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date: 04 April 2020

(p. 733) Subject Index

(p. 733) Subject Index

abortion 510–11
accumulation, and regimes of 245
active labour market programmes 72, 300
Afghanistan 3, 431
Africa 9, 10, 14
and authoritarian regimes 390
and autocratic regimes 391
and autocratic regimes with weak unions and incomplete employment relations 403–7
and China 450
and classification of regimes 390, 391, 392
and democracies with strong unions and comprehensive employment relations 392–6
and democracies with weak unions and incomplete employment relations 396–7
and democracy and employment relations 407
and democracy and trade unions 407–8
and democratization 385–6
and extent of democracy in 390–2
and factors affecting employment relations 408
and flawed democracies 390
and flawed democracies with weak unions and incomplete employment relations 398–401
and hybrid regimes 391
and hybrid regimes with weak unions and incomplete employment relations 401–3
and India 450
and informally dominated market economies 387–8
and trade union response to non-democratic regimes 408
African National Congress (ANC) 394, 457
AIG 56
All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) 457
All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) 460
American Center for International Labor Solidarity 438
anomie 174, 176, 226, 228, 229, 230–1, 235, 236
Argentina 413, 415, 421, 422, 425, 426
Asia, developing countries in:
and Asian financial crisis (1997) 434–5
and authoritarian corporatism 434
and Cold War's influence on 434
and colonialism's influence on 433–4
and common characteristics 435–6, 444
and economic diversity 431
and employment relations systems 432
and Export Processing Zones 432
and foreign influences on employment practices 435
and inequality 431
and labour-intensive manufacturing 431–2
and negative complementarities 432–3
and trade unions 434
and tripartism 434
see also individual countries
Asian American Free Labor Institute 438
Asian financial crisis (1997) 335, 345, 434–5, 437
asset booms 320, 717
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 434
austerity programmes 252, 331, 478, 719
Australia 9, 49, 263
and collective bargaining 274, 278– 9, 706
and collective labour rights 599, 601
and dismissal rates 264
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employers' associations 277
and employment protection 271, 605
and industrial chaplains 690–1
and industrial conflict 709
and low pay 266, 267
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and role of the state 270, 272
and state agencies 688
and taxation levels 596
(p. 734) and trade unions 273, 274, 275, 276, 704
and working days lost 281
Australian Fair Pay Commission 688
Australian Workplace Agreements (AWAs) 279
Austria:
and collective bargaining 706, 707
and collective labour rights 599, 601
and corporatism 47
and earnings inequality 267
and employment protection 271, 605, 710
and industrial conflict 709
and low pay 267
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 706
and vocational training 70
and working days lost 281
and works councils 602
authoritarian populism 649, 650
authoritarian regimes, and Africa 390
authority relations:
and business systems theory 89, 95, 106
and collaborative hierarchies 101
and compartmentalized business systems 98
and fragmented business systems 94
and specialized networks 96, 97
Baltic states 379
Bangladesh 431, 434, 571
banking industry 33
and business systems theory 88
and collaborative hierarchies 101
and performance pay 267, 268
and state support for 162
Belarus 363, 366, 374
Belgium:
and collective bargaining 707
and collective labour rights 601
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271, 605, 710
and euro crisis 317
and industrial conflict 325, 709
and low pay 267
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 704
and working days lost 281
Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS, India) 457
bilateral agreements, and migration 576–7, 580
Bolivia 413, 415, 421
Brazil 15, 253, 413, 425
and China 450–1
and collective bargaining 453
and economic growth 452
and economic restructuring 451–2
and employment relations developments 452–4
and female labour market participation 452
and labour market changes 452, 453
and left turn in 415
and population growth 449
and privatization 451, 452
and subcontracting 452–3
and trade unions 451, 452, 453–4
BRICS countries 15, 448
and challenges facing 448, 451
and complexity and diversity of 451
and cooperation between 448
and diversity of employment relations in 451
and economic significance of 449
and future research on 466
and international financial institutions 466
and labour markets in 449–51
and multinational corporations 466
and population growth 449–50
and transitional challenges 466
see also individual countries
brokers, and migration 577
budgetary policy, and pro-cyclical nature of 128
Bulgaria 365, 369, 370, 595
Bundesbank 324, 325
business, and structural power of 6
business organization 114
business systems theory 11, 29–30, 38, 86–7, 386–7
and analytical use of 90
and authority relations 89, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 101, 106
and centralized hierarchies 99–101
and collaborative hierarchies 101–5
as collection of ideal types 89
and compartmentalized business systems 98–9
and coordinated business systems 104–5
and coordinating capabilities 94, 95, 97, 100, 101, 105
and corporate finance 88
(p. 735) and definition of business systems 87
and differences from varieties of capitalism framework 90–2
and employee constraint 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101
and financial system 88
and firm ownership and control 88, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99–100, 101, 102–3
and focus on the firm 90–1
and fragmented business systems 94–5
and ideal types of business systems 93
and institutional setting 87, 92, 106–7
and interdependencies 89, 91
and internationalization 105, 107
and managerial and organizational challenges 91
and multinational corporations 105–6
and organizational careers 95, 96, 98, 106
and organizational learning 94–6, 98, 100–2, 105
and outline of 87–90
and reconfigurational capabilities 94, 96, 97, 98–9, 100, 102
and segmented business systems 387
and skill development and control systems 88, 94, 95–6, 99, 101, 103
and specialized networks 95–8
and the state 87–8, 161
and state-organized business systems 99
and trust 88–9, 94
call centres 201
Cambodia 431
Canada 263
and collective bargaining 274, 278, 279
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employers' associations 277
and employment protection 271
and industrial conflict 709
and labour turnover 265
and low pay 267
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 595
and trade union density 273, 274, 276
and working days lost 281
capital, and political power 4, 5
capital accumulation 116
capital markets, and business systems theory 88
capital mobility 4, 473
and impact on firm-level corporate governance 479–81
and impact on policy-making 476–8
capitalism:
and age of global instability 251–5
and contemporary forms of 125
and historical changes in employment relations 241–7
and long wave theories 247–50, 252–4
capitalist diversity 168–9
and complementarity 158
and exogeneity of change 166–8
and institutional change 164–6
and norm entrepreneurs 162–3
and persistence of 158
and regional differences 159–60
and role of the state 161–2
and sectoral diversity 160–1
and supranational actors 163–4
and systemic change 164–6
and varieties of capitalism approach 157–8
care work:
and gendered and racialized nature of 509–10
and global care chains 579, 582
and migration 578–9
and poor working conditions 580
and state support for 549
Catalonia 32
Central and Eastern Europe 14
and changes in employment law 371–4
and collapse of communism 359
and collective bargaining 370, 373, 375–7, 380
and collective labour rights 599, 601–2
and continuity with past 360
and convergence towards social partnership model 359
and divergence from social partnership model 359–60
and diversity of employment relations in 359, 378–9
and economic transformation 363–4
and employers' associations 371, 376
and employment protection 372, 607–9, 710
and employment relations under state socialism 360–3
and European Union accession 373, 381n2
and future prospects for employment relations 380
(p. 736) and heritage of state socialism 362–3, 367
and impact of multinational corporations 377–8
and implementation of employment law 374–5
and industrial conflict 361, 372–3, 376
and inequality 364
and informal economy 364
and labour share of national income 713
and liberalization 373–4
and minimum standards 372
and minimum wage 610
and neo-liberalism 603–4, 613
and new political trade unions 369–70
and part-time employment 711
and pay systems 360–1, 377
and reformed old trade unions 367–9
and response to global economic crisis 629
and self-employment 364
and social dialogue 370
and trade unions 365–7, 376–7, 704
and trade unions under state socialism 361–2, 363, 643
and tripartism 370–1, 627
and violations of employment law 374–5
and workplace employment relations 375
and works councils 602
see also individual countries
central banks 127–8
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 694
Central Organization of Trade Unions (COTU, Kenya) 400
Central Unica dos Trabalhadores (CUT, Brazil) 453
Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) 457
change:
in age of global instability 251–5
and historical changes in employment relations 241–7
and long wave theories 247–50, 252–4
and varieties of capitalism approach 250, 251
childcare 299, 549
Chile 413, 414, 415, 421, 426
China 8, 15, 431
and Africa 450
and Brazil 450–1
and change in ownership patterns 459
and collective bargaining 460
and corporate social responsibility 694
and criticism of employment practices 450
and employer pressure groups 689–90
and employment agencies 692
and employment relations developments 459–62
and employment relations legislation 459–60
and foreign direct investment 459
and informal employment 460
and labour contracts 461
and labour disputes 460–1
and migration 506, 576
and multinational corporations 459, 695
and new actors in employment relations 685
and population growth 449
and privatization 459
and registration system 576
and state investment 253
and trade unions 461
and tripartism 461
and uneven coverage of employee protection 460
China Enterprise Confederation (CEC) 461, 689–90
Chinese Federation of Labour (CFL) 343
church-state relations 622
citizenship:
and immigration 501, 509, 510, 580, 631
and labour movement 623
civil law 176–7
and compulsory redundancy 180
and employee rights 178–9
and firm training expenditure 180
and market regulation 177
and staff turnover 180
and trade unions 179–80
and variations in 180
civil society organizations 690–1
codes of conduct, and international labour standards 484–5
cognitive capitalism 254
Cold War 434, 435, 436
collective action:
and game theoretical analysis of 194–5
and professionals 139
and rational choice theory 195
and regulation theory 137, 138, 139–41
and risk-sharing 139
and stable employees 138
and stakeholding 139
collective bargaining:
and Central and Eastern Europe 370, 373, 375–7, 380
(p. 737) and cross-national comparisons 274, 278– 9, 280, 705, 706–7
and decentralization 48–9
and globalization 481, 482
and government role in 602– 3, 604
and industrial relations 225–6
and joint consultation 529
and liberal market economies 273– 4, 278– 9, 280
and maintenance of order 226
and multinational corporations 630
and neo-liberalism 603–4
and Nordic countries 294, 295–6, 305, 306, 307
and social democracies 603, 604
and the state 602– 3, 604
and trade unions 225–6
see also under individual countries
collective goods, and state provision of 620–1
collective identities 246–7, 256
collective labour rights:
and neo-liberalism 590, 599
and the state 597–605
Colombia 421, 695
colonialism, and gender and work 500, 506–7
commodity prices 9
common law 176, 177
and compulsory redundancy 180
and firm training expenditure 180
and liberal market economies 269
and market regulation 177
and staff turnover 180
and trade unions 179–80
and variations in 180
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 363, 365, 366, 373, 379
and changes in employment law 373
and trade unions 365
community, and work 501– 2, 503
comparative capitalism 37
and lack of attention to developing world 2
and viable alternatives to market liberalism 156
competence destruction 91
competition, and changed nature of 126–7
competitiveness:
and high road strategy 14, 245, 250
and labour repression 25
and low road strategy 10, 56, 245, 250
complementarities 9, 32, 42
and business systems theory 89
and capitalist diversity 158
and diversity 158
and institutions 192
and law 184
and mixed systems 157
and negative complementarities 432–3, 443
and varieties of capitalism approach 45–6, 67, 76, 157
conflict 226, 227, 229, 255
and labour process theory 243
and Marxist-inspired analyses of 243
as pathological condition 242
Confucianism 338, 340, 342, 351
Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) 394–5, 407, 457, 462
Congress of Unions of Employees of Public and Civil Services (CUEPACS, Malaysia) 442
consent 228
constructivist institutionalism 12, 207
and actor behaviour 209–10
and applications in employment relations 210–12
and assessment of 212–13
and centrality of ideas 207–8
and discourse 209
and European Works Council 211–12
and institutional change 207–8, 209–10
and labour politics 212
and origins of institutions 207–8
and path dependence 209
and reproduction of institutions 208–9
and rise of neo-liberalism 208–9
and trade union ideology 210–11
and transmission of ideas 208–9
consumerism 3–4
consumers, and influence on labour standards 484
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 580
convergence 10
and arguments for 43–7
and complementarities 42
and crisis in employment relations 702
and debate over 42, 334
and decentralized bargaining 48–9
and decline in union strength 45
and dual convergence 45–6
and global economic crisis 56–7
and globalization thesis 45
and logic of industrialism 43–4
(p. 738) and multinational corporations 53
and varieties of capitalism approach 45–7
and workplace practices 44–5
converging divergencies (within-country diversity) 42–3, 50
and factors encouraging diversity 52
and institutional plasticity 50–2
and multinational corporations 53–5
cooperative movement 159
coordinated market economies (CMEs) 9, 13, 45, 66, 250
and changes in 165
and characteristics of 46, 156, 530–1, 658
and competitive strategy of firms 67
and diversity within 157, 658
and earnings inequality 267
and economic growth 79
and electoral politics 74–5
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employers' support for social investment 74
and employment protection 271
and employment relations practices 46
and European Monetary Union 318, 319
and global economic crisis 56–7, 80, 477
and industrial conflict 280
and institutional change 76–8
and labour share of national income 713
and low pay 267
and macrocorporatist coordination 69–70, 78, 79–80
and meso-corporatism 70
and national diversity 68–70
and Nordic countries 293
and sectoral diversity 161
and sectoral/regional coordination 70
and skills regime 66
and social protection system 67
and strengths and weaknesses of 157
and structure of political competition 75–6
and temporal diversity 73
and trade union density 273
and variation in coordination modes 69–70
and varieties of capitalism approach 26, 27, 45
and vocational training 70–1
and voice 531, 533–4
and working days lost 281–2
corporate finance, and business systems theory 88
corporate governance 12
and employment practices 46
and financial globalization 479–81
corporate social responsibility 485, 694
corporatism 47, 232, 233
and cross-national comparison of trends in 707– 8, 709
and definition of 626
and employment relations 618, 619
and macrocorporatism 69–70
and meso-corporatism 70
and neo-corporatism 242
and societal corporatism 48
and the state 618, 622, 626–7
corruption, and elites 7–8
critical theory, and the state 619
Cyprus 318
Czech Republic 364
and collective bargaining 375, 377, 706
and employment protection 605, 607
and industrial conflict 376
and pay systems 377
and self-employment 364
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 365, 368, 369, 371, 377, 704
and tripartite council 371
Czechoslovakia 361, 372, 376, 377
debt 717
and increase in consumer 4
debt leverage 4
decentralization:
and collective bargaining 48–9
and institutional diversity 32
decommodification of labour 2, 242–3, 621
deindustrialization 244, 268
demand, and crisis of 1
demand regimes, and role of the state 117
democracy:
and definition of 388
and employment relations 385
and extent of in Africa 390–2
and requirements for 388–9
and trade unions 407–8
democratic consolidation, and definition of 389
democratic transition:
and definition of 389
and Latin America 417
(p. 739) democratization:
and Africa 385–6
and definition of 389
and Latin America 417
Denmark:
and active labour market policies 300
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271, 607, 609
and employment rates 296– 7, 298
and flexicurity 30, 148– 9, 300–1, 422, 609
and low pay 267
and part-time employment 298–9
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and specialized networks 96
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 303– 5, 307–8, 704
and unemployment 297, 298
and vocational training 70, 302
and wage inequality 714
and working days lost 281, 325
dependency theory 574
deregulation:
and diversity in employment relations policies 52
and insecurity 544, 554
and liberal market economies 270
and non-standard employment 561–2
and political consensus over 683
development, and migration 572, 573–5
Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalization and Poverty 574
Development Studies 573
discourse, and constructivist institutionalism 209
discursive institutionalism, see constructivist institutionalism
dismissal rates:
and employment protection 270– 1
and liberal market economies 264–5
disorder 224, 226, 228, 229
and British industrial relations 229–30
and centrality of 3
divergence 10, 47–50
and corporatism 47
and dualism in employment relations 47
and role of national-level institutions 48
and trade unionism 47
and within-country diversity 49, 50
and workplace practice patterns 49– 50
diversified quality production 68
domestic work 508–9
and global care chains 579, 582
as global industry 578
and migration 578–9
and regulation by migrant-receiving countries 581
and regulation by migrant-sending countries 580–1
Donovan Commission 222
double movement 28, 35, 36, 168
downsizing rates, and liberal market economies 265
dualism 548
and employment relations practices 47, 200
and historical institutionalist analysis of 200
and resistance to 79
East Africa 387
East Asia 13, 334–5
and changes in employment practices 352–3
and convergence/divergence 352–3
and institutional innovation 353–4
and layering 353
and similarities in employment practices 335
and trade unions 354
and within-company diversity 353
and within-country diversity 353
East Germany 361
Eastern Europe, see Central and Eastern Europe
economic growth:
and coordination 79
and recession 2–3
economic performance:
and employment systems 42
and legal systems 178, 186
and varieties of capitalism approach 26
economic transitions 3
Ecuador 413, 415, 417, 421
education:
and business systems theory 88
and Nordic countries 302–3
El Salvador 413, 415
(p. 740) electoral politics:
and absence of meaningful alternatives 37
and employers' associations 75–6
and regional development 160
electoral systems:
and first past the post systems 160
and proportional representation 74–5, 160
and strength of employment protection law 593
elites 7
and corruption 7–8
and institutional breakage 9
and societal decline 36
and withdrawal from everyday life 37
emergence, theory of 668
emergent market economies (EMEs) 157
emerging economies 253
and multinational corporations 466
and shifts in global economic power 448–9, 465–6
employee engagement 527–8
employee participation 526–7
and Nordic countries 309–10
see also voice
employee tenure:
and coordinated market economies 264, 265
and liberal market economies 264, 265
employee voice, see voice
employers' associations 11
and Central and Eastern Europe 371, 376
and industrial policy 75
and Latin America 424
and liberal market economies 277
as new actors in employment relations 689–90
and Nordic countries 305–6
and structure of political competition 75–6
employment agencies 692
employment contracts 137, 144, 269, 541–2, 565, 590, 670–1
employment outcomes, and liberal market economies 264–8
employment protection 413
and Central and Eastern Europe 372
and coordinated market economies 271
and cross-national comparison 605– 6, 607– 9, 610–11
and Latin America 421, 423–4
and liberal market economies 270– 1
and neo-liberalism 590, 605, 607, 612
and Nordic countries 300, 301, 310
and relationship with electoral system 593
and role of the state 620
and trends in 708, 710–11
see also under individual countries
employment rates, and Nordic countries 296– 7, 298
employment relations:
and changes in institutions 17–18
and cross-national comparison of indicators of 703–15
and decline of 701–2, 715–16, 719
and diversity in 18
and Fordism 703, 716–17
and future of 701
and political and societal factors shaping 2–10
and positive externalities of 716, 719–20
and prospects for 715, 716–19
and requirements for comprehensive system 388
and unlikelihood of revival of 716, 718, 719, 720
employment systems 661
energy transitions 4–5, 7, 35, 166–8, 532
England 32
environmental crisis 36, 168
equal opportunities 205
Equatorial Guinea 695
Estonia 365, 375, 595
euro crisis 6, 317–18
and asset price inflation 320
and current account deficits 319, 331
and diversity of employment relations 318–19, 330–1, 332
and explanations of 319–23
and fiscal mismanagement 320
and inadequacy of orthodox explanations 321
and labour market rigidities 319–20
and poor financial regulation 320–1
and structural problems within European Monetary Union 321–3, 331
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 363
European Central Bank (ECB) 318, 330, 478
European Commission 318
European Court of Justice 163, 309, 604, 631
European monetary integration 324
and construction of Deutschmark bloc 324–6
and convergence criteria 326
(p. 741) and industrial conflict 325
and inflation control 325, 326
and Maastricht adjustment process 326–7
and social pacts 327
and wage control 324–6
European Monetary Union (EMU):
and change in macroeconomic policy framework 327
as closed trade area 319, 323
and coordinated market economies 318, 319
and crisis of 317–18
and current account deficits 319, 331
and divergence of inflation and wages 321–3
and divergent inflation rates 327–8
and diverging competitiveness 319, 323, 330, 331
and diversity of employment relations in 318–19, 330–1, 332
and explanations of crisis in 319–23, 331
and financial sector crisis 318
and fiscal policy constraints 328
and fiscal policy failures 318
and imbalances between creditor and debtor states 331
and inflation 328
and introduction of 317, 327
and mixed market economies 318–19
and private/public sector wage divergence 329–30
and pro-cyclical monetary policy 322, 327, 330, 331
and real exchange rates 322, 329, 330
and real interest rates 322, 327, 330
and single monetary policy 330
and Stability and Growth Pact 318, 328
and structural problems within 321–3
and structural shift in domestic wage-setting regimes 328–9, 330
European Union (EU) 6–7
and capitalist diversity 163
and employee voice 283
and individual labour rights 605
and influence on national industrial relations 632
and neo-liberalism 612, 641
and Nordic countries 308–9
European Works Council (EWC) 211–12
Europeanization 6–7
exchange rates 127–8
exit:
and collective action 137–9
and voice 532
Export Processing Zones (EPZs) 432, 442
export-oriented economies, and employment relations 717–18, 719
Federation of Korean Trade Unions (FKTU) 341, 350
female labour market participation 4, 507
and Brazil 452
and Nordic countries 296, 298–9
and part-time employment 550, 551
finance capitalism 7
and dominance of 127
financial crises, and capital mobility 476–7
financial globalization 33, 480, 488
and capital mobility 473
and cross-border investments 479–81
and impact on firm-level corporate governance 473, 479–81
and impact on policy-making 473, 475–8
and institutional constraints on pressures of 474, 481
and market for corporate control 481
and society/interest-group approach to responses to 478, 480
financial intermediaries, and power of 33
financial services industry, and state support for 162
financial system, and business systems theory 88
financialization 33–4, 249, 252, 254, 547, 566n4, 717, 719
Finland:
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271, 605
and employment rates 296– 7, 298
and low pay 267
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 594
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 303– 5, 704
and unemployment 297, 298
and working days lost 281
(p. 742) firm internationalization, and diversity in employment relations policies 52, 73
firm ownership:
and centralized hierarchies 99–100
and collaborative hierarchies 101, 102–3
and compartmentalized business systems 98
and fragmented business systems 94
and Germany-United Kingdom comparison 102
and specialized networks 95
firm performance 178, 456
firm size, and industrial relations 179
firms:
as core drivers of employment relations 244–5
and diversity of political and economic strategies 71–2
fiscal policy 128
flexicurity 8, 255, 422
and Denmark 30, 148– 9, 300–1, 609
and difficulties in emulating 149–50
Forca Sindical (FS, Brazil) 453
Fordism 2
and breakdown of 3
and diversity of 659
and employment relations 703, 716–17
and labour regulation 552
and regulation theory 28–9
and terms and conditions of employment 709
and wage-labour nexus 123
foreign direct investment (FDI) 268, 629
France 68
and collective bargaining 707
and dualism in employment relations 200
and employee voice 526
and employment protection 605, 607
and euro crisis 317, 318
and long-run transformations in labour market institutions 119–20
and modernization of industrial structure 200
and part-time employment 549
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and public sector employment 548
and role of the state 623–5
and short-term investors 200
and statist tradition 618
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 140
and wage formation 121–3
Frankfurt School, and the state 619
free-riding, and rational choice theory 195
French Regulation School 67
functionalist sociology 222, 224, 225
and institutionalist-pluralist tradition 223–7
and radical-institutionalist tradition 227–31
and sociological tradition in contemporary institutional analysis 231–6
Gallup Research Group 527
Gallup Workplace Audit 527–8
game theory 194
gender and work 15, 498–9
and actions to reduce gender inequalities 517–18
and care work 510
and changing patterns of work 499
and colonialism 500, 506–7
and complexity in analysis of 500
and definition of a 'job' 499
and earnings gap 561
and employment by gender 551
and gender inequality 513, 516–17
and gender regulation 553–4, 558– 60
and gendered hierarchies 499
and gendered regulation of work 512–13
and global care chains 579
and global perspective on 505–6
and industrialization 510–11
and informal employment 505–6
and labour regulation 552
and low-wage work 551, 560–1
and male domination 513, 515
and migration 578–9, 580–2
and need for Southern perspective on 504–5
and Northern bias of research on 503–4
and paid domestic work in the home 509
and part-time employment 550, 551
and persistence of gendered practices 499
and political economy context 501
and post-socialist countries 511
and reproductive bargain 549, 563–4
and reproductive labour 509–10, 564, 579
and Salish blanket 495, 497
and Salmon fishing in western Canada 495–8
and sexuality 513
and social reproduction 498, 499, 507–8
and Steveston fish cannery 495, 496, 497
and time regimes 513–15
and unpaid domestic work 508–9
and women's double burden 499, 507
(p. 743) and work, households and community 501– 2, 503
gender equality, and Nordic countries 299–300
General Motors Europe 211
Georgia 365, 373–4
Germany 8, 48, 69
and call centres 201
and changes in employment relations system 200–1
and collaborative business system 102–4
and collective bargaining 706, 707
and collective labour rights 599, 601
and corporate governance changes 52
and corporatism 47
and dualism in employment relations 200
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employee voice 526
and employment by gender 551
and employment protection 103–4, 271, 605, 710
and exports 717
and firm ownership and control 96
and gender regulation 560
and global economic crisis 56–7
and industrial relations 199
and labour market institutions 103
and long-term investors 200
and low pay 267
and minimum wage 610
and part-time employment 550, 551, 711
and polarized labour market 161
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593–4
and regulation of non-standard employment 555–7, 559, 560
and response to global economic crisis 628
and role of the state 625
and sectoral diversity 161
and specialized networks 96
and stock market capitalization and stock distribution 102
and taxation levels 597
and temporal diversity 73
and temporary employment 712
and trade unions 273, 706
and vocational training 70
and working days lost 281
Ghana 385
and industrial relations legislation 392, 393
and National Youth Employment Programme 393–4
and trade unions 392–4
and tripartism 393
Ghent system 620
global economic and financial crisis 1, 3, 4, 252
and convergence 56–7
and converging divergencies 42–3
and coordinated economies 80
and coordinated market economies 56–7, 477
and energy transition 35
and explanations of 4
and firm responses to 56
and globalization 57
and impact on policy-making 477–8
and implications for employment relations 55–7
and liberal market economies 477
and limits of deregulated markets 57
and mixed market economies 477
and national responses to 79, 80, 477
and role of the state in responding to 627–9
and structural crisis and change 35–7
and workplace impact of 18
Global Union Federations (GUFs) 435, 438, 483, 644, 645
global value chain governance 693–4
global warming 168
globalization 15, 244
and collective bargaining 481, 482
and convergence 45
and diverse national responses to 657
and effects of 473
and global economic crisis 57
and impact on bargaining processes 49
and impact on policy-making 475
and insecurity 544
and institutional change 72–3
and institutional constraints on pressures of 474
and migration 571, 573, 574
and neo-liberalism 657
and race to the bottom 45, 56, 474, 629
and regime shopping 474, 629
and social dumping 474
and society/interest-group approach to responses to 474–5
and the state 627
(p. 744) and state regulation 481
Grange (American agricultural organization) 71
Greece:
and employment protection 605
and euro crisis 317, 318, 320
and minimum wage 610–11
and part-time employment 711
and protest movements 647
and taxation levels 596
growth regimes 116
and co-evolution of wage-labour nexus and macroeconomic regimes 118–29
and destabilization of Golden Age institutional architecture 124–6
and Fordism 123
and historical wage formation patterns 121–3
and international regimes 117
and long-run transformations in labour market institutions 118, 119–20
and post-war capital-labour compromise 123– 4
and restructuring of institutional forms 126– 7, 128–9
and role of the state 116–17
and structural compatibility of institutional forms 117– 18
guest worker programmes 575
hierarchical market economies (HMEs):
and characteristics of 414, 432
and Latin America 414, 417–18, 422–3
high road competitiveness strategy 245, 250
and Malaysia 14, 433, 436, 442–3
historical institutionalism 12, 27–8, 38
and actor preferences 197
and applications in employment relations 199–201, 386
and assessment of 201–2
and criticisms of 202
and dual labour markets 200
and employment relations research 213
and institutional change 197, 198–9, 202
and origins of 196
and origins of institutions 196–7
and path dependence 197
and reproduction of institutions 197–8
and skill regimes 199–200
and the state 633
and systemic change 165, 166
Honduras 10, 695
Hong Kong 581
households, and work 501– 2, 503
Hudson Bay Company 495
human resource management (HRM):
and community mode of 336
and contemporary debate in 1
as elusive concept 662
and hard version of 662, 663–4
and hard vs soft dichotomy 665–6
and hierarchical mode of 336
and hybrid forms of 666–7
and institutional landscape of 660–7
and market-oriented approach to 336
and prescriptive aspect of 662
and shortcomings of literature on 655
and soft version of 662–3, 664–5
and typology of practices 335– 6
and weakness of universalistic claims of 662
and workplace practices 49– 50
Hungary:
and collective bargaining 376
and employment protection 605
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 365, 369, 376–7, 704
and wage inequality 714
and works councils 373
hybridization 77, 158
and discouragement of 157
and institutional change 164
and managerial practice 666–7
and multinational corporation practices 54
Hyundai 458
Hyundai Motor Company 100
Iceland 704, 707, 709
ideas:
and constructivist institutionalism 207–9, 210–12
and institutional change 210
Imbokodvo National Movement (INM, Swaziland) 405
imperfect competition 116
import substitution industrialization (ISI), and Latin America 417
income distribution:
and employment systems 42
and Nordic countries 307
income inequality 235–6
(p. 745) and liberal market economies 35, 235, 266, 267, 285
and trends in 714–15
India 15, 253, 431
and Africa 450
and balance of payments crisis (1991-92) 456–7
and collective bargaining 457, 458
and economic growth 450, 456
and economic resilience 457
and employer strategies 457, 458–9
and employment law avoidance 458–9
and employment relations developments 456–9
and Industrial Relations Act 458
and labour market 457
and labour market policies 450
and multinational corporations' influence 458
and National Labour Commission 457
and population growth 449
and trade unions 457
and training and development 458
Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) 457
individualization of employment relations 24, 245, 246
Indonesia 14, 431, 433, 436–8
and alternative labour movement 437
and Asian financial crisis (1997) 435, 437
and colonial legacy 436
and democratization 435
and foreign influences on employment practices 435
and international labour movement 438
and labour repression 436
and liberalization of employment relations 437
and low road strategy 436, 443
and migration 571, 576
and Pancasila Industrial Relations 436–7, 439
and trade unions 436, 437–8
and tripartism 437
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China 450
Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF, USA) 690
industrial conflict:
and Central and Eastern Europe 361, 372–3, 376
and cross-national comparison of trends in 708, 709
and European monetary integration 325
and game theoretical analysis of 194
and Japan 340
and liberal market economies 280–2
and Nordic countries 295
and Vietnam 440
industrial democracy 522–3, 527
see also voice
industrial districts 30, 95–7, 160, 161
industrial policy 75
industrial relations (IR) 12
and actors within 223
in age of global instability 251–5
and Berkeley-Harvard tradition 223–4
and business systems theory 29–30
and centrality of institutions 222, 223, 236
and collective bargaining 225–6
and diversification of 140
and firm size 179
and historical institutionalism 28
and institutional labour economics 23–4
and institutionalist-pluralist tradition 223–7
and institutions 660–1
and long wave theories 247–50, 252–4
and Marxist-inspired analyses of 243–4
and neo-pluralism 233
and new statism 34
and organizational-societal approaches 25–6
and overview of classical debates in 241–3
and personnel management 23
and radical approaches to 243–7
and radical-institutionalist tradition 227–31
and rational choice approaches 24–5
and regulation theory 28–9
and role of unions in early theories 242
and sector type 179
and social systems theory 30
and sociological tradition in contemporary institutional analysis 231–6
and tripartite bargaining system 242
and varieties of capitalism approach 27, 233–5
industrial revolution, and wage formation 121–2
industrialism, and convergence 43–4
industrialization:
and gendered effects 510–11
and role of the state 622
and wage formation 122
inequality:
in Asia 431
and gender inequality 513, 516–17
as incentive 128
(p. 746) informal economy/employment 15
and Africa 387, 388, 398, 401
and Asia 432
and Central and Eastern Europe 364
and China 459, 460
and gendered nature of 505–6
and global size of 387
and Latin America 423, 425
and Nigeria 94–5
and Russia 454, 455
informally dominated market economies (IDMEs) 387
information and communications technology (ICT), and insecurity 544
information society 246
innovation, and varieties of capitalism approach 268
insecurity:
and comparative institutional theories 545–9
and deregulation 544, 554
and dualization 548
and economic causes 544–5
and globalization 544
and non-standard employment 542
and perceptions of 710–11
and risk society 543–4, 545
and social reproduction 549, 563–4
and structural features of capitalism 547
and technological change 544
and unravelling of the social contract 545
and varieties of capitalism perspective 546–7
and welfare regimes 547–8
institutional change 72–3, 76–8
and capitalist diversity 164–6
and constructivist institutionalism 207–8, 209–10
and endogenous change 193–4
and exogeneity of 166–8
and historical institutionalism 197, 198–9, 202
and hybridization 164
and incremental change 77–8, 197
and layering 52, 77, 200, 353
and political engagement 77, 78
and punctuated equilibria models 77, 193
and rational choice institutionalism 193–4
and sociological institutionalism 204–5
institutional economics 114
institutional labour economics 23–4
institutional plasticity 201
and converging divergencies 50–2
institutional pluralism 223–7
institutionalism 12, 190–1
and comparative employment relations research 213–14
and economic process 658
and employment relations 386
and institutional turn 657
and institutionalist-pluralist tradition 223–7
and neo-pluralism 233
and radical-institutionalist tradition 227–31
and sociological tradition in contemporary analysis 231–6
sociological institutionalism
institutions 11
and business systems theory 29–30
and changes in 31
and complementarity 32, 192
and cross-national diversity in employment relations policies 48
and culturalist view of 51
and definition of 387
and diversity in 48, 168–9, 474
and elite breakage of 9
and employment relations 1
and experimentational change 32
and financialization 33–4
and fluidity of 31
and functional explanation of 192–3
and historical institutionalism 27–8
and industrial relations 23–4, 222, 660–1
and institutional drift 701–2
and internal diversity 31–2
and multi-archetypical models 29–30
and multinational corporations 54
and new statism 34
and order 24
and organizational-societal approaches 25–6
and origins of 191–2, 196–7, 203, 207–8
and rational choice approaches 24–5
and regional and sectoral differences 32
and regulation theory 28–9
and reproduction of 192–3, 197–8, 203–4, 208–9
(p. 747) as resources 51
and social systems theory 30
and spatial analysis 31
and temporal analysis 31
and varieties of capitalism approaches 26–7
intellectual property 5
interdependence, and employment relations 178
interest groups, and indirect support from the state 620
internal market 134–5
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) 372, 644
International Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and their Families (1996) 580
international financial institutions (IFIs) 163, 466
international financial markets 127
International Framework Agreements (IFAs) 483, 693–4
International Labour Organization (ILO) 434, 435, 437, 482, 573
and core labour standards 482–3
and labour standards 205
and migration 580, 581
international labour standards 474, 488
and civil society-led multi-stakeholder initiatives 485–6
and codes of conduct 484–5
and comparing mechanisms 487
and emergence of 482
and global value chain governance 693–4
and industry-led multi-stakeholder initiatives 486–7
and International Framework Agreements 483, 693–4
and market-based standards 484
and private labour governance 484
and transnational institution-led multi-stakeholder standards 486
and voluntary standards 484–7
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 163, 318, 345, 398, 637
International Organization for Migration (IMO) 573
international organizations, and labour relations 632
International Standardization Organization (ISO) 487
international trade, and changes in 8–9
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) 435, 644, 645
internationalization 52, 73, 86
and business systems theory 105, 107
and dominance of finance 127
Iraq conflict 3
Ireland 263
and asset boom 320
and collective bargaining 274, 278, 279
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employee voice 283
and employers' associations 277
and employment protection 271, 605, 710
and euro crisis 317, 320
and foreign direct investment 268
and government bailout 320–1
and industrial conflict 709
and low pay 267
and minimum wage 610
and part-time employment 711
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 595
and poor financial regulation 320–1
and role of the state 272
and social partnership 279–80, 709
and taxation levels 595, 596
and trade union density 273, 274, 276
and working days lost 281
Italy:
and collective bargaining 707
and collective labour rights 599, 601
and employment protection 605, 607
and euro crisis 317, 318
and industrial districts 30, 97
and part-time employment 711
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and taxation levels 596
and temporary employment 712
and trade unions 647
Japan 8, 13, 30, 334
and adjustments to employment practices 345–8
and business system 104–5
and changes in labour market structure 345–6
and collective bargaining 339–40, 348
and decentralized bargaining 348
(p. 748) and diffusion of US-style practices 163
and dual industrial structure 337–8
and earnings inequality 267
and economic growth 344
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employment by gender 551
and employment protection 271, 346, 605
and enterprise unions 338, 339
and gender regulation 560
and kereitsu 104
and lifetime employment 338, 346
and low pay 267
and market-oriented unions 340
and organizational diversity 52
and part-time employment 550, 551
and paternalistic human resource management practices 340
and pay systems 338–9, 346– 7, 348
and pension system 353–4
and performance pay 347
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 595
and pressures for change 344
and regulation of non-standard employment 555–7, 559, 560
and seniority-based pay 338, 346
and social protection 543
and taxation levels 597
and trade union density 273
and traditional employment practices 337–40
and unemployment 344, 346
and working days lost 281, 340
and workplace practices 44–5
Japan Council of Metalworkers' Unions (IMF-JC) 340, 348
joint consultative committees (JCCs) 528–9
Jordan 577, 581
Kaldorian circle 1, 2, 33
Kazakhmys 107
Kenya 385, 387, 400–1
kereitsu 104
Keynesianism 207, 242, 245, 476, 477, 478, 590
Korean Confederation of Trade Unions (KCTU) 350
Kuwait 576, 578, 581
labour markets:
and dualization of 8
and legal regulation 177
and regulation of 674–5
labour process, and trade unions 639
labour process theory 37, 231, 243, 623
labour regulation 552–3
and balancing efficiency and equity 671
as continuous and imperfect process 672
and employment contracts 670–1
and gendered division of work 553
and Germany 555–7
and institutional frameworks 675
and Japan 555–7
and local forms of 669
and national diversity 670
and neo-liberalism 675–6
and non-standard employment 553, 558–61
and path dependence 676
and scales of governance 668–9
and spatio-temporal fixes 671–2
and uneven development 669–70, 676
and United Kingdom 558
and United States 557–8
labour sociology 114
labour standards 205
Laos 431
Latin America 14
and democratic transition 417
and democratization 417
and differences between de jure and de facto labour standards 416, 424
and economic reforms 420–1
and employers' associations 424
and employment laws index 416
and employment protection 421, 423–4
and employment regulation with left and non-left governments 418, 419, 420
and employment relations before left turn 417
and employment rigidity 418, 419, 420
and government partisanship and reform 421
and grassroots mobilization 426
and hierarchical market economy 414, 417–18, 422–3
and impact of left turn on employment relations 413, 414, 421–2, 425–6
and informal economy 423, 425
and informal employment relations 416
and inherited structural constraints 417
and intra-regional diversity 425
and left turn in 413, 415
(p. 749) and legacy of import substitution industrialization 417
and non-wage labour costs 419, 421
and obstacles to skill development 424–5
and obstacles to union-employer cooperation 425
and personal compensation 421
and political economy characteristics 423
and regulation of employment relationship 416
and social security laws index 416
and trade unions 423, 426
and unemployment insurance 421–2
and worker representation 416
Latvia 364, 594
law 11–12, 173
and beneficiaries of 174–5, 183
and civil law 176–7, 178–9
and common law 176, 177
and comparative institutional analysis 174–5
and compatibility of owner and worker rights 183
and complementarity 184
and compulsory redundancy 180
and continuum of systems 177
and Durkheim's classical sociology 175–6
and economic performance 178, 186
and effects of legal system on employment relations 178–81, 182
and evolution of legal systems 184
and exaggeration of effects on firm behaviour 182
and firm training expenditure 180
and hybrid legal systems 182, 184
and indefensibility of primacy of owners' rights 182–3
and internal diversity 177–8
and legal origins 25, 177–8, 180–1, 184–5, 186, 269
and market regulation 177
and multinational corporations 180
and path dependence 177, 178
and property rights 175
and protection of private property rights 176, 177
and reservations about legal families theory 182–4
and social organization 174
and social solidarity 174, 175–6, 185–6
and staff turnover 180
and trade unions 179–80, 182
and uneven enforcement 183
and variations within legal systems 180
layering 52, 77, 200, 353
lean production 44
legitimation 25, 203–4, 386
Lehman Brothers 56
leverage, and economic growth 7
liberal market economies (LMEs) 9, 12–13, 45, 66, 250
and changes in 165
and characteristics of 46, 156, 530, 658
and collective bargaining 273– 4, 278– 9, 280
and common law traditions 269
and deindustrialization 268
and deregulation 270
and dismissal rates 264–5
and diversity within 27, 157, 283–4, 658
and downsizing rates 265
and dualism in employment relations 71
and earnings inequality 266, 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employee voice 282–3
and employers' associations 277
and employment outcomes in 264–8
and employment protection 270– 1
and employment relations in 46, 263–4, 283–5
and global economic crisis 477
and industrial conflict 280–2
and innovation 268
and institutional context of employment relations 268–9
and labour share of national income 713
and labour turnover 265–6
and liberalization 270
and low pay 266, 267
and manufacturing industry 268
and minimum wage 271–2
and new statism 34
and performance pay 266–8
and political characteristics 272
and role of the state 269–73
and sectoral diversity 161
and service sector 268
and skills regime 66–7
and social protection system 67
and strengths and weaknesses of 157
and trade unions 273– 4, 275–6
and voice 530, 532
and wage inequality 714
and working days lost 281–2
Libya conflict 3
lifelong learning, and Nordic countries 302
(p. 750) Lithuania 375, 599
long waves 2–3, 18, 36, 167, 245–6, 247–50, 252–4
low pay, and liberal market economies 266, 267
low road competitiveness strategy 10, 56, 245, 250
and Indonesia 436, 443
and negative complementarities 432–3
and Southeast Asia 435–6, 444
and Vietnam 436
Luxembourg 593, 595, 601
Maastricht Treaty (1991) 326
macrocorporatism 69, 78–80
macroeconomic policy 16, 589– 90, 621–2
Malaysia 431, 433, 441–2
and colonial legacy 441
and corporatism 441
and Export Processing Zones 442
and garment and textile industry 443
and high road strategy 14, 433, 436, 442–3
and migration 577
and negative complementarities 443
and trade unions 434, 441–2, 443
Malaysian Labour Organization (MLO) 445n15
Malaysian Trades Union Congress (MTUC) 442
male-breadwinner model 256, 543, 549, 552, 553, 554, 560, 563
managerial practice 17
and balancing efficiency and equity 665
and conditioning effects of institutions 661–2
and dichotomous understandings of 655, 665–6
and diversity of 661, 667, 672–3
and frontier of control 673
and hard version of human resource management 662, 663–4
and hybrid forms of 666–7
and politicized nature of 671
and shortcomings of literature on 655
and soft version of human resource management 662–3, 664–5
and uncertainty 666
manufacturing industry:
in developing Asia 431–2
and liberal market economies 268
market flexibility:
and collective action 139
and employment relations 132, 136, 146
and unionization 140
marketization, and wage-labour nexus 147–8
Marxism 227, 228, 232, 236, 243, 619
meso-corporatism 70
microeconomics of labour 114
migration 16, 582–3
and bilateral agreements between states 576–7, 580
and circular migration 575
and citizenship 501, 509, 510, 580, 631
and development 572, 573–5
and employment relations 572, 575–8
and feminization of 578
and forms of 572
and gendered political economy of 580–2
and global care chains 579, 582
and globalization 571, 572, 574
and guest worker programmes 575
and illegal immigrants 35, 164
and international conventions 580–1
and labour brokers 577
and labour coercion 164
and management of 575
and neo-liberalism 164
and Nordic countries 308–9, 311
and precariat 35
and regulation by receiving countries 581
and regulation by sending countries 580–1
and remittances 572, 574
and restrictions on women 571, 581–2
and South-South migration 574
and state political traditions 631
and state's role in 577, 582
and temporary labour migration 574
and trade unions 580, 630–1, 641
and transnationalism 574
and women 571, 578–9
minimum wage:
and absence in Nordic countries 307, 308
and cross-national comparison 608, 609– 11
and liberal market economies 271–2
and neo-liberalism 605
and social democratic regimes 605
Mitsubishi Motor Company 100
mixed market economies (MMEs) 13, 157
in European Monetary Union 318–19
and global economic crisis 477
mobilization theory 247, 248
Moldova 374
monetary policy, and international financial markets 127–8
Mongolia 576
(p. 751) Mont Pelerin society 208
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC, Zimbabwe) 405
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD, Zambia) 399
Mozambique 387, 688
Multi-Fibre Arrangement 443
multinational corporations (MNCs) 30, 72
and authority relations 106
and BRICS countries 466
and business systems theory 105–6
and collective bargaining 630
and consumers’ influence on labour standards 484
and country of origin effect 55, 106, 180
and dealing with cross-national differences 53–4
and decentralization of industrial relations 54
as drivers of within-country diversity 53–5
and employment relations 106
and influence on national employment relations 629–30, 695
and institutional duality 205–6
and national institutions 54
as norm entrepreneurs 163
and organizational careers 106
and parent country government 695
and pressures for coordination of policies 54
and regime shopping 474, 629
and reinforcement of local practices 163
and sociological institutionalism 205–6
and standardization of employment practices 53
Myanmar (Burma) 431
Namibia 385, 396–7
National Council of Unions (NACTU, South Africa) 462
National Economic Development and Labour Advisory Council (South Africa) 395, 688
national income, and labour share of 712– 13, 714
National Rainbow Coalition (Narc, Zambia) 401
National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW) 396, 397
National Working People's Convention (Zimbabwe) 404–5
Nautilus (trade union) 644
negative complementarities 432–3, 443
neo-corporatism 242
neo-liberalism 16, 244
and collective bargaining 603–4
and collective labour rights 590, 599, 604, 612–13
and constructivist analysis of rise of 208–9
and differential adoption of 591
and diversity in employment relations policies 52
and dominance of 7
and employment protection 590, 605, 607, 612
and enclosure of intellectual commons 5
and European Union 612, 641
and globalization 657
and government policy 591
as historical rupture 247
and implications of 675–6
and insecurity 544
and macroeconomic policy 590
and migration 164
and minimum wage 605, 610
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 591, 592, 593– 4, 595, 612
and prolongation of economic downswing 253
and resistance to 79
and state intervention 246
and taxation levels 595– 6, 597, 598, 599
and trade unions 612–13, 637, 640
and uneven development of 676
neo-Malthusianism 36
neo-pluralism 233
Nepal 431, 434, 571
Netherlands:
and collective labour rights 599
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271, 607, 710
and euro crisis 318
and flexicurity 300, 301
and industrial conflict 325
and low pay 267
and part-time employment 711
and 'polder' model 30
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593–4
and social pacts 709
and taxation levels 595–6
and temporary employment 712
and trade union density 273
and wage inequality 714
and working days lost 281
(p. 752) new actors in employment relations 17, 683–4, 686–7
and constraints on 696, 698
and context for emergence of 684–5
and corporate social responsibility 694
and diversity of 688, 696, 697
and employers' associations 689–90
and employment agencies 692
and foreign governments 689, 698
and global value chain governance 693–4
and impact of 696–7
and international actors 693–5
and International Framework Agreements 693–4
and multinational corporations 695
and need for 683
and public service users/clients 692–3
and scope for emergence of 698
and sovereign wealth funds 688–9, 698
and state agencies 688–9
and types of 685–8
and workers' agencies 690–1
New Left 227
New Public Management 621
new statism 34, 35–6, 161–2
New Zealand 263
and collective bargaining 274, 278– 9
and collective labour rights 599, 601
and decline in union strength 275
and earnings inequality 266, 267
and employers' associations 277
and employment protection 271, 605
and labour turnover 265
and low pay 266, 267
and minimum wage 271–2
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593
and role of the state 272
and trade union density 273, 274, 276
and working days lost 281
Ngwane National Liberatory Congress (NNLC, Swaziland) 406
Nicaragua 413, 415
Nigeria 385, 401–3
and informal economy 94–5
Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) 402
Nike 205
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 6, 485–6
non-standard employment 8, 16
and American regulation of 557–8
and British regulation of 558
and civil society actors 564, 565
and comparative institutional theories 545–9
and cross-national comparisons 549, 550–1, 558, 559, 560–1
and definition of 542
and deregulation 544, 554, 561–2
and destabilizing effects of 541
and dualization 548
and economic causes 544–5
and employment contracts 565
and gender regulation 554, 558– 60
and German regulation of 555–7
and globalization 544
and growth and extent of 541
and insecurity 542
and Japanese regulation of 555–7
and labour regulation 553
and national differences in responses to 562
and part-time employment 550–1
and reproductive bargain 549, 563–4
and risk society 543–4, 545
and social reproduction 563–4
and technological change 544
and trade unions 564–5
and varieties of capitalism perspective 546–7, 562–3
Nordic countries 13
and absence of minimum wage 307, 308
and active labour market policies 300
and adaptability of 201, 293, 310
and centralized bargaining 294, 305, 306
and challenges to labour market model 311–12
and characteristics of 292–3, 310
and childcare 299
and collective agreement coverage 307–8
and collective labour rights 601
and demographic challenge 311
and diversity within 293
and education and training 302–3
and employee participation 309–10
and employers' associations 305–6
and employers' governance prerogative 295
and employment protection 300, 301, 310
and employment rates 296– 7, 298
and European Union 308–9
(p. 753) and female labour market participation 296, 298–9
and flexicurity 300–1
and gender equality 299–300
and gender pay gap 300
and historical background 294–6
and industrial conflict 295
and labour immigration 308–9, 311
and labour share of national income 713
and lifelong learning 302
and local wage bargaining 307
and mutual recognition 295
and organized decentralization in bargaining 307
and parental leave 299
and part-time employment 298–9
and peace duty 295
and pressures on centralized bargaining system 295–6
and principles of labour market model 294–5
and response to global economic crisis 80
and social accords 184
and social democratic capitalism 292, 293
and trade unions 303– 5, 307–8, 704
and tripartism 306
and trust 310
and unemployment 297, 298
and varieties of capitalism approach 293
and wage distribution 307
and welfare state 294
and workplace conditions 295, 309–10
see also individual countries
norm entrepreneurs 30, 31–2, 162–3
normative functionalism 224
norms 224
Northern Ireland 107, 160
Norway:
and active labour market policies 300
and centralized bargaining 306
and collective labour rights 601
and corporatism 47
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271, 301, 605
and employment rates 296– 7, 298
and labour immigration 309
and part-time employment 298–9
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 594
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 303– 5
and unemployment 297, 298
and working days lost 281
occupational pensions, and decline of 159
oligarchs 7
optimal currency areas 323–4
order 242
and institutions 24
and state's role in maintaining 251
organized labour, see trade unions
outsourcing 32
owner rights 25
owners, and powers of 175
Paraguay 10, 413, 415
parental leave, and Nordic countries 299
part-time employment:
and cross-national comparison 550–1
and gendered distribution of 550, 551
and growth of 711
and Nordic countries 298–9
party competition, and employers' associations 75–6
path dependence:
and constructivist institutionalism 209
and historical institutionalism 197
and rational choice institutionalism 192, 195
pay systems:
and factors affecting viability of 141–2
and internal market 134–5
and market flexibility 132, 136, 146
and polyvalent stability 131–2, 143
and possible futures of 143, 144–5, 146–7
and professionals 132, 135–6, 143–6
and profit-sharing 136–7
and risk-sharing 132, 137
and secondary market 136
and stakeholding 132, 137
and stock options 137
pension systems 158–9, 353–4
peonage 35
People's United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO, Swaziland) 406, 407
performance pay 266–8, 347, 349–50
personnel management 23
Philippines 431, 576
pluralism 223–7, 618
(p. 754) Poland 361, 364
and collective bargaining 375
and employment protection 605
and industrial conflict 376
and Solidarity 363, 369–70
and temporary employment 712
and trade unions 365, 366, 368, 377, 704
and tripartism 371
and violations of employment law 375
policy elites/community 7
and corruption 7–8
policy-making, and impact of financial globalization 475–8
political behaviour, and individualization of 6
political engagement 77, 78, 79
political parties, and labour market deregulation 683
political power, and shifts in 4, 5
politics:
and absence of meaningful electoral alternatives 37
and coordination 74–5
and elite withdrawal from everyday life 37
and global crisis 36
and the labour process 244
and regional development 159–60
pollution 168
polyvalent stability 131–2, 140, 143
Portugal:
and collective bargaining 707
and collective labour rights 599
and employment protection 605, 710
and euro crisis 317
and part-time employment 711
and social pacts 709
and taxation levels 596
and temporary employment 712
postcolonial studies 256
post-Fordism 3, 245, 246, 247
post-industrialism 246
postmodernism 3–4, 246, 247
precariat:
and composition of 649
and marketability of 167
and migrants 582
and rise of 34–5, 163–4, 167, 532–3
private equity, as norm entrepreneurs 163
private governance 482
production paradigms, and changes in 125–6
production regimes 244
and changes in 3
and coordinated markets 156
and role of the state 117
and wage-labour nexus 116
professionals:
and collective action 139
and employment relations 143–6
and employment relationship 132, 134, 135–6
and unionization 140
profit-sharing 136–7
project networks 95–8
property markets, and over-inflation of 4
property rights 175, 176, 177
proportional representation (PR) 74–5, 160, 593
prosumers 254
public goods 511–12
public service users/clients 692–3
quantitative easing 162
radical institutionalism 227–31
rational choice institutionalism 12, 24–5, 191
and actor preferences 191–2, 193, 194, 195
and applications in employment relations 194–5, 386
and assessment of 195–6
and assumptions of 195
and collective action 195
and employment relations research 213
and functional explanation of institutions 192–3
and institutional change 193–4
and origins of institutions 191–2
and path dependence 192, 195
and reproduction of institutions 192–3
and worker rights 25
recession, and economic growth 2–3
Red Federation of Trade Unions (Vietnam) 438
redundancy, and legal systems 180
regional diversity 71, 159–60
and sectoral diversity 160–1
regional organizations 6
regulated competition 73
regulation theory 11, 28–9, 37, 115, 245–6, 659–60
and capitalist change 246
and centrality of wage-labour nexus 116
and co-evolution of wage-labour nexus and macroeconomic regimes 118–29
(p. 755) and collective action 137, 138, 139–41
and comparison of employment relationships in 1960s and 1990s 134, 135, 136–7
and contribution to analysis of employment relations 150–2
and destabilization of Golden Age institutional architecture 124–6
and determinants of modern employment relations 133
and factors affecting viability of employment relations 141–2
and fait salarial 669
and flexicurity 148– 9, 150
and Fordism 123
and forms of competition 116
and hierarchy of institutional forms 126
and historical wage formation patterns 121–3
and ideal types of employment relationships 131, 132
and (in)stability of industrial relations 670
and institutional integration 670
and international regimes 117
and levels of governance 668
and long waves 245–6
and long-run transformations in labour market institutions 118, 119–20
and marketization of wage-labour-nexus 147–8
and methodological principles 115–17
and modes of regulation 245
and possible futures for employment relations 143, 144–5, 146–7
and post-Fordism 245, 246
and post-war capital-labour compromise 123– 4
and rapport salarial 669
and regimes of accumulation 245
and reinterpretation of the past 130–1
and restructuring of institutional forms 126– 7, 128–9
and role of the state 116–17
and social regulation 659
and structural compatibility of institutional forms 117– 18
and systemic change 29, 165
and taxonomy of contemporary wage-labour nexus 131, 132–3, 134
and transformations of capitalism 115
and unionization 140–1
regulationist literature 3
remittances, and migration 572, 574
rentiers 29, 33
Republican Party (USA) 168
resource constraints 7, 36
Responsible Jewellery Council 487
retail industry 4
risk society 543–4, 545
risk-sharing 132, 137, 139, 140–1
Romania 365, 373, 375, 380
Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil 487
rule of law, and fragmented business systems 94
rules:
and legitimation 25
and role of the state 620
Russia 9, 15
and centralized hierarchies 100–1
and economic growth 454–5
and economic transition 454
and employment relations developments 454–6
and industrial conflict 376
and Labour Codes 373, 455
and labour market 455
and private sector 363
and trade union impact on pay levels 377
and trade unions 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 371, 377, 455
and violations of employment law 374–5
Salish blankets 495, 497
Samsung 100
Saudi Arabia 576, 581
Scotland 32, 107, 160, 177–8
Seattle, and World Trade Organization protest 194–5, 249
secondary market 136
sectoral diversity 71, 160–1
segmentation, theory of 134
segmented business systems 387
service sector:
and female labour market participation 507
and liberal market economies 157, 158, 268
sexuality at work 513
share ownership, and Germany-United Kingdom comparison 102
shareholder capitalism 26
shareholder value 5, 33, 479, 480
short-termism 5, 33, 36
Silicon Valley 97, 268, 284
(p. 756) skill formation regimes 11
and business systems theory 88
and competitive strategy of firms 67
and coordinated market economies 66
and diversity in vocational training 70–1
and fragmented business systems 94
and historical institutionalist analysis of 199–200
and liberal market economies 66–7
and social protection systems 67
Slovak Republic 704, 706, 710
Slovakia 9, 365, 376
Slovenia 9, 14
and collective bargaining 373, 375, 706, 707
and collective labour rights 601
as coordinated market economy 379
and corporatism 371
and employment protection 607, 710
and social pacts 709
and trade unions 365, 371, 704
and works councils 373
small and medium-sized enterprises 525
social action 31–2
social contract 543
social democracy 292, 293
and collective bargaining 603, 604
and collective labour rights 590, 604–5
and financial globalization 476
and individual labour rights 590, 605
and macroeconomic policy 590
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 591, 592, 593– 4, 595
and social spending 74
social dumping 474
social mobility, downward 35
social movement unionism 255, 642, 648–9, 650
social movements 6
social pacts 720n3
and corporatism 627
and cross-national comparison of trends in 707– 8, 709
and factors associated with 628
and the state 613
social power 683, 697
social protection:
and destabilization of 128
and skills regimes 67
and social contracts 543
social reproduction 498, 499, 507–8
and insecurity 549, 563–4
social science theory:
and need for Southern perspective on 504–5
and Northern bias of 504
social solidarity:
and law 174, 175–6, 185–6
and macrocorporatist coordination 79–80
social systems, long-term evolution of 36
social systems theory 30
societal corporatism 48
societal factors shaping employment relations 2–10
sociological institutionalism 12, 202
and applications in employment relations 205–6, 386
and assessment of 206–7
and collective organizations 204
and criticisms of 206–7
and equal opportunities 205
and field concept 203
and institutional change 204–5
and institutional entrepreneurship 204–5
and institutional logics 203
and institutional work 203
and international diffusion of ideas 206
and interpretive struggles 204
and labour standards 205
and legitimation processes 203–4, 386
and logics of consequences and appropriateness 202
and multinational corporations 205–6
and origins of institutions 203
and paradox of embedded agency 204
and reproduction of institutions 203–4
sociology:
and contemporary institutional analysis 231–6
and institutionalist-pluralist tradition 223–7
and radical-institutionalist tradition 227–31
Solidarity 363, 369–70
Solidarity Support Organizations 435, 438
South Africa 9, 15, 385, 394–6, 450
and bargaining councils 395, 462, 463
and Basic Conditions of Employment Act (1998) 463
and Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment Power Act (2004) 464
and collective bargaining 395, 462
(p. 757) and Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration 395–6, 462
and deterioration in employment standards 463
and dispute resolution 464
and Employment Equity Act (1998) 464
and employment relations developments 395, 462–5
and fragmentation of bargaining 463
and HIV/AIDS 465
and human resource development 465
and Industrial Conciliation Act (1924) 394
and Labour Relations Act (1995) 395, 462, 463–4
and population growth 449
and prohibitions on unfair discrimination 464–5
and state agencies 688
and trade unions 394–5, 462
and transitional challenges 465
and tripartism 394–5
and worker service organizations 691
South African Clothing and Textile Workers Union (SACTWU) 463
South African Communist Party (SACP) 394
South Korea 13, 334–5
and adjustments to employment practices 348–51
and Asian financial crisis (1997) 345, 349
and centralized hierarchies 100
and chaebol 340, 349, 350
and changes in labour market structure 348–9
and collective bargaining 341–2, 350–1
and dual industrial structure 340
and economic growth 345
and employment stability 341
and lifetime employment 341, 350
and market- and society-oriented unions 342
and migration 576
and paternalistic human resource management practices 342
and pay systems 341, 349
and performance pay 349–50
and pressures for change 345
and recruitment practices 350
and research and development 350
and seniority-based pay 341
and trade unions 341, 350
and traditional employment practices 340–2
and training and development 350
and unemployment 345
and urban industrial missions (UIMs) 691
and wage differentials 340
South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) 396, 397
Southeast Asia 14–15, 433, 435–6
and Asian financial crisis (1997) 434–5
and Cold War's influence on 434, 435, 436
and colonialism's influence on 433–4
and common characteristics 435–6, 444
and foreign influences on employment practices 435
and low road strategy 435–6, 444
sovereign wealth funds 35, 167, 688–9, 698
Soviet Union 125, 359, 360, 361, 362
Spain 32
and asset boom 320
and collective bargaining 707
and employment protection 605, 710
and employment relations 211
and euro crisis 317, 320
and part-time employment 711
and protest movements 647
and taxation levels 596
and temporary employment 712
and trade unions 704
Sri Lanka 431, 434, 571, 576, 580
Stability and Growth Pact 318, 328
staff turnover:
and legal systems 180
and liberal market economies 265–6
and South Korea 341
stakeholder capitalism 26
stakeholding:
and collective action 139
and employment relations 132, 137
and unionization 141
state, the 620
and acceptance of trade unions 600, 601
and business systems theory 87–8, 161
and collective bargaining 602– 3, 604
and collective labour rights 590, 597–605
and competition state 474
and conceptions of 618
and corporatism 618, 619, 622, 626–7
and critical theory 619
and cross-national comparison of role of 623– 4, 625–6
and definition of 619
and economy, changed relations with 128
(p. 758) and employee voice 526
as employer 621
and evolution of political economic institutions 75
and globalization 627
and historical institutionalism 633
and indirect support to interest groups 620
and individual labour rights 590, 605– 6, 607– 9, 610–11
and industrialization 622
and laissez-faire tradition 618
and liberal market economies 269–73
and macroeconomic policy 589– 90, 621–2
and Marxist employment relations 619
and migration 630–1
and minimum wage 605, 608, 609– 11
and multinational corporations 629–30
and neo-liberalism 246
and pluralist employment relations 618
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 591, 592, 593– 4, 595
and political traditions 622–6
and provision of public goods 511–12, 620–1
and responses to global economic crisis 627–9
and role in employment relations 5–6, 16, 116–17, 161–2, 589, 618–22, 689
and rule-making 620
and social pacts 613, 627, 628
and state-church relations 622
and statist tradition 618
and taxation 595– 6, 597, 598, 599
and varieties of capitalism model 74
and works councils 602
state agencies, as new actors in employment relations 688–9
state regulation, and globalization 481
Steveston fish cannery 495, 496, 497
stock markets, and international integration of 479
stock options 137
strategic choice framework 194, 234, 655
strikes, see industrial conflict
structuration theory 166
sub-Saharan Africa, see Africa
supermarkets 4
supranational actors, and capitalist diversity 163–4
Swaziland 385, 405–7
Swaziland Federation of Labour (SFL) 406
Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions (SFTU) 406, 407
Sweden 48, 69
and active labour market policies 300
and Basic Agreement (1938) 626
and centralized bargaining 306
and collective bargaining 706–7
and collective labour rights 601
and corporatism 47
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271, 301, 605
and employment rates 296– 7, 298
and industrial conflict 709
and labour immigration 308–9
and part-time employment 298–9
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 594
and Rehn-Meidner model 301
and role of the state 625–6
and taxation levels 596
and trade unions 195, 303– 5, 307–8, 704
and unemployment 297, 298
and vocational training 302
and working days lost 281
Switzerland:
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 265
and employment protection 271
and industrial conflict 709
and low pay 267
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 595
and taxation levels 597
and wage inequality 714
and working days lost 281
systemic change 164–6
and exogeneity of 166–8
and regulation theory 29
Taiwan 13, 335
and adjustments to employment practices 351–2
and changes in labour market structure 351
and collective bargaining 344
and economic growth 345
and foreign influences on employment practices 342
and human resource management practices 342–3, 351
and market- and society-oriented unions 344
and paternalistic human resource management practices 344
(p. 759) and pressures for change 345
and small and medium-sized enterprises 342
and trade unions 343–4, 352
and traditional employment practices 342–4
and unemployment 345
takeovers, and financial globalization 481
Tanzania 387
Tata Group 457
Tavistock Institute 526
taxation, and levels of 595– 6, 597, 598, 599
technological advances:
and current crisis 4–5
and energy transitions 167–8
and insecurity 544
and obstacles to 5
Telebras (Brazil) 452
Telefonica (Brazil) 454
temporary employment 241, 299, 301, 555, 558, 561–2, 710
and employment protection 606, 607, 710
and growth of 712
terms and conditions of employment, trends in 709, 715–16
and changes in structure of employment 711–12
and employment protection 708, 710–11
and labour share of national income 712– 13, 714
and wage inequality 714–15
and worsening of 1
Thailand 431, 576
Thatcherism 231
Timor-Leste 435
trade deficits 8
Trade Union Congress of Namibia (TUCNA) 397
trade unions 17, 637–8
and centrality to study of employment relations 242
and challenges facing 637–8, 640–1, 646, 650
and characteristics of 639–40
and class-oriented unions 337
and coercion 195
and collective bargaining 225–6
and convergence 45
and cross-national comparison of union density 705
and decentralized bargaining 49
and decline of 45, 179, 241, 275–6, 702, 704–6, 715
and defensive strategies 646
and democracy 407–8
and democratic participation 647–8, 651
and divergent trends in density 47
and early industrial relations theories 242
and economistic unions 648
and functions of 74
and government acceptance of 600, 601
and high road competitiveness strategy 245
and incentives to join 195
and institutional influences on ideology 210–11
and institution/movement distinction 643
and International Framework Agreements 483
and the labour process 639
and legal systems 179–80, 182
and liberal market economies 273–6
and long wave theories 247–9
and market flexibility 140
and market-oriented unions 337
and migration 580, 630–1, 641
and neo-liberalism 612–13, 637, 640
and non-standard employment 564–5
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 591, 592, 593– 4, 595
and polyvalent stability 140
and post-socialist countries 643
and professionals 140
and protest movements 647
and regional diversity 159
and renewal of 646–8, 650, 718
and responsible unionism 641–2
and revitalization strategies 276
and risk-sharing 140–1
and role of 176
and social movement unionism 255, 642, 648–9, 650
and social spending 74
and society-oriented unions 337
and stakeholding 141
and trade union density 273, 274, 276
and transition societies 643, 646
and transnational unionism 643–5
and typology of ideal types 336– 7
and voice 525
and the workplace 643
see also under individual countries
training systems 88, 302–3
transaction cost economics 91
transformative social activity 656
transitional economies, and firm-level strategic performance 456
transnationalism, and migration 574
(p. 760) transnationalization 72–3
tripartism 69, 242, 388, 601
and Asia, developing countries in 434
and Central and Eastern Europe 370–1, 627
and China 461
and corporatism 627
and Czech Republic 371
and Ghana 393
and Indonesia 437
and industrial relations 242
and Nordic countries 306
and Poland 371
and South Africa 394–5
and Vietnam 440
trust 235
and business systems theory 88–9
and fragmented business systems 94
and industrial relations 229
and Nordic countries 310
Uganda 387
Ukraine 363, 365, 367
unemployment:
and Japan 344, 346
and Nordic countries 297, 298
and rise in 125
and South Korea 345
and Taiwan 345
Union Network International (UNI) 454
United Arab Emirates 581
United Kingdom 263
and collective bargaining 274, 279
and collective labour rights 601
and dismissal rates 264
and downsizing rates 265
and dualism in employment relations 47
and earnings inequality 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employee voice 283
and employers' associations 277
and employment by gender 551
and employment protection 271, 605
and financialization 717
and gender regulation 560
and industrial relations 229–30
and Japanese multinational corporations 163
and labour turnover 265
and low pay 267
and minimum wage 272, 610
and new statism 5, 162
and part-time employment 550–1
and political and industrial strength of organized labour 594
and private pension crisis 158–9
and regulation of non-standard employment 557–8, 559, 560
and response to global economic crisis 628–9
and role of the state 269–70, 623
and stock market capitalization and stock distribution 102
and sub-national diversity 107, 160
and taxation levels 595, 596
and trade unions 273, 274, 275, 276
and wage inequality 714
and working days lost 281
United National Independent Party (UNIP, Zambia) 398, 399
United Nations Global Compact 486
United Nations Principles for Responsible Investment 486
United States 263
and call centres 201
and changes in employment relations 194
and collective bargaining 274, 278, 279
and corporate restructuring 479
and dismissal rates 264
and downsizing rates 265
and dualism in employment relations 47, 71, 561
and earnings inequality 266, 267
and employee tenure 264, 265
and employers' associations 277
and employment by gender 551
and employment protection 271
and employment rights organizations 690
and equal opportunities 205
and financialization 717
and gender regulation 560
and influence on international convergence 44
and innovation 268
and internal diversity in employment relations 27
and labour turnover 265
and legalization of employment relations 272
and low pay 267
and minimum wage 272
and new statism 5, 34, 35–6, 161–2, 658
and part-time employment 550, 551
and performance pay 266
(p. 761) and political and industrial strength of organized labour 593, 594–5
and political characteristics 272
and regional labour market institutions 162
and regulated competition 73
and regulation of non-standard employment 557–8, 559, 560
and taxation levels 595, 596
and trade unions 273, 274, 275, 276
and wage inequality 714
and working days lost 281
urban industrial missions (UIMs, South Korea) 691
Uruguay 413, 415, 426
variegated capitalism 29, 37–8
varieties of capitalism (VoC) 9, 10–11, 65, 80, 156–7, 334, 387
and actor preferences 197
and change 250, 251
and competitive strategy of firms 67
and complementarities 45–6, 67, 76, 157
and convergence 45–7
and criticisms of 27, 65–6, 68, 73, 234, 250–1, 334, 531, 658
and determinism of approach 46
and differences from business system framework 90
and discouragement of hybrid models 157
and diversity in vocational training 70–1
and dual convergence 45–6
and economic performance 26
and firm-level diversity 71–2
and firms' attitudes towards social investment 74
and industrial relations 233–5
and informally dominated market economies 387
and innovation 268
and institutional change 76–8
and institutional complementarities 45–6, 67
and institutional turn 657
and institutions 26–7
and multinational corporations 72–3
and national diversity 68–70
and neglect of organized labour 74
and neglect of the state 74
and non-standard employment 546–7, 562–3
and Nordic countries 293
and sectoral/regional diversity 71
and significance of approach 657
and skills regimes 66–7
and social protection systems 67
and strategic interaction of actors 197
and strengths and weaknesses of alternative models 157
and strengths of approach 68
and temporal diversity 73
and voice 522, 523–4, 530–1
and welfare state policies 74
market economies (LMEs)
Venezuela 10, 413, 695
Vietnam 14, 431, 433, 438–40
and collective bargaining 439, 440
and economic growth 439
and industrial conflict 440
and low road strategy 436
and migration 576
and reform of employment relations 439–40
and trade unions 438–9
and tripartism 440
Vietnam General Confederation of Labour (VGCL) 438–9, 440
Vietnamese Confederation of Christian Workers 438
vocational training 70–1, 77–8, 302–3
voice 15–16, 534–5
and broad scope of term 524
and collective action 137–9
and concerns over motivations for 523
and contexts of 530–3
and coordinated market economies 531, 533–4
and criticisms of participation 530
and definition of 524
and diverse forms of 531, 533–4
and economic efficiency 527
and employee engagement 527–8
and employee participation 526–7
and employee-employer interdependence 523–4
and employers' motives for promoting 523
and exit 532
and external influences on management 529
and indirect participation 528
and industrial democracy 527
and informal voice 534
and integrated approach to 534
(p. 762) and joint consultative committees 528–9
and labour market's influence on 532
and legislative frameworks 531
and liberal market economies 282–3, 530, 532
and management's role in operation of 526, 527, 529
and meaning of 522–3
and mutual gains 523
and non-union forms of 525
and participation 523
and political and economic environment 532
and positive impacts of 529
and practical outcomes of 525
and product market's influence on 531–2
and representation gap 525–6
and role of the state 526
and silence 526
and small and medium-sized enterprises 525
and systemic crises 532–3
and trade unions 525
and value of concept 535
and varieties of capitalism perspective 522, 523–4, 530–1
wages:
and historical wage formation patterns
and labour share of national income 712–13, 714
Wales 32, 107, 160
war 3, 34
Warwick Industrial Relations Research Unit 225
Washington consensus 253
welfare capitalism 99
welfare regimes 547–8
and corporatist regimes 243
and liberal regimes 242–3
and Nordic countries 294
and social democratic regimes 243
Wiehann Commission (Namibia) 396, 397
Wisconsin 276
women 15
and double burden of 499, 507
and impact of industrialization 510–11
and improvement in position of 10
and informal employment 505–6
and migration 571, 578–9, 581–2
and migration restrictions 571
and paid domestic work 509
in post-socialist societies 511
and reproductive labour 509–10, 564, 579
and under-representation of 515
and unpaid domestic work 508–9
and working time regimes 513–15
work regimes, and heterogeneity of 11
workers' agencies, as new actors in employment relations 690–1
working time 4, 513–15
workplace practices 44–5, 49– 50
works councils 602, 604
World Bank 637
and Doing Business Project 25, 418
and gender inequality 517
and migration-development nexus 574
and remittances into developing countries 572
world systems theory 249, 574
Yong Dong Po (YDP, South Korea) 691
Zambia 385, 398–9
Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU) 398, 399
Zimbabwe 385, 391, 403–5
Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) 403–4
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU) 404–5
Zimbabwe Federation of Trade Unions (ZFTU) 404 (p. 763) (p. 764)