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date: 20 August 2019

(p. 631) Index

(p. 631) Index

Abelshauser, Werner 464–5
abortion 416
Adenauer, Konrad 626
agriculture see rural society
Albania, Civil War 548
Aldcroft, D.H. 199
Algiers, proposed landings 577
All Quiet on the Western Front 618
America see United States
Amery, Leo 447
Anarchism see political Left
anarcho-syndicalist socialist movements 82
Anderson, M.S. 35
Angell, Norman 35, 119, 123
Anglo-French non-intervention policy 213
Anglo-Russian Entente (1907) 36
Anschluss 207
anti-colonialism 223, 229
and Second World War 576–82
Anti-Comintern Pact (1937) 480
anti-Semitism 143, 401–2
Bulgaria 490
and collaboration 532–3
in France 265–6, 269, 489
Hungary 310, 314, 401, 491
Italy 490
Nazi Germany 218, 401, 485, 522–6
Romania 490
anticlericalism 402–3
Arab Revolt 151
Arendt, Hannah 345
Armenians
deportation/genocide of 54, 148, 373
resistance among 151, 152
Atlantic Charter 337, 423, 435
Attlee, Clement 584
Auden, W.H. 207
Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane 64
Austria
Civil War (1934) 3, 391
Communist Party 295
living standards 53
and Nazism 621–2
social welfare legislation 32
Socialism 290
Austro-Hungary
economic disorganization 105
motivating troops 168
autarchy 11
authoritarian coups 287
authoritarian government 2, 4, 5, 13, 45–6, 93
Auxiliary Service Law (1916) 50, 85
AVNOJ 568–9
Axis powers, Second World War 480–92
Baghdad Railway 36
Balance of Power 119, 125
Balfour, Arthur 123, 126, 127
Balfour Declaration 143, 524
Balkan Wars (1912-13) 3, 23, 37, 141–2, 368, 373, 557
Balkans, militias post-Second World War 600
Bank of International Settlement (Basel) 175
Battle of Maiwand 615
Battle of Neretva 537
Battle of Omdurman 226
Bauman, Zygmunt 346
Bavaria, revolution (1918) 4, 77
BBC, world affairs coverage 219
Becker, Annette 64
Belarus, food rationing data 503
Belgium
collaboration 619
colonial migration 232–4
colonization 226, 228, 229, 230–2, 236
First World War civilian refugees 52, 146
(p. 632)
imperial policies (1945) 582
political system 25
Socialism 289
Ten Year Plan 231–2
Bell, Philip 215
belle époque era (1900-14) 1–2, 9, 23–39, 370
Ben-Ghiat, Ruth 620
Beneš, Edvard 172
Benjamin, Walter 219
Berchtold, Count 39
Berend, Ivan 196
Berkhoff, Karel 502
Berlin, Isaiah 323
Bessel, Richard 79, 604, 617
Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von 164
Beveridge Plan 338
Beveridge, William 323, 337
biopolitics 376–7, 381, 525
Bismarck, Otto von 10, 25, 27, 29, 31, 325
black market 66–7, 504, 595, 598
Blinkhorn, Martin 303, 304, 306
Blum, Jerome 243
Blum, Léon 215
Blum, M. 106
Bobbitt, Philip 215
Bolsheviks see Russia, Revolution
Bonnet, Georges 212
Bonny, Pierre 598
Bosnian Crisis 23, 37
Bourke, Joanna 617
Bowman, Isaiah 130
Boyce, Robert 130
Brasillach, Robert 308
Brecht, Bertolt 220
Bretton Woods 436, 585
Briand, Aristide 10, 129, 271, 440, 445, 447
Britain
army recruit malnourishment 334
belle époque era 23
class conflict and democracy 264
colonial economies 269
colonial migration 232–4
colonial troops 143, 233–4, 580
colonial workforces 140, 233–4
colonialism 225, 226, 228, 234, 237, 367, 576–89
Communist Party 294
conscription 6
consumerism 13
decolonization post-Second World War 576–89
democracy and empire 268
education system 337
empire and global trading, post-Second World War 585–8
First World War labour strikes 330
First World War social dissent 371
foreign affairs/policy interwar period 119, 219
GDP data (1928-37) 193–5, 194
General Strike (1926) 331
and global trading system, post-Second World War 585–8
gold standard 269
in Great Depression 13, 193–200, 201, 269–70
economic data see Great Depression
health insurance 331
home front nationalism 372
imperial policies (1945) 582
income tax 26–7
Indian labour reserve 233–4
industrial legislation 26
interwar democracy 266–9
interwar economy 269
interwar military build-up 465–7
Irish army recruits 143
Irish home rule 150
Keynesian influence 466
khaki election 160
Labour party 287
and League of Nations 265
Lib-Labism 81
living standards 53
marriage patterns 72
memories of Second World War 619–26
National Assistance 338
national challenges in empire 140
National Health Service 337
National Insurance 337
nationalism 368, 369, 371, 372
and war 374–6
nationalist demonstrations 142
(p. 633)
naval conferences 427
old age pensions 26
pacifism 270
parliamentary candidate coupon system 263–4
Peace Society 34
political system 12–13, 24
political violence 395
post-war Malaya 587
public housing 331
relations with Switzerland during Second World War 469–71
Second World War industrial production 466
Second World War mobilization 464–7
Second World War resource mobilization 463
social policies 328
social reform legislation 26
social unrest pre-First World War 370
social welfare 337–8
Socialism 287, 289
state nationalization 85
state power in wartime 5–6
taxation 26–7
trade unions 85, 92
voting rights 266
welfare legislation 335
working-class movements 81, 267
working-class radicalism 90
Brittain, Vera 270
Brown, Judith 580
brutalization thesis 55, 80
BUF (British Union of Fascists) 395, 447
Bukharin, Nikolai 367
Bulgaria
Communist Party 294
revolution (1923) 4, 78
Butler, Rohan 207
Cabalzar, Ferruccio Guido 313–14
Callahan, Michael D. 274
capitalist globalization, and nationalism 367
capitalist restructuring 11
Capoccia, Giovanni 264, 275, 276
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 35
Castel, Robert 327
Catholic Church, Church-State relations 25–6
Cecil, Robert 123, 124, 125
censorship 42, 45, 46, 48, 49
CGIL (General Confederation of Labour) 85
Chamberlain, Austen 309
Chamberlain, Neville 210, 217
Church-State relations 25–6
Churchill, Winston
on America 437
on British national values 208
and Communists 550
and de Gaulle 209
on European integration 451
on Franco-German reconciliation 452
and Mussolini 171, 309
and romantic integration 440
civil war 391–3, 537–52
identities roles 545–9
outcomes 550–1
and post-war economic recovery 551
in southern Mediterranean 538–40
see also individual countries
civilian internment, First World War 54
civilian life
First World War see First World War
Second World War 497–513
air raids 498
atrocities against civilians 499
black markets 504
children 509
civilian population deaths 513
civilian work 506–7
collaboration 498, 510
compromises 510–11
curfews 508, 511
family life 509–11
famine 504–6, 512
food supply 500–1
fraternization 408, 419–21, 498, 510–11
lack of essentials 507
mutual support networks 509–10
peasants 501–2
public transport 508–9
queuing 507
(p. 634)
refugees 509–10
resistance/retribution 511–12
territorial differences 497
terror 511–12
under oppressive occupation 499, 508–9
urban population 502–4
urban space 508–9
see also women
civility, and revolution 79–80
Clark, Christopher 39
class conflict, and democracy 264
Clavin, Patricia 273
Clemenceau, Georges 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 131, 162
Codreanu, Corneliu Zelea 308, 309, 312
Cohrs, Patrick 130
Cold War 3, 78, 552, 584
collaboration 498, 510, 532–3, 538, 547, 550, 551, 576, 619, 621, 622
collectivization 3, 163, 251–2, 254–5, 297, 348, 379, 502
colonial cultural/ideology changes 234–7
colonial education 231
colonial humanism 228
colonial migration 232–4, 235
colonial violence, post-war 583–9
colonial webs 234–7
colonialism
decolonization, post-Second World War 576
and League of Nations 274
see also individual countries
Combes, Émile 26
Combined Repatriation Executive 562
Committee of Union and Progress 142
communism
popular fronts 366
rural France 254–5
spread of, post-Second World War 437–8
communist colonial activity, post-First World War 234
Communist Internationals 35, 77, 81, 82, 84, 89, 90, 294–5, 370
Communist Parties 92, 269, 294–7, 381, 398, 550, 587, 598, 603
democratic activities 603
Communist resistance see resistance
Communist states, collapse of 595
compulsion, nature of in modern states 343
Concert of Europe 123
Concert of Vienna 272
conference diplomacy 217
Congress of Europe 451
Connelly, Matthew 589
conscription 6, 42, 46, 49–50, 55, 246
consensus dictatorship 359
consumerism 13
Continental wars, length of 34
Continuation War 472, 473
contraception 410, 412, 413
Coolidge, Calvin 427
Cooper, Duff 447
Cooper, Frederick 235, 583
Corner, Paul 288
corporatism 85, 86, 109–10
Costigliola, Frank 427
Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard 440, 445–6, 447
Council of Europe Consultative Assembly 453
Council of Five 128
Council of Four 126, 128
Council of Ten 126
The Course of German History 207
Court of Arbitration (Hague) 35
Covenant of the League of Nations see League of Nations
Cox, M. 108
Credit-Anstalt Bank collapse 195
Creel, George 426
criminals, in wartime 597–8, 599
crisis of modernity 15
Crisis of the Population Question 335
Croatia
fascism 315
and paramilitarization 594, 596–602
Ustasa regime 315
Croce, Benedetto 622
Cuban War (1898) see Spanish-American War (1898)
cultural violence 401–2
(p. 635) Curzon, George 132
Czechoslovak-Hungarian treaty of friendship 568
Czechoslovakia
Communist Party 294
fascism in 270–1
and Germany 172–3, 207, 215
Hungarian minority groups 560–1
interwar democracy 266–8
interwar period 207
and League of Nations 272
National Democrats 270
nationalism 373
population movement patterns 566–70
presidential election 264
Socialism 288
Dada movement 228
Daladier, Édouard 269
D’Annunzio, Gabriele 169
Dark Continent 8–9, 11
Darwin, John 224, 237
Davis, Belinda 67
Dawes Plan 131, 192–3
D’Azeglio, Massimo 366
De Felice, Renzo 213
de Gaulle, Charles 209, 577, 584, 599
decolonization, post-Second World War 576
Decree on Peace 375
Defence of the Realm Act 71
Delavignette, Robert 228
democracy
and dictatorships 217
and empire 268
in interwar Europe 261–76
democratic governance, post-First World War 110
democratization of death 615
demographic re-engineering 142
Denmark
collaboration 532–3
Communist Party 294, 598
homosexuality 416
nationalism 368
deparamilitarization 606
Deportation and Settlement Law 147
Diagne, Blaise 613
dictatorships 2, 4, 8, 13, 175, 263, 309, 343–59
and democracies 217, 263
Dimitrijevich, Dragutin 37–8
diplomacy, military measures in 37
Directorate of Tribes 146
disarmament, post-First World War 129
displaced persons, First World War 146–7
Dobry, Michel 318
Dollfuss, Engelbert 311, 312, 313, 392
domestic hierarchies 80–4
Dorgères, Henry 256–7
Doriot, Jacques 270
Dreyfus Affair 23, 26, 28, 215
Durkheim, Émile 325
Easter Rising 143, 149–50
Eastern Europe
ethnic cleansing post-First World War 175
ethnic diversity 173
famine 174
political instability 174
political systems post-First World War 172–4
Ebert, Friedrich 78, 109, 371
Eckes, Alfred E. 425, 431
The Economic Consequences of the Peace 23–4, 129–30
economic democracy 287
economic integration federalists 444
economic integration functionalists 444
economic integration initiatives 444
Eden, Anthony 208, 211, 437
education budgets 27
Eichengreen, B.J. 195, 198, 199
Eichmann, Adolf 623
Eldredge, Niles 542
Eley, Geoff 284, 286, 370, 371
emigration, to colonies 232–4
Empire Shopping Weeks 269
empires/colonies 223–37
Engels, Friedrich 35, 82
Enloe, Cynthia 72
entente cordiale (1904) 36
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta 325
ethnic complications, post-First World War Europe 126
ethnic democracy 265
(p. 636) ethnic hierarchies 80–4
ethnic rationalization 8
eugenics 11, 334, 335–6, 410, 416, 417, 485
Europe
as historical subject 10–12
national boundaries/sovereignty post-First World War 126–9
European civil war, concept of 388–403
European colonialism 223–37
European Convention on Human Rights 444, 449
European decolonization, post-Second World War 576–89
European integration 440–54
nation-state as socio-political entity 450
national sovereignty 451
and nationalism 445–6
as romantic project 444–7
Evans, Richard, J. 217
Exposition Coloniale Internationale (1931) 223, 229
Exposition Universelle (1900) 328
Ezhov, Nikolai 348
facade democracy 262
Factory Acts 26
Fallen Soldiers 79
famine, Second World War 504–6
fascism see political Right
Fatherland Party 45
February Revolution see Russia, Revolution (1917)
Federal Reserve System 182
Feinstein, C.H. 111
female see women
Ferdinand, Archduke Franz, assassination of 37–8
Ferguson, Niall 37, 38, 224
fin-de-siecle internationalism 441–3
Final Solution see Holocaust
Fink, Carole 271
Finland
Civil War (1918) 3, 90, 214, 390, 393
democracy 173
as German ally in Second World War 468, 471–5
interwar economy 472–3, 474
mobilization 473
and Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939) 473, 474
neutrality of 472
revolution 90
war costs 474
Finlay, Ronald 112
First World War
agricultural underproduction 62
Archduke Ferdinand assassination 37–8
Armistice talks 164
beginnings of 37–9
black market 66–7
British state power 5–6
child mortality 50
children’s war work 63
civilians 47–52, 52–3
deportations 54
internment 54
refugees 52
and community changes 61–73
consciousness change 371
conscription 6, 42, 46, 49–50, 55
consumer prices 330
corporatism 85, 86, 109–10
cost to Europe 423
demobilization 68, 72, 111, 164
demographic changes following 13
disarmament 129
displaced persons 146–7
economic consequences of 108–12
post-war 160–1
economic disorganization 105
economics of 97–112
educational disruption 63
effect of 1
end of 121
environmental destruction 248
ethnic/cultural identity changes 65
food crises 106
forced deportations 147–9
forced migrations 557
gender roles 61–73
genocide 54
and Great Depression 112
height and nutrition 106–8
home front nationalism 372
(p. 637)
home/front connections 41, 47–52
impact on countryside 246–9
impact on empires 375
impact on families 61–73
imperial/colonial loyalty 142–5
imperial/colonial troops 142–5
imperial/colonial workforces 65
industrial policy 328–9
industrialization of warfare 462
infant mortality rate 107–8
inflation 330
inter-allied debts 130–1
jingoism, pre-war 369, 370
labour shortages 62
labour strikes 330
labour unrest 67–8, 85
legacy of 55–6
literature on 613–18
living standards 53
memories of 613–18
migrants 138–9
minorities in 142–6
minority resistance 149–54
mobilization for 6, 42, 98–104, 142–5, 374
see also conscription
mortality rates 3, 50, 52–5, 68–9, 329
and nationalism 365, 368, 371–2
patriotic consensus (1914-16) 371–3
post-war events see post-First World War
post-war tour guides 615
postal communications 48
prisoner of war killings 54
public exhibitions 47–8
public health effects 63–4
public war effort 42–5
rationing 101–3, 109
re-mobilization 45
reconstruction period economics 97–112
refugees 52, 138–9, 146
religion in communities 64–5
resources by nation 104–9
Russian POW repatriation 273
shortages 66–7, 329
social dissent 371
social/political divisions 84
trade unions 85
venereal disease 70–1
Versailles peace treaty see Paris Peace Conference
violence levels in 41, 52–5
voluntary organizations 372
war graves 615
wartime prostitution 70
welfare aid agencies 67
women in war zones 70–1
women’s wartime employment 62–3, 67–8, 70
workforce de-skilling 84–5
Fischer, Conan 10
Fischer, Fritz 37, 38
Fitzpatrick, Sheila 7, 11
Five Particulars speech 120
Fordism 329, 428
foreign trade, interwar period 112
Foucault, Michel 345
Four Ends speech 120
Four Freedoms 423, 435
Four Principles speech 120
Fourteen Points (Wilson) 120, 122, 149, 162, 164, 262, 271, 375, 423, 425
fragmentation 389
France
Algiers, proposed landings 577
anti-Semitism 265–6, 269
Basque army recruits 143
belle époque era 23
Church-State relations 25–6
collaboration 551, 600
colonialism 226, 227, 228, 231, 235, 367, 577–8, 583–4
Communist Party 294, 295–7, 381, 603
contraception 412
culpability for Second World War 211
demobilization 111
democracy and empire 268
European integration 446–7
First World War social dissent 371
home front nationalism 372
homosexuality 413
ideological extremes 270
imperial policies (1945) 582
imperial/colonial workforces 140
income tax 26–7
interwar democracy 266–9
(p. 638)
and League of Nations 271–2
living standards 53
Maginot mentality 270
national challenges in empire 140
National Socialism 270
nationalism 367, 368, 369, 372
and war 374–6
nationalist demonstrations 142
pacifism 270
paramilitarization 594, 596–602
Paris Uprising (1944) 599
political divisions 1930s 285
political system 13, 25
political violence 399
Popular Front 214–15
post-First World War debt 163
post-Nazi occupation 599–600
Resistance 381, 600
rural communism 254–5
rural politics 254
Second World War resource mobilization 463
sexual issues 412
social reform legislation 26
social violence 269
South-East Asia, post-war 587–8
utopian socialism 34
weapons obsolescence 462
working-class movements 81
working-class radicalism 90
France and the Origins of the Second World War 211
Franco, Francisco 215, 394, 446
Freud, Sigmund 34, 407
Friedländer, Saul 2, 8
Fritzsche, Peter 6, 371
Furet, François 284
Fussell, Paul 614, 616, 618
Galton, Francis 334
Gandhi, Mahatma 580, 586
Gas Shell Bombardment 41, 47
Gay, Peter 370
Gellner, Ernest 367
General Theory of Money, Interest and Employment 333
Geneva Conventions 54
Genoa Conference (1922) 133
genocide
China 520
First World War 54–5
Nazi Germany see Holocaust; Nazis
and paramilitaries 597
Soviet Union 520
geopolitical hierarchies 80–4
Germany
acknowledgement of past 625
American companies in 433
anti-fascist resistance 624
anti-Semitism as state doctrine 218
Armistice talks 164
atrocities during First World War 53
authoritarian image 163
as autocratic 29
Axis imperialism, Second World War 480–92
belle époque era 23
big business and Hitler 216–17, 220
charismatic leadership 15
Christian democracy 338
Church-State relations 25–6
civil disorder post-Second World War 600–1
civil war 393
colonialism/imperialism 225–6, 367, 483–5, 486, 525–6
and Nazis/Holocaust 236–7
Communist activity post-Second World War 602–5
Communist Party 294, 295
culpability for First World War 623
culpability for Second World War 207–12, 215, 216
and Czechoslovakia 172–3
deflationary policies 193
demobilization First World War 164
economic disorganization 105
economy in First World War 100–2
education system 32
elections (1928) 167
fascist radicalization 310–13
and Finland, in Second World War 468, 471–5
(p. 639)
First World War social dissent 371
food supply 101–3, 329, 501
and France 175
Germans as victims 625–6
Gestapo image 350–1
and Great Depression 192–200, 464
economic data see Great Depression
Hitler see Hitler
Holocaust see Holocaust
home front nationalism 372
housing stock in First World War 104
hyperinflation 110–11
industrialization of 30–1, 100
inflation 330
and interwar fascist colonialism 488
juvenile criminality 595–6
Keynesian influence 466
labour demographics 100
living standards 53
marriage loan programme 464–5, 528
mass expulsion of Germans post-Second World War 382
memories of Second World War 619–26
militarism of 29–30
military spending, interwar 462, 464–7
mobilization in First World War 100–4
mobilization in Second World War 217, 464–7
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939) 380, 473, 474, 491, 624
nationalism 367, 368, 369, 370, 372, 376–7
and war 374–6
nationalist demonstrations 142
Nazis see Nazis
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials 207, 453, 519, 619
Operation Barbarossa 472, 473, 474, 529–31
paramilitarization 594, 596–602
and Paris Peace Conference see Paris Peace Conference
peasant fascism 255–7
political system 12, 24, 25, 29–30, 92–3, 163–5
political violence 395–7, 399
population engineering 335
population movement patterns 563–70
post-First World War 131–3, 160–1
militarism 166–8
post-war occupation 600–1, 604
presidential election 264
rationing in First World War 101–3, 109
rationing in Second World War 466–7, 502
Reichsbanner 55, 167
relations with Switzerland during Second World War 469–71
reparations post-First World War 130–1, 160–1, 163–6
resources in First World War 104–9
revolution 78–9, 89
SA paramilitaries 168, 219, 397
Schlieffen Plan 29, 38
Second World War 480–92
civilian work 506–7
conquests 486–7, 529–31
defeat 491–2
industrial production 466
military reverses 490
mobilization 217, 464–7
refusal to surrender 491–2
resource mobilization 463
Second World War civilian population loss 513
social insurance 327
social partnership 93
social unrest pre-First World War 370
social welfare legislation 31–2, 338
Socialism 287
SS paramilitaries 219
Stahlhelm 167
state-society relations 6–7
surveillance 345–6, 349–52
Versailles peace treaty see Paris Peace Conference
violence interwar 343
wages in First World War 100, 330
war and national regeneration 356
Gerwarth, Robert 13, 80, 395
Geyer, Michael 11–12, 79, 618
Gibbs, Philip 391
Gioia, Maria 73
Giraud, Henri 209
Gläser, Ernst 66
(p. 640) global trade, and war 112
gold standard 196, 198, 199, 201, 202, 269, 425, 427
Goldschmidt, Richard 335
Golson, Ed 468, 469
Gömbös, Gyula 310–11, 314–15
Göring, Hermann 217
Goscha, Chris 589
Gould, Stephen J. 542
Government of India Act (1935) 226
Gramophone Company 41, 42, 47
Graves, Robert 219
Gray, Colin 578
Grazia, Victoria de 429
Great Depression
American recovery from 433–6
average tariff level by country (1929-30) 183–5
and Axis empires 480
balance of payments data by country (1920-37) 187–91
Britain in 13, 193–200, 201, 269–70
British GDP data (1928-37) 193–5
capital mobility, international 197
and colonial disinvestment 230
and colonial resources 230
and democracy 261–2
depression phase (1929-32) 192–5
and development 229–32
economic development data by country (1929-30) 183–5
effects of 2, 9–10, 12, 171
in Europe 179–202
exchange rates 196, 197
expansionary fiscal policy 197
and First World War 112
food prices data (1929-30) 181
food production data (1929-30) 180
France 171
German GDP data (1928-37) 193–5
global influences 192
gold standard 196, 198, 199, 201, 202
illiteracy data by country 183–5
industrial production data (1929-30) 180
key indicators 183–5
Kindleberger thesis 195, 198–9, 201
macroeconomic data/trends 187–91
manufactures prices data (1929-30) 181
monetary policy independence 197
Nazi Party, rise of see Nazis
and paramilitarization 594, 596–602
political development data by country (1929-30) 183–5
populism 270
price indices data by country (1920-37) 187–91
raw materials prices data (1929-30) 181
raw materials production data (1929-30) 181
real GDP
data by country (1920-37) 183–5, 187–91, 196, 200–1
per capita data by country (1929-30) 183–5
recovery phase (1932-37) 196–200
and Second World War 216–17
social legislation 332–3
and Soviet Union 182
state fragility index 182–5
technocracy 270
trade openness ratio by country 183–5
trade/tariff barriers 192, 198, 200
unemployment 200, 269–70, 333
data by country (1920-37) 187–91
in United States 182
Wall Street Crash (1929) 192
working population distribution data by country (1929-30) 183–5
world production data (1929-30) 180, 181
world trade data (1929-30) 180
The Great Dictator 213
The Great Illusion 35, 123
The Great Inter-war Crisis 130
Great Patriotic War (Soviet Union) see Second World War
great powers, post-Second World War 594
Great War see First World War
Greater Danger Principle 378, 379
Greece
anti-Communist activity 604
Civil War (1943-9) 3, 388, 538, 539, 540–3, 549, 550–1
collaboration 622
(p. 641)
Communist Party 294
fascism in 316–17
revolution (1936) 4
Greek-Turkish population transfer agreement (1923) 557
Greek-Turkish War (1919-22) 3, 55, 225
Gregory, Adrian 372
Grenadou, Ephraïm 249
Grey, Edward 123–4, 271
Griffin, Roger 302
Guesde, Jules 371
Guilty Men 208
Gurvitch, Georges 323
Habsburg Empire 23, 30, 46, 140, 141, 144, 145, 373
Hague, imperial policies (1945) 582
Hague Congress of Europe 451
Hague Conventions 54, 123, 370, 441, 453
Hague Court of Arbitration 35, 123
Hague Peace Palace 442
Hague Permanent Court of International Justice 175
Hale, Oron J. 27
Harding, Warren 129, 427
Harper, John 437
Hart, Peter 150
Hashimite rebellion 151
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) 36
Heidegger, Martin 432–3
height, and nutrition 106–8
Hélias, Pierre Jakez 248
Hemingway, Ernest 213
Henderson, Arthur 371
Henlein, Konrad 270–1
Henriksen, Thomas 228
Herf, Jeffrey 621, 626
Hervé, Gustav 35
Herzen, Alexander 28
Heydrich, Reinhard 338
Hilferding, Rudolf 36, 328
Himka, Jean-Paul 602
Himmler, Heinrich 488, 525, 527
Hindenberg Programme 100
Hindenburg, Paul von 165–6
Hinsley, Harry 123
historical consciousness 6
Hitler, Adolf
anti-Semitism of 524–5
as Chancellor 310
culpability for Second World War 207–12, 215, 216
death of 9
doctrine of conflict 218
European integration 447
and German big business 216–17, 220
and international cooperation 217
and international Jewry 218
nationalism 376
nationalist policy 377–9
opportunism of 209
policy models 378
post-First World War blame 165
racism 366, 376
rise of 9, 10, 12, 307–8, 310
and Roosevelt 218
self-determination 376
and Stalin 377–9
as war planner 209–10
Hobsbawm, Eric 1, 8, 13, 365, 368, 389
Hobson, J.A. 36, 119
Hobson-Lenin thesis 37
Hodge, Alan 219
Hohner 42–3
Hollywood 428
Holocaust 518–34
and anti-Semitic ideology 485, 522–6
and Cold War 622
and collaboration 532–3
concentration/death camps 414, 415, 417–18, 485, 489, 520, 595
contexts for 520
deaths during 2, 3
and general crisis 15
and German democracy 527–9
and German economic/social crisis 521–2
and German imperialism 236–7, 529–31
Jewish Question 314
Kristallnacht 522, 528, 533
memories of 624
migration from 533
(p. 642)
and non-Jewish genocide 417
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials 207, 453, 519, 619
and paramilitaries 597
as policy 519
policy/implementation of 7–8
and war conditions 529–31
see also Nazis
Holquist, Peter 79
“home front” expression 49
Home Rule Act 150
home/front connections 41, 47–52
homosexuality 407, 410–11, 412, 413, 414–16
Hoover, Herbert 429
Horne, John 390, 395
Horthy, Miklós 305–6, 312, 394, 490
House, Edward 121
Howard, Esme 122
Hull, Cordell 430
Hull, Isabel 271
human rights 440–54
civilization rhetoric 449–50
Congress of Europe 451–2
and European Communities 454
European Convention on Human Rights 444, 449
and Holocaust 448
romantic roots in 1940s 447–54
and Second World War 450
United States Bill of Rights 448
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 441, 448, 449
Hungarian-Romanian War (1918-20) 3
Hungarian-Slovak relations 560
Hungary
anti-Semitism 315, 490, 534
Arrow Cross 490
civil war 393–4
collaboration 532–3
ethnic groups 560
fascism in 310–11
nationalism 367
and religion 394
and paramilitarization 594, 596–602
population movement patterns 566–70
revolution (1918-19) 4, 77, 91, 305–6
social policy 332
Husayn, Sharif 151
illiberal democracy 261
ILO (International Labour Organization) 330, 336, 337
Imperial Conference 125
imperial militarism 369
imperial/colonial troops, First World War 142–5
imperial/colonial workforces
First World War 65
pre-First World War 140
Imperialism 36
Imperialism and the World Economy 367
inclusive democracy 262
income tax 26–7
India
British troops in 233
famine 585–6
independence 226, 580
as labour reserve 233–4
Indian National Congress 580
Indonesia, post-war 588
industrial conscription 49–50
industrialization, of warfare 462
infant mortality rate, First World War 107–8
influenza pandemic (1919) 174
Inglot, Tomasz 338
inopportune bloodshed 5
interclass coalitions 81–2
interdependence (Marx) 424
International Association for the Legal Protection of Workers 328
international hierarchies 80–4
International Labour Organization 175
international law 441–3
international patron-client relationships 602
International Peace Congresses 34
Amsterdam (1904) 35
Copenhagen (1910) 36
Paris (1900) 35
Stuttgart (1907) 35
internationalization, of local conflicts, post-Second World War 602–5
Internationals see Communist Internationals
(p. 643) interwar period
1920s and liberalism 263–6
1930s and democratic survival 269–71
American recovery in 433–6
border conflict 165
colonial conditions 234
colonial migration 232–4
Communist colonial activity 234
conflicts 232–4
constitutional republics 389
counter-revolutionaries 389
crises 223–37
cultural crisis 227–9
cultural ideology changes 234–7
democracy 171–2
in Europe 261–76
democratic erosion 389
dictatorships 343–59
economic weakness 229–30
effects/conditions 68, 72, 109–12, 175
empires/colonies 223–37
ethnic tensions 561–2
gender-role boundaries 400
Great Depression see Great Depression
health/welfare 410
militarism 166–8
military spending 462, 465–7
military/political violence distinction 390
minority resistance 149–54
national minorities integration 265
naval conferences 427
origins of Second World War 207–20, see also Second World War
paramilitarism 389
political Left in 282–98
political polarization 389
political Right in 301–18
political violence 388–403, 389
population policy 333–6
post-First World War effects see post-First World War
reconstruction 160–75
reparations 130–1, 160–1, 163–6
riots 214
settlement 129–30, 174–5
sexual issues 409
state violence 343–59
state-sponsored violence 388
trade deficits 110
intimacy of violence 5
Ireland
Civil War (1922-3) 3, 214, 390, 392–4
Communist Party 294
Easter Rising 143, 149–50
industrialization and religious tension 140
military service in First World War 143
Irish Question 23
Irish Republican Army 150
Irish War of Independence 150
Iron Guard 308, 312
Iron Man landmark 43
Irwin, D.A. 198
Isherwood, Christopher 615
Italo-Ethiopian War 207, 213, 225, 356, 482, 625
Italy
annexation of Rome 168
atrocity denial reversal 625
Axis imperialism, Second World War 480–92
belle époque era 23
Christian democracy 338
Church-State relations 25–6
Civil War (1943-45) 538, 540, 541, 542–3, 544, 547, 548–9, 550–1
colonialism/imperialism 168, 207, 213, 225, 227, 228, 355–6, 481–2, 486, 583
Communist Party 294, 381, 398, 603
consumerist modernity 432
contraception 412
criminal gangs 599
culpability for Second World War 213
dependence on Germany 482, 486
European integration 446
Fascism in 13, 93, 168–71, 301–10, 353–5
Fascist Italy and United States 431–2
fascist radicalization 310–13
in First World War 168–9, 481
homosexuality 412
interwar violence 343
March on Rome 306, 353
nationalism 366, 374, 376–7, 561
and war 374–6
paramilitarization 594, 596–602
(p. 644)
and Paris Peace Conference 481
peasant fascism 255–7
political system 93, 169–70
political violence 395–7
population engineering 335
population in Yugoslavia 569
post-First World War social unrest 169–70
post-Nazi occupation 599
racial mixing 490
revolution (1922) 4, 77, 89, 306
Russian socialist inspiration 169
in Second World War 480–92
sexual issues 411–12
social undesirables 354
Socialism 288
state violence 352–5
state-sponsored violence 388
surveillance state 345–6
trade unions 85
and Vatican City 171
war crimes 619–20
war and national regeneration 356
and Yugoslavia 569–70
see also Mussolini
Italy in First World War 168–9
Japan
and Axis imperialism, Second World War 480–92
colonialism/imperialism 482–3
fascism in 483
and League of Nations 483
in Manchuria 483, 491
modernization 482
nationalism 367
naval conferences 427
political system 483
Second World War 480–92
conquests 486–8
defeat 491–2
refusal to surrender 491–2
Jewish Codex 314
Jewish genocide see Holocaust
Jewish Question 314
Jewsiewicki, Bogumil 230
Joll, James 369
Joyless Street 61
Judt, Tony 8, 624, 626
July Crisis (1914) 23, 37, 142
Kalyvas, Stathis 4–5, 541–2
Kautsky, Karl 36, 82
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 445
Kemal, Mustafa 153
Kerensky, Alexander 78, 87–8
Kerr, Philip 127
Kershaw, Ian 2, 5, 217
Key, Ellen 334
Keynes, John Maynard 23–4, 121, 129–30, 166, 179, 197–8, 201–2, 287, 333, 466
Kienthal meeting 84
Kindleberger, C.P. 195, 198–9, 201
King, Boswell 409
Knock, Thomas 120
Knox, MacGregor 214
Kramer, Alan 390
Kraus, Karl 89
Kronstadt rebellion 297
Kun, Béla 77, 91, 145, 305
Kvaternik, Slavko 315
La Motte, Ellen 70
labour legislation debate 26
labour radicalism 67–8
Lafont, Henri 598
Lagrou, Pieter 598
land reform 252–7
language of internationalism 442
Lansing, Robert 121, 126–7, 375
Lapland War 472, 475
Laqueur, Thomas 615
Larnaude, Ferdinand 124
Laroque, Pierre 338
The Last Days of Hitler 208
Latvia
fascism 314
and paramilitarization 594, 596–602
Laval, Pierre 217
Laye, Camara 230–1
League of Nations 9, 120, 122–6, 129, 139, 150, 165, 175, 220, 265, 271–4, 330, 426
and interwar democracy 265–76
and interwar internationalism 443
(p. 645)
League covenant 443
League mandates 443
see also Hague
Left, as political force see political Left
Leimgruber, Matthieu 340
Lend-Lease 423, 435
Lenin, Vladimir 126, 153, 163, 216, 374, 375, 378, 594
Levi, Carlo 249
Lib-Labism 81, 89, 92
liberal democracy, post-First World War 161–3
liberalism
1920s 263–6
international legitimacy of 92–3
The Lights that Failed 130
Ligue de la Paix 34
Linz Programme 290
Lippmann, Walter 430
living standards/conditions 13, 24, 53
Lloyd George, David 26, 38, 121, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130–1, 133, 150, 160, 162, 207, 263, 267
LNU (League of Nations Union) 218
local conflicts, internationalization of 602–5, 606
Locarno agreements/Conference 216, 427, 445
long nineteenth century 1
Low Countries
Communist Party 294
democracy post-First World War 171
political systems 12
Luce, Henry 434
Luebbert, Gregory 81–2
Lukes, Steven 594
Luxemburg, Rosa 35
McCormick, Chauncey 68
MacDonald, Ramsay 119, 264
McKibbin, Ross 264
McMeekin, Sean 39
MacMillan, Margaret 130, 369
Madriaga, Salvador de 214
Maier, Charles 4, 11, 329, 368
Makers of the Modern World 130
Making War, Forging Revolution 79
Makino, Baron 126
Malaya
Communist Party 587
in post-war period 587
male voting rights 25, 330
Mann, Michael 309
Mann, Thomas 77–8, 94, 370
Mannheim, Carl Gustaf 276
Mao Zedong, genocide by 520
Marc, Alexandre 452
Marks, Sally 618
marriage 408–9
marriage loan programme 464–5, 528
Marshall Plan 438
Marshall, T.H. 323
Marx, Karl 35
Marxism 35
Marxist socialist movements 82, 84
Masaryk, Tomáš 90, 172, 263, 264
mass killing 4
Mathieu, Jules 229
Matteotti, Giacomo 170
Maurras, Charles 270
Maxwell-Fyfe, David 453
May, Ernest 212
Mayer, Arno 14–15
Mazgaj, Paul 318
Mazower, Mark 2, 3, 8–9, 11, 218, 262, 276, 324, 339, 543
Mein Kampf 208
Memorandum of London 570
Metaxas, Ioannis 316–17
Meyer, Konrad 488
migrations, forcible 557–9
Milan council movement 92
militarism, imperial 369
militarist nationalism 368–70
military jingoism 369, 370
military necessity 357
military spending, Second World War 462
Military-Industrial Complex 110
Millerandism 35
Milward, Alan 450
Minehan, Philip 550
Ministry of Information 45
minorities 138
modernity of Wilhelmism 33
(p. 646) Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939) 380, 473, 491, 624
Mommsen, Hans 209
monarchical power 263
monarcho-fascist dictatorship 376
Monnet, Jean 440
Morel, E.D. 119
Moroccan Crises 23, 37
Moscow Declaration 621
Mosley, Oswald 395, 447
Mosse, George 79, 302, 617, 618
Munich Agreement 209–12
Munich Crisis 561
municipal anarchism 293
municipal socialism 290–1
Mussert, Anton 12
Mussolini, Benito 169, 213–14, 249, 481
and European integration 446
fall of 486, 491
and international cooperation 217
nationalism 376–7
political legitimation of 624
racism 366
and rise of Fascism 305, 353, 376
Myrdal, Alva 335
Myrdal, Gunnar 335
Myth of the War Experience 55
Naím, Moises 594
Nansen, Fridtjof 273
Nansen passport 273
Napoleonic Concordat 26
national challenges, in empires 140
National Fascist Party see Italy
National Insurance Act (1911) 26
national movements 138
national questions 138–9
national self-determination 126–9
National War Aims Committee 45
National War Savings Committee 43–4
nationalism
and anti-war sentiment 370
consolidation of nation states 381
consolidation post-Second World War 381–2
and European integration 445–6, 451
and fascism 376–7
internationalism to multinationalism 377–9
militarist 368–70
and multi-ethnic empires 369
nation and class 374–6
nationalization and indigenization 379–80
and nationhood 365–6
Nazi biopolitical nationalism 376–7
and Nazis 376–7, 529
pre-First World War 139–42, 145
and reformist agenda 370
and religion 394
and revolution 90
subaltern nationalisms 373–4
and total war 368–70
and war 37, 97, 150, 374–6
zenith of 11
nationalist demonstrations 142
nationalization 365–82
naval conferences 427
Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact (1939) 212
Nazis
biopolitics 376–7, 381, 525
book burning 401
coercion 350–1
collaboration 532–3
concentration/death camps 414, 415, 417–18, 485, 489, 520, 525, 530, 534, 622
and democratic consensus 527–9
denunciation 352
economic strategy 201
electoral campaigning 168
Ethnic Register 489
eugenics 336, 485, 525
European integration 447
euthanasia 485
and Fascists 377
forced migration 557–8
General Settlement Plan East 530–1
genocide/ethnic cleansing 2, 3, 7–8, 15, 219, 226, 236–7, 356, 359, 381, 485, 488, 489, 505, 527–31
see also Holocaust
and German expansionism 218, 376–7, 486, 525–6, 559
global extermination programme 530
handicapped/disabled murders 417
(p. 647)
Holocaust see Holocaust
homosexuality 414–15
internal state violence 356–7, 359
Kristallnacht 522, 528, 533
medical experiments 415
and mythology of trenches 617
and nationalism 376–7, 529
non-German Waffen SS 547
Nuremberg Laws 528
Nuremberg racial model 314
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials 207, 453, 519, 619
peasant fascism 255–7
philosophy of 218
political violence 395–7
popular legitimacy 527–9
racial fitness 525
racial hygiene 336, 485
racism 366, 376–7, 489
rise of 7, 11, 168, 199
sexual issues 413–15
‘socially undesirable’ groups 326, 351, 356–7, 365–6, 485, 518, 527–9
Soviet genocide plans by 489, 505, 518
and Stalinism 11
sterilization 414–15, 417, 525
surveillance 345–6, 349–52
territorial administration 606
transition to post-Nazi rule 593–608
and United States 432–3
violent characteristics of 526–7
NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) 192
Netherlands
colonization 227
political system 12
revolution 90
South-East Asia, post-war 587–8
New Diplomacy 119–33
Nicolson, Harold 123, 130
Nolan, Mary 424, 428
Nolte, Ernst 302, 389
Norway
Communist Party 294
fascism in 271
political system 92–3
revolution 89
nostalgia 441
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials 207, 453, 519, 619
Ober Ost 52
October Revolution see Russia, Revolution (1917)
Open Door 424
Origins of the Second World War 208
Orlando, Vittorio 126
O’Rourke, Kevin 112
Orwell, George 287, 296, 345
Ottesen-Jensen, Elise 409
Ottoman Empire
citizenship rights 140
colonial troops 143
deportations 148
fall of 225–6
nationalism 140–2, 151–2
refugees 146
wartime demographic politics 145
Overy, Richard 216
Pabst, G.W. 61
Paderewski, Ignace 172
Padmore, George 579
Pale of Settlement 402, 531
paramilitarization
1943-46 period 599–602
and criminal opportunism 597–8
deparamilitarization 606
in European society 594, 596–8
Paris Peace Conference 9, 23–4, 110, 122–33, 150, 163–6, 169, 174–5, 199, 225, 234, 263, 271, 375, 426, 481, 567
Paris Uprising (1944) 599
Parker, R.A.C. 210
parliamentary systems in Europe 24–5
Passmore, Kevin 395
Passy, Frederic 34
patriotic consensus (1914-16) 371–3
patriotic instruction 45
patriotism
at war 380–1
and profit 42
Pavone, Claudio 546
(p. 648) Payne, Stanley 302, 390
Peace Pledge Union 270
Peace Society 34
Peace without Victory speech 120
peasants see rural society
peer-polity influence 11–12
Penter, Tanja 504
Percy, Eustace 123
periodization 8–10, 14
Permanent Court of International Justice 175
Pétain, Philippe 577
Peukert, Detlev 15, 331
Philadelphia Declaration 337
Pichon, Stephen 126
Pickstone, John 327
Piłsudski, Józef 90, 144, 172, 174, 394
Pincus, Steven 94
Pipes, Richard 28
Pireaud, Marie 62
Pireaud, Paul 71
Pivert, Marceau 215
Poland
civilian atrocities 499
collaboration 4–5
deportations 149
food supply 502
genocide in 533
German expansionism 559–60
intergroup violence 4–5
international relations 172
nationalism 141
nationalism and religion 394
and paramilitarization 594, 596–602
political instability 174
population movement patterns 563–70
revolution (1926) 4
political changes/realignments 559–63
political debate, location of 399
political Left 81
and 1930s economic crisis 284
Anarchists 292–4, 397
Communists 294–7
definition of 282–6
and fascist Right 283, 284–5
goals/strategies 283–4
interwar period in 282–98
popular fronts 295–6
Socialists 286–91
in USSR 284–5
see also revolution
political Right
1922 significance 305–9
Austria 309, 311
Croatia 315
European fascist groups 308–9
fascism 301–18, 397–8
concept/definition of 301–4
conservative/radical 304
as nationalization 481–5
fascist radicalization 304, 305
fascist trappings 317
Germany 7, 11, 168, 199, 207, 255–7, 301, 303, 304, 309, 310, 317–18
see also Germany; Nazis
Greece 316–17
Hungary 310–11, 315
interwar period 301–18
Italy 13, 93, 168–71, 255–7, 301, 303, 304, 305, 306, 308, 310, 317–18, 481–2
see also Italy
Latvia 313–14
Portugal 311–12
Romania 308, 312
Spain 309, 312
political uniforms legislation 394–5
political violence 1–5, 388–403
politics, and war 112
Ponsonby, Arthur 119
Ponticelli, Lazare 614
population engineering 333–6
population movements
forced migration 557–9
national patterns 563–70
Second World War 557–72
population question 335
populism 270
Portugal
colonization 226–7, 228–9
fascism 311
revolutions 4
sexual issues 415
post-First World War see interwar period
postal communications 48
Postwar 8
(p. 649) power relations
1940s 594–6
definitions 594
mapping during mid-century crisis 605–8
post-Second World War period 593–608
presidential election/power 263–4
Preto Rolão 311–12
Primo de Rivera, Miguel 308, 309, 394
privileged social groups 81
Problems of Social Policy 337
profiteers 48
propaganda 41, 42–5, 66, 69, 426
Prost, Antoine 79
public health debate 26
Queen Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps 51
Quisling, Vidkun 271
racial equality, League of Nations 165
radical Enlightenment 261
rationing
First World War 101–3, 109
Second World War 466–7, 502–4
Recasting Bourgeois Europe 11
Red Vienna 391, 396
reformist socialism 82, 92
refugees
First World War 52, 138–9, 146
Second World War 557
Reichsbanner 55, 167
Reichstag Peace Resolution 165
Remarque, Erich Maria 618
Renville Agreement 588
Reparation Commission 131
resistance movements 539–52
revisionism 35
revolution 4, 23, 27–8, 35, 37, 46, 77–94
and civility 79–80
class-nation politics 91
and hierarchies 80–4
international crisis 94
legacies of 92–4
neo-Tocquevillian approach 94
social crisis 94
and war 79
revolutionary politics, wartime militarization 79
Rhineland Crisis 207, 219
Ritschl, A.O. 193
Rodgers, Daniel 325
Romania
fascism in 308, 312
and paramilitarization 594, 596–602
romantic internationalism 440–54
romantic roots, of human rights (1940s) 447–54
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 217–18, 423, 432, 433–6, 557
The Roots of National Socialism 207
Rome-Berlin Axis (1936) 480
Roscigno, Vincent 594
Rosenberg, Emily 425
Rousso, Henry 626
rural society 243–57
active population in agriculture 244–6
agriculture and the economy 250
collectivization 3, 163, 251–2, 254–5, 297
and conscription 246
economic stagnation 249–50
impact of Great Depression 249–50
impact of war 246–9, 374
land reform 252–7
peasant cultures 243
peasant fascism 255–7
peasant resistance/discontent 251–3
peasants in Second World War 501–2
political parties/activity 252–7
rural communism 254–5
rural/urban animosity 247
social structure 244–6
Russia
agricultural reform 32
art/culture in 33–4
belle époque era 23
Bolshevik Revolution see Revolution(s)
citizenship rights 140
Civil War (1918-20) 3, 145, 152, 162, 214, 390, 393, 402
class tensions and national unity 373–4
conditions/political system in Imperial era 27–9
corporatism 86
(p. 650)
deportations 149
economic development 32
economic disorganization 105
ethnic diversity 140
group hierarchies 85–6
imperialism 140–1
labour strikes pre-First World War 370
leaves war (1917) 88
and liberal freedoms 162
living standards 53
mobilization in First World War 104
mortality rates 3
nationalism 140, 153, 370, 374–80
paramilitarization 594, 596–602
peasants’ radicalization 87
population diversity 140
post-First World War 131–2
POW repatriation First World War 273
power relations destabilization 595
refugees 146
Revolution (1905) 23, 27–8, 35
Revolution(s) (1917) 4, 37, 46, 77, 78, 79, 81, 83, 85–8, 89, 91, 109, 151, 162–3, 234, 294, 378, 446
sexual liberation post-Revolution 408
social welfare legislation 32–3
social/class system 85–7
state-sponsored violence 388
strikes (1914) 28
wartime demographic politics 145
weapons obsolescence 462
worker groups 86
Russo-Finnish War (1939-40) 3
Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) 23, 480
Russo-Polish War (1919-20) 3, 78, 92, 162
Ryder, H.I.D. 34
Salazar, Antonio de Oliveira 311–12
Salleron, Louis 452
Salt March 223
Sanborn, Joshua 79
Sarkozy, Nicolas 614
Sarraut, Albert 229
Sassoon, Siegfried 618
Scandinavia
democracy post-First World War 171
political systems 12
Schlieffen Plan 29, 38
Schmitt, Carl 305
Scott, James C. 346
Second Congress of the Comintern 92
Second International 35, 77, 82, 84, 370
Second World War
aggregate cost of 464
Anglo-French non-intervention policy 213
appeasement 210–11, 212, 550
Atlantic Charter 337, 423, 435
Axis defeat 490–2
Axis powers in 480–92
Battle of France 209, 212
black markets 504, 595
British state power 5–6
censorship/restrictions on accounts of 620–1
civil wars 539–52
civilian life in see civilian life
clash of utopian ideologies 217
Combined Repatriation Executive 562
and decolonization 576–82
Dunkirk 209
economic crisis and extremist politics 216
economic impact 463
effect of 9
environmental destruction 248
famine 504–6
forced migrations 557–72
Franco-British alliance 212
German culpability 207–10
German expansionism 486, 525–6, 559–61
and Great Depression 216–17
and human rights 450
impact on countryside 247
interwar origins of 207–20
Katyn Forest massacre 380
key issues/questions on origins 219
Lend-Lease 423, 435
memories of 619–26
Mers-el-Kébir fleet attack 209
military spending 462
mobilization for 464–7
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939) 380, 473, 491, 624
(p. 651)
morality during occupation 497–8
mortality rates 2, 3, 476, 491, 505, 512, 513
Munich Agreement 209–12
Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact (1939) 212
neutral states 461, 467–71
and Paris Peace Conference/ Versailles settlement 9, 15, 209, 216
peasants, civilian life 501–2
population transfers 557–72
post-war trade deficits 110
Potsdam Agreement 382, 566
rationing 466–7, 502–4
refugees 557
resistance movements 539–52
resource mobilization by country 463
Rhineland Crisis 207, 219
social welfare 338
Teheran Conference 562
trade and neutral states 467–71
war graves 615
wartime economies 461–76
Yalta Agreement 382, 566
segmented societies 82–3
Seidman, Michael 291
self-determination policy 375
September programme (1914) 37
settlement post-First World War 129–30
Sex and Human Nature 409
sexuality in wartime