 202
Middle English, and compounds 27
Miller, G A 285
Millikan, R, and proper function 120
Minimalist syntactic theory 130
Minkova, D 339
Mithun, M:
and lexical affixes in Native American languages 5
and noun incorporation 596
Mochica 592
modifier stranding 525
Modular Morphology model 526
Mohawk 564, 583
and absence of adjectives 572
and determiner phrases 570–2
and gender 568 n2
and idiomaticity 579
and Mohawk words 564
as cognitive units 569–70
nouns 565–7
particles 564–5
verbs 567–8, 570
word boundaries 569
and noun incorporation 568–70, 583
changes in meaning 578
idiomaticity 579
productivity 580–2
reference 582–3
semantic transparency 577–8
syntactic accounts 574–7
and noun-verb relationship 574–7
as polysynthetic language 564
and possession 566, 572–4
and productivity 580–2
and stress 569
and word + word compounds 566
Moro, A 149
morphemes:
and semantic representation of 79
semantic features 80–2
as symbolic units 234
Morpheme-to-Seme-Assignment principle 280, 281
morphological compositionality, and Asymmetry Theory 176–7
morphological phases, and Asymmetry Theory 165–8, 175
Morphological Race model 258
morphological workspace (Dm):
and Asymmetry Theory 148–9
derivation of compounds 162–5
and compounds 147
morphology:
and Aspects model 178–9
and Lexicalism 180
and morphological systems 324–5
and representation of complex words 258–60
as word grammar 204
Mosonyi, E E, and Baniva 585, 586, 591
Mosonyi, J C, and Yavitero 585, 586, 591
Mutual Exclusivity principle 131 n2
Nagy, W E, and processing of compound words 262–3
Nahuatl 353
Nash, D 611, 612, 614, 617, 619, 620, 621
Native American languages, and lexical affixes 5
natural language, and compounds 160–1, 177
Navajo 141
Neeleman, A 385
and Parallel Representation 526
neoclassical compounds 226, 230
and classification of compounds 47
and definition of a compound 326
in English 364
in German 399
Nerbonne, J 206
Network Morphology, and inheritance trees 206
Ngalakgan 612
Nicoladis, E, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 308–9
No Phrase Constraint 183
Noailly, M 429
nominal apposition 334
nominal compounds 332
and classes of 55
in Dutch 370–1, 373–5
in German 387–8
in Mohawk 566
in Polish 465–74
co-formatives 468
combining forms 472
coordinate compounds 473
copulative compounds 473
(p. 684) distinction from solid compounds 471–2
endocentric compounds 473
exocentric compounds 473–4
gender 468–9
headedness 473
linking elements 466–8
paradigmatic conversion of verbal roots 469–70
structural diversity 465–6, 470–1, 474
suffixes 468
syntactic types 470
in Slave 548–9
attributive compounds 559–60
‘composed of’ compounds 552–4
subordinate compounds 551–2, 554–8
and transformational account of compounding 55–7
in Warlpiri 610–15
body parts 611
compound-phrase distinction 611–12
endocentric compounds 612–13
entity attributes 610–11
headedness 614–15
suffixes 613–14
words for new things 615–16
Non-Redundancy Constraint 476
Nootka 592, 593
noun doubling 525
noun incorporation:
in Mapudungun 596–7, 600
in Mohawk 568–70, 583
changes in meaning 578
idiomaticity 579
productivity 580–2
reference 582–3
semantic transparency 577–8
syntactic accounts 574–7
nouns:
and ascriptive attribution 187
and associative attribution 190
and classification of 84–5
in Mohawk 565–7
noun-verb relationship 574–7
and noun classes/classifiers 84 n5
novelty, and coining compounds 108–9
Noyer, R 510 n14
NPN-transformation 55
Nuclear Stress Rule 162
Old English, and metaphorical compounds 27
Olsen, B A 339–40
Olsen, S 14, 334, 357
and classification of compounds 40, 42–3
and stress 9, 10
one-replacement, and Distributed Morphology 133–5
onomasiology and word formation 231–2
and Andreas B 224
compounding 225
overall model of 224
and compounding 231–2
and definition of a compound 218
and definition of approach of 217–18
and Horecký, J:
compounding 222
overall model of 221–2
and Grzega, J 227
compounding 229–30
linguistic sign model 227–8
overall model of 227–9
and meaning predictability 274, 279–80
and Dokulil, M 219
compounding 221
impact of work 219
onomasiological categories 219–20, 274 n2
overall model of 219–21
and onomasiological structure rules 287–9
and onomasiological types 280–2
type 1 282–3
type 2 283–4
type 3 284–7
type 4 284
and Pavol Š 222–3
compounding 224
overall model of 223
and Koch, P 225
compounding 226
overall model of 225–6
opacity, and mismatches 198
opaque compounds, and processing of compound words 264–5, 266, 268
Osgood, C E, and processing of compound words 263
Osthoff, H 336
Packard, J, and headedness in Chinese 483, 484, 485
Pama-Nyungan, see Warlpiri
Parallel Architecture 105–8
and Cognitive Grammar 107
and coindexation 118
and compounds 109–10
and Conceptual Semantics 114–15
and generative grammar 107
and interface components 107
and interface rules 106
and phonology 105–6
(p. 685) and protolanguage 113
and semantics 105, 106, 107
and sentence structure 107
and stored structures 108
and syntax 105, 106–7
Parallel Morphology 526
Parallel Representation 526
paraphrases, and compound analysis 115–16
parasynthetic compounds 53 n26
parataxis 112
Parene, see Maipure-Yavitero
particle verbs 215–16
in Hungarian 534–6, 538
particles, and Mohawk 564–5
Payne, D, and noun classification 84
Pennanen, E, and verbal compounds 6 n1
perception 176
Perdue, C, and Basic Variety (BV) 112
Perea, M, and processing of compound words 267
phase, and concept of 165, 166 n15
phonological criteria for compounds:
in other languages 11
and stress in English 8–11
phonological marking, and compounds 345–6
phonological representation (PF) 130, 131
phonology, and Parallel Architecture 105–6
phrasal compounds:
and classification of compounds 47
and Distributed Morphology 142–4
in English 363–4
in Japanese 518–19
argument inheritance from non-heads 520–1
possessive compounds 518, 519
Word Plus compounds 518, 519–20
in Maipure-Yavitero 590–2
phrasal names 198
phraseme 25
and categories of 25–6
phraseology 20
phrases:
and compound-like phrases 214–16
and compound-phrase distinction 184–5
Slave 546–7
Spanish 446–8, 451
pidgin languages 112
Plag, I 14, 248, 357
and compounding 243
and stress 9, 10–11
Plénat, M 428
plural markers, and compounds 13
Poeppel, D, and morphophonological decomposition 176
Pohl, D, and origins of compounds 330
Polish 464–5
and adjectival compounds 474–7
colour terms 477
context of 477
coordinate compounds 477
linking elements 474–5
structural range 477
suffixes 475–6
verbal heads 476–7
and headedness 464, 473
and nominal compounds 465–74
co-formatives 468
combining forms 472
coordinate compounds 473
copulative compounds 473
distinction from solid compounds 471–2
endocentric compounds 473
exocentric compounds 473–4
gender 468–9
headedness 473
linking elements 466–8
paradigmatic conversion of verbal roots 469–70
structural diversity 465–6, 470–1, 474
suffixes 468
syntactic types 470
and recursivity 477
and stress 467
Pollatsek, A, and processing of compound words 261
possession, in Mohawk 566, 572–4
possessive compounds 332, 351
in Japanese 518, 519
possible words 71
Postal, P M 520
post-syntactic compounding, in Japanese 524–5
predictability:
and compositionality 24, 30–1
and compounds as idiomatic expressions 30–2
and definition of 24
prefixed words 4
preparticle verbs 339
prepositional rectional compounds 332
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 338
preverbs, in Warlpiri 609–10, 618–21
primary (‘root’) compounds, see root compounds
processing, see word-processing
(p. 686) productivity:
in Chinese 478
and cognitive linguistics 235
and compounds 27, 235
in Danish 410
in Dutch 370, 375
and embedded productivity 212
and entrenchment 235
and er-nominalizations 235
in German 386
in Hungarian 528–9
in Japanese 512, 516
and meaning predictability 289–90
in Mohawk 580–2
and specificity 235
profiling, and compound meaning 117–19
promiscuity, and compounds 117
pro-one, and lexicon-syntax divide 193, 194
proper function 120
Proto-Indo-European 328, 330
protolanguage:
and Basic Variety (BV) 112, 114
and compounds as relic of 111–14
and generative grammar 113
and Parallel Architecture 113
as ‘scaffolding’ of modern language 112–13
prototypical features, and meaning predictability 293–4
Pseudo Noun Incorporation 525
pseudo-loans, and word formation 226, 229, 230
psycholinguistics and compounds 255
and increase in research 255
and processing of compound words 260, 266, 270–1
constituent frequency 261–2
frequency of related words 262–3
influence of semantics 266–7
integration 268–9
meaning construction 269–70
processing issues 267–8
recent exposure to related items 263–5
word family size 263
word frequency 261
and theoretical issues 256
decomposition 257–8
representation of complex words 256–7
representation of morphology 258–60
Pustejovsky, J:
and cocomposition 120
and qualia structures 83
and root compounds 50
qualia structures 83
‘R’ argument 81, 88
Radden, G, and categorization 238
Raimy, E, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 311
Rainer, F, and Spanish compounds 210, 441
Ralli, A 454, 455, 456, 460, 462
and compound-like phrases 215
recoverably deletable predicates (RDPs) 66–7
recursive phrase structure 59, 60
recursivity 350
in Dutch 371, 374
and endocentric compounds 205
in Greek 457
in Japanese 516
and language faculty 146, 177
in Polish 477
reduplicative compounds, in English 364–5
Reference Grammar 107
Refsing, K, and Ainu 344
Reichstein, A D, and idiomaticity 21
relation model 278
relative participle 334–5
Renouf, A, and verbal compounds 6 n1
representation:
and complex words 256–7
Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
decomposition 257–8
Morphological Race model 258
morphology 258–60
and processing of compound words 266
constituent frequency 261–2
frequency of related words 262–3
influence of semantics 266–7
integration 268–9
meaning construction 269–70
processing issues 267–8
psycholinguistic methods 260
recent exposure to related items 263–5
word family size 263
word frequency 261
Reuse, W J de 559
reversible compounds 88, 95, 122–3
rewrite rules 74–5
Right-hand Head Rule 203, 210
Ritter, E 506
Roach, P, and stress 8
Roelofs, A, and word-processing 259
Roeper, T 357
and lexical transformation 368
and synthetic compounds 382
and verbal compounds 75–6
Rohrer, C, and criticism of Lees 59
(p. 687) Romance languages:
and headedness 210–11
and linking vowels 153
and root compounds 36
and subordinate compounds 95
and synthetic compounds 36–7
root compounds:
and Anglo-Saxon linguistics 36
and Asymmetry Theory 168–70
and constructional idioms 211
and Distributed Morphology 139–40
in English 358–9, 367
in Hungarian 528–9
and Indo-European 329
and interpretation of 50
as language-specific term 37
roots:
and definition of 323, 325
and distinguishing from affixes 5–6
and origins of compounds 329–30
and primary compounds 329
Roots, and Distributed Morphology 130, 131–2, 144
argument selection 134
failure of incorporation 140–2
modificational synthetic compounds 137–9
one-replacement 133–5
phrasal compounds 143–4
primary (‘root’) compounds 139–40
synthetic compounds 135–7
Rosen, S T 525
Roudet, L 224
R-relation 50
rule-list fallacy 206–7
Russian:
and compounds 346
and linking elements 346
Ryder, M E 233
and creation and interpretation of compounds 249
and schemas 248–9
Saab, A 448–9
Salas, A 594, 603 n5
Sampson, R, and stress 10
Sandra, D:
and processing of compound words 264
and representation 259
Sanskrit:
and classification of compounds 36, 331–2
and internal inflection 347
Santen, A Van:
and linking elements 380–1
and test for compoundhood 384
Savini, M, and phrasal compounds 364
scalarity, as semantic feature 80
Scalise, S:
and classification of compounds 44–7, 87–9, 479
new proposal 49–52
selection in compounding 48–9
and headedness in Chinese 483, 484
and phrasal compounds 364
and V + N compounds 424
Schachter, P:
and criticism of Lees 59
and kernel sentences 58
schematization, and cognitive linguistics 235–6, 238–40, 248–9
Schindler, J 330, 331
and origins of compounds 329
Schmid, H —J:
and attribute-listing experiment 246–7
and blending theory 250, 251
and entrenchment 235
and modifier-head structure 247
Schwarze, C, and headedness in Italian 210–11
scope ambiguity 150
secondary compounds 329
second-language competence, and Basic Variety (BV) 112
self-compounding 388 n2
Selkirk, E O 51, 357
and plural markers 13
and verbal compounds 76
and X-bar theory 74–5
semantic functions 80–2
semantic transparency, and Mohawk 577–8
semantically interpretable object (LF) 130, 131
semantics:
and affixes 327–8
and German compounds 394–7
and interpreting novel compounds 110–11
and Parallel Architecture 105, 106, 107
and processing of compound words 266–7
semi-affix 208–9
sensorimotor system (SM) 175
and compounds 146
and F-tree hypothesis 153
sentences, and nature of 180
Shibatani, M:
and Ainu 344
and Modular Morphology model 526
and post-syntactic compounds 524
Shoben, E J, and ‘competition’ concept 275
Siddiqi, D A 132, 141 n10
(p. 688) Siegel, D, and lexical stratification 180
Siegel, M E A 357
and lexical transformation 368
and verbal compounds 75–6
Siloni, T 502, 506–7
Slave 542–3, 563
and attributive compounds 545, 559–60
and categories of compounds 548–51
nominal compounds 548–9
Noun + Postposition 549
Noun + Stem 549–50
Postposition + Noun 550
Postposition + Postposition 551
Postpositional phrase + Noun 550–1
and ‘composed of’ compounds 552–4
characteristics of 554
fricative voicing 553–4
and definition of a compound 542
compound-phrase distinction 546–7
non-free forms 543–6
problems with 543, 547–8
and fricative voicing 545 n3, 560–1
attributive compounds 560
‘composed of’ compounds 553–4
exceptions to generalizations about 562–3
subordinate compounds 557–8
and headedness 551
and subordinate compounds 545, 551–2, 554–8
characteristics of 558
complexity of 554
meanings 555–7
phonology 557–8
possessive constructions 558
postpositional constructions 558
suffixes 554–5
Slavic languages:
and compounding 465
and linking vowels 153
slot-filling model 278
Slovak:
and compound formation 5
and compounds 222
and recursivity 350
and spelling of compounds 7
Smeets, I 595, 599, 602, 603 n5, 605, 606, 607
Søgaard, A 404–5
solid compounds, in Polish 471–2
Sonomura, M O:
and compounds 26
and idiomaticity 25
Spalding, T L:
and ‘competition’ concept 276–7
and processing of compound words 269
Spanish 20, 436, 451–2
and anaphoric phenomena 448–50, 451
and compound-phrase distinction 446–8, 451
and compounds as words 445
and coordinate compounds 441
and endocentric compounds:
N + A compounds 444
N + N compounds 441
V + N compounds 439
and exocentric compounds 448–50, 451
N + A compounds 443–4
P + N compounds 440
V + N compounds 439
and headedness 210
and inflection 437
and linking elements 437
and stress 437
and subordinate compounds 441
and syntactic opacity 445–6, 448
and syntactic words 446–7
and syntactico-semantic view of compounds 444–5
and types of compounds 437–8
A + A compounds 442
endocentric/exocentric distinction 437–8
lexical/syntactic distinction 437
N + A / A + N compounds 443–4
N + de + N compounds 442–3
N + N compounds 440–1
P + N compounds 439–40
V + N compounds 438–9
spatial prepositions 85
specificity, and productivity 235
spelling, and compounds 7–8
Spencer, A 525
and classification of compounds 40, 41, 42, 43
and non-existence of compounds 14
and stress 8, 10 n6, 11
and verbal compounds 76–7
Spokan 5
Starosta, S, and headedness in Chinese 483
Stavrou, M, and compound-like phrases 215
Štekauer, P 357
and coining of new words 218 n2
and linking elements 14 n9
and onomasiological theory of word formation 222–3
compounding 224
overall model of 223
and stress 8
and verbal compounds 6 n1
stems:
and Bare Stem Constraint 457
and compound formation 5
and definition of 323
in Greek 456
stored structures 108
stress:
and ascriptive attribution 187–8
and associative attribution 189–90
and children's acquisition of compound constructions 311–12
and Compound Stress Rule 162–3
and compound structure 456
and compound-phrase distinction 184
and compounds 57, 345
as criteria for compounds 8–11
in Danish 402, 404
in Dutch 375, 379–80
in German 393–4
in Greek 454, 457
in Hebrew 492–3
in Maipure-Yavitero 587, 592
and mismatches 196–7
in Mohawk 569
and Nuclear Stress Rule 162
in Polish 467
and semantic criteria 9–11
in Spanish 437
and variations in 8
Structure Preservation Condition 181
subordinate compounds:
in Chinese 480–1
headedness 484
and classification of compounds 43, 45, 46–7, 48, 49, 50, 88
and definition of 45
in English 360–2
in French 430–1
in Greek 458
and lexical semantic analysis 93
endocentric subordinate 93–5
exocentric subordinate 95–7
in Slave 545, 551–2, 554–8
characteristics of 558
complexity 554
meanings 555–7
phonology 557–8
possessive constructions 558
postpositional constructions 558
suffixes 554–5
in Spanish 441
and synthetic compounds 88, 359
subordination 112
subsective attribution 191–2
suffixed words 4
suffixes:
in Mapudungun 600
in Polish 468, 475–6
and semantic features 82
in Slave, subordinate compounds 554–5
in Warlpiri 613–14
Sun, C 484
suppletion 131
Swedish, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 304, 305, 306
comprehension 308
lexico-semantic factors 310
Sweetser, E 253
symbolization:
and cognitive linguistics 234–6
and units of language system 234–5
synonymy blocking 182
syntactic atomicity 520
syntactic compounding, in Japanese:
post-syntactic compounding 524–5
verb incorporation 521–3
Verbal Noun (VN) incorporation 523
syntactic criteria for compounds 11–12
syntactic phrases:
and definition of a compound 5, 6, 7
and stress 8
syntactic words 446–7
syntactic workspace (Ds), and compounds 147
syntax:
and interpreting novel compounds 110–11
and lexicon-syntax divide 180, 182–3
and Parallel Architecture 105, 106–7
and syntax-lexicon continuum of attribution:
ascriptive attribution 186–8
associative attribution 188–91
intersective attribution 191
subsective attribution 191–2
synthetic compounds 36–7, 122, 353–4
and Bisetto and Scalise's classificatory framework 359
and Construction Grammar 212–14
and definition of a compound 326–7
and Distributed Morphology 135–7
modificational synthetic compounds 137–9
in Dutch 382–5
and embedded productivity 212–14
in English 358, 360–1
internal structure 367–8
and formation of 135
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 334–6
in German 397
in Greek 460–1
as language-specific term 37
and stress 9
(p. 690) and subordinate compounds 88, 359
and subsectiveness 192
Szymanek, B:
and spelling of compounds 7
and word formation 222 n7
Taft, M:
and representation of complex words 256–7
and representation of morphology 260
Tamashek 347
Tamil, and internal inflection 347
tatpuruša 331–2, 334, 336
Taylor, J R:
and blending theory 241
and compositionality 237
Telugu, and linking elements 346
thematic relations 278
Tigre 354
Tigrinya 354
Toman, J, and phrasal compounds 364
Tomasello, M, and language acquisition 207
topicalization 117
see also profiling
transformational approaches to compounding:
and compound structure 368
and development of 63
emergence of generative semantics 63–4
in Germany 67–70
and Lees 55
context of work 57–8
impact of work 57
initial criticism of work 58–60
Levi's revision of 65–7
main elements of treatment by 55–7
Marchand's criticism of 60–3
reviews of work 58
revised approach of 64–5
Transitivity Harmony Principle 522
transparent compounds, and processing of compound words 264–5, 266, 268
trinomials 26
Trommelen, M 374
and Dutch word formation 208
and stress in Dutch 380
Tuggy, D:
and analogy 236
and schematization 239–40
Turkana 355
Turkish 345
Turner, M, and blending theory 251
Udihe 354
Unaccusativity Hypothesis 137 n7
unexpressed arguments, and interpretation of compounds 127
Ungerer, F 218 n3
and attribute-listing experiment 246–7
and blending theory 250, 251
and modifier-head structure 247
and schematization 239
and word formation 253
univerbation:
and compounding in Indo-European 328–31
in French 418
universality, and compounding 344–5
Val Alvaro, J F:
and lexical compounds 437
and N + N compounds 441
Valera, S:
and linking elements 14 n9
and stress 8
and verbal compounds 6 n1
Vallès, T, and word formation patterns 207
Varela, S, and Spanish compounds 210, 441, 447
variability:
and compositionality 23, 28
and idiomatic expressions 21–2
‘Variable R’, and endocentric compounds 353
verb incorporation:
in Japanese 521–3
in Mapudungun 603–4
verb phrases (VPs), and productivity and lexical listing 109
Verb Raising 383
verbal compounds 5–6, 75–7, 332
and Asymmetry Theory 170–3
in Chinese 484
in Danish 412–15
in Dutch 377–8
in English 361
and genesis of Indo-European compounds 338–9
in German 388–9
in Japanese 521–3
argument relations 516–18
and lexical semantic analysis 100–3
verbal-nexus compounds 37 n5, 50–1
verbs:
in Mohawk 567–8, 570
noun-verb relationship 574–7
in Warlpiri:
complex verbs 620
creation of 616–18, 619–20
preverbs 609–10, 618–21
(p. 691) Verspoor, M:
and cline of transparency/analysability 244
and word formation 227 n12
Vietnamese, and order of elements 349
Villoing, F 428
Vogel, I, and children's acquisition of compound constructions 311
Wagner, S, and processing of compound words 268–9
Wakashan languages 592
Wälchli, B, and coordinative compounds 352, 515
Warlpiri 354, 621–2
and nominal compounds 610–15
body parts 611
compound-phrase distinction 611–12
endocentric compounds 612–13
entity attributes 610–11
headedness 614–15
suffixes 613–14
words for new things 615–16
and place-names 612
and preverbs 618–21
and verbs:
complex verbs 620
creation of 616–18, 619–20
and word-classes:
nominals 609
preverbs 609–10
Weldon, M S, and processing of compound words 263
Whorf, B L, and overt/covert categories 83 n4
Wiese, R, and coordination 193
Williams, E 423
and French compounds 425
and headedness 210
and syntactic word 446
Wisniewski, E J 278
Witsuwitʼen 544, 545, 546
Word and Paradigm approach 507
word families 205
and processing of compound words 262–3
word formation 201
and categories of 4
as construction 202
and endocentric compounds 201–2
and problematic nature of term 323–4
and word-formation schemas in hierarchical lexicon 203–9
Word Plus compounds, in Japanese 519–20
word recognition, and representation of complex words 256–7
Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
decomposition 257–8
Morphological Race model 258
morphology 258–60
word-forms, and definition of 324
word-processing:
and psycholinguistic approaches 260, 266, 270–1
constituent frequency 261–2
frequency of related words 262–3
influence of semantics 266–7
integration 268–9
meaning construction 269–70
processing issues 267–8
recent exposure to related items 263–5
word family size 263
word frequency 261
and representation of complex words 256–7
Augmented Addressed Morphology model 258
decomposition 257–8
Morphological Race model 258
morphology 258–60
words:
and definition of 326
problems with 345
and nature of 180
X-bar theory 74–5
XP (maximal phrase for arbitrary category), and phrasal compounds 143–4
Yaruro 586
Yavitero, see Maipure-Yavitero
Yimas, and internal inXection 346–7
Yupʼik 5
Zamponi, R, and Maipure 585
Zimmer, K E 277, 576
Zwitserlood, P:
and processing of compound words 261, 264–5