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date: 24 August 2019

(p. 668) (p. 669) Index

(p. 668) (p. 669) Index

Abel, Frederick 33
Abernathy, W. J. 38, 148, 276, 632
absorptive capacity 11 Fig. 1.1, 12, 75, 356, 358, 362, 412, 450, 455, 583, 585, 586, 587
Accenture 172
Acrobat 432
Act for the Encouragement of Learning (1709/1710), UK 560
Actor Network Theory (ANT) 156, 165
and brokerage models 165
Adner, R. 207, 220
adoption of innovation 275–8, 284–5
affective aspects 277
and perception of attributes 276
Rogers’ framework 277–8, 285
socio-cultural dimensions 274, 277
Technology Acceptance Models (TAM) 276–7
advertising 58–9
investment in 399
AEGIS project 78
agency theory 400
Ageron, B. 303
Agnew, J.-C. 272
Ahern, S. 422
airline industry 56, 61, 424, 437, 600, 601, 603, 605, 611, 614
‘scope clauses’ 609
airport efficiency 32
Ajzen, I. 277
Akkerman, H. 434
Alessi 155
‘Family Follows Fiction’ 143–4, 157n
Alexander, J. 469
Alford, R. 168
Alibaba 359
Allen, F. 262
Allen, T. 443
Alliance Boots 408
Alvey Programme, UK 468
Amabile, T. M. 129, 132
Amazon 57, 59, 384, 406, 609, 614
Ambec, S. 296
America Invents Act (2011) 575
Amira International 473, 474
Amit, R. 426, 428, 434
Ampex 659
analogical reasoning 174
Andrews, F. 127
Android operating system 208, 222, 476, 653, 660
Ansari, S. M. 496
Anton, J. J. 239
Apache web server 85, 453
Appellate Court, US 567
Apple 32, 33, 34, 36, 43, 57, 63, 95, 141, 144, 148, 171, 424, 473, 476, 617, 632, 648, 653, 655, 661, 663
contrasted with Microsoft 661–2
‘i’ series and cultural consistency 279 see also iPad; iPhone; iPod; iTunes
Appledorn, Roger 172
appropriability, and appropriability regimes 8, 36, 73, 74, 79, 92
and business ecosystems 220–1
and markets for technology 234
and Pavitt’s sectoral taxonomy 185
and the problem of contamination and open innovate 451–2
and service innovation 609–10
architectural innovation 37, 298
architecture integrality/modularity 338–9, 339–40, 347, 348
integral architecture, Japan 336, 338, 340, 341, 342, 347–50
integrality/export ratio correlation, Japan 346, 351 Fig. 17.2
measuring 350
(p. 670) aristocracy 273
ARM semiconductor 44, 422, 648
Arora, A. 219, 231, 237, 242
Arrow, K. 73, 239
Arup 34, 382, 384, 388, 390
Arvanitis, S. 516
Asch, S. E. 128
assembly lines 29, 169
Association of Project Management (APM), UK 636, 637
asymmetric information 250, 266n
AT & T 476
Audi 651
Augmented Reality (AR) 387–8
Australia 320, 609
Cooperative Research Centres 467, 468
‘harm reduction’ approach to drug addiction 318
automotive industry 8, 64, 169–70, 404, 650
China 362
collaboration 465
consequences of research 7
incremental innovation 31
platforms in 650–1, 652 see also individual companies
Ayuso, S. 304
Bagchi-Sen, S. 78
Bain, J. S. 401
Ballmer, Steve 661, 662
Band Aid 320
Bang & Olufsen 148, 154
Bank of America 613
banks and banking 192
disruptive regulatory changes 14
importance of software development 43
use of digital technologies 385–6
Barbie brand name 648
Barras, R. 39
Barton, M. 130
Basole, R. C. 224n
Batchelor, Charles 171
Baudrillard, J. 279
Bauhaus school 140
Bayh-Dohl Act (1980) 563
Bechky, B. A. 126
Becker, M. C. 652
behavioural theory 400
Bekkers, R. 571
Belgium, venture capital 262
Berg, M. 272, 273
Bergenholtz, C. 107, 111, 112
Berman, S. J. 428
Bessen, J. 568, 574
Better Place 430, 436
Bettis, R. A. 402, 427
Beugelsdijk, S. 516, 518
Bharti Airtel 60
Bhattacharya, S. 635
Bic 57
Bing search engine 476
Binyamin, G. 520
biotechnology 8, 42, 65, 78, 191, 192, 199, 359, 363
and business model innovation 422
and innovative collaboration 410, 467
patenting 232, 237
and pharmaceuticals 71–2, 77, 193
US 262
Birdzell, J. L. E. 71
Black & Decker 650
black box innovation 482
Black, B. S. 262
Blackberry 279, 662
Blackwell’s Dictionary of Twenty-Century Thought 278
Blitz, A. 428
Bloomberg 56
‘blue ocean strategy’ 310
BMW 39, 473
Bock, A. 429, 487
Body Shop 56
Boehnke, J. 430
Boeing 237, 387, 650
Boese, Al 123
Bollywood, India 40
bond markets, and R&D financing 259 Tab 13.2, 260
Booz, Allen and Hamilton 538
Borders 56
Bosch, Carl 32
Boston Consulting Group (BCG) 62, 401
Boston region, USA 40
Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) markets 56–7, 435, 522–3
(p. 671) Bouchikhi, H. 427
Boudreau, K. J. 454, 657
Boulton, Matthew 7
boundary-spanning and internal legitimacy, and open innovation 451
‘bounded rationality’ 187
Bowen, W. G. 603
brain:
neuron networks 102
reaction to cognitive dissonance 135
brainstorming 129–30, 164
Brandenburger, A. M. 218
brands, trademarks and service marks 610
Branstetter, L. 469
Braun, Dave 123
Braverman, H. 377–8
Brazil:
catching up in different sectoral systems 197
Bresnahan, T. 653
British Telecom (BT), collaboration with Du Pont 475
Broadway music industry 108
brokerage 8, 16, 163–77
common threads 166 Fig. 9.1, 166–8
of design language 154
future research 176–7
individuals and groups 173–6
institutional level 168–70
organizations as actors and arenas 170–3
origins in literature 165
role in collaborative innovation 472–3
Brown, A. D. 432
Browning, L. 469
Brusoni, S. 652
Baumol, W. J. 603
Buckley, George 124
built environment 387–8
bundling, and price innovation 58
Burger King 408
Burnett, M. S. 276
Burns, T. 524, 631
Burt, R. S. 169
business ecosystems 154, 188
value externalities 221–2 see also innovation ecosystems
Business Model Canvas 432
business model design (BMD) 424, 425 Fig. 21.1, 425–7
business model reconfiguration (BMR) 420, 421, 424, 425 Fig. 21.1, 427–9
enterprise model 428
industry model 428
revenue model 428
business models (BMs) 8, 16, 22, 42, 54, 420–38, 425 Fig. 21.1
archetypes 432, 433 Fig. 21.2
biotechnology sector 422
bottom-of-the-pyramid (BoP) 56–7, 422–3, 435
China 367
collaborative entrepreneurship 422
design themes/elements 434
disruption 14
emergence of concept 421–3
in emerging markets 422–3
environmental impact 429
‘e3-value ontology’ 434
Freemiums 58, 432
graphical frameworks of 432, 433 Fig. 21.2
and green technologies 430
Internet and ICT technologies 421, 422
managing 434–7, Fig. 21.3
Meta-models 433
as a narrative 432
network externality types 430
razor and razor blade model 432
and sustainability 292, 306–7, 423, 429–31
system-level concepts 423
theory and practice 431, 433 Fig. 21.2
and value networks 423 see also crowdsourcing
business networks 206
business-to-business transactions 285–6
Byrne, J. P. 260
‘Cambridge Phenomenon’ 78
Camelo-Ordaz, C. 519
Camp, M. 426–7
Canada 573
‘harm reduction’ approach to drug addiction 318
Canon 634
(p. 672) capabilities 190–1
importance in catching up 197
sustainable supply and value chain collaboration 303 see also coordinative capabilities; environmental innovation capabilities
capital markets:
and financing innovation 248–66
structure/governance, and the financing of innovation 258–61
capitalism 9
as evolutionary process of innovation and destruction 377
virtues, in evolutionary economics 12
Cappetta, R. 148
Carayannis, E. 469
carbon emissions 79, 280, 281, 297
Carmeli, A. 520
Carpenter, E. 389
Carter, C. R. 302–3
Casadesus-Masanell, R. 422, 433
case studies, as research method 9–10
Case Western Reserve University 613
Cassiman, B. 586
Catherine the Great 273
CATIA software system 31
Caves, R. 234
Ceccagnoli, M. 242
Centre for Social Innovation, Toronto 323
Chakrabarty, S. 300
Chandy, R. 487
Charitou, C. D. 437
Charlotte, Queen 273
Charter Schools 320
Chaudhuri, S. 587
Chen, C. 519
Chen, M. 490
Chen, M-J. 397–8
Chesbrough, H. 422, 424, 427, 442, 443, 654
Chile 40
China 9, 355–73, 351
automotive industry 362
catching up indifferent sectoral systems 197
cognitive patterns 370–1
country-level analysis 356–61
and the Cultural Revolution 357
and cultural values 368–9
emergence into global market 345
emerging industries 363–4
enterprise-level analysis 356, 364–7, 371
foreign direct investment (FDI) 359, 364
historical scientific achievements 355
industry standards 362
industry-level analysis 356, 362–4, 371
innovation policy framework 356–60
institutional setting 356, 369–70
Key State Laboratories 357
labour migration 342–3
‘market for technology’ policy 359, 369
multinational enterprises (MNEs) 364–5
National Innovation System (NIS) 356, 360–1, 364
overview of innovation capability 357–8
‘reverse brain drain’ 359
state-owned enterprises (SOEs) 362, 367–8, 370
technology-based entrepreneurial firms 365–7
‘Spark Program’ 358
‘Torch Program’ 358
China Mobile Communications Group (CMGC) 363, 367–8, 373n
China Telecom 367
China Unicom 367
chlorinated compounds (CFCs) 293
Chow, C. 489
Christensen, C. M. 37–8, 124, 207, 319, 404, 427, 633, 658
Chrysler 36
Cisco Systems 56, 648, 655
citation networks 103
city infrastructure systems 386
Clark, C. 186
Clark, K. B. 298, 342, 429, 544, 632, 638, 649
Clauset, A. 110
climate change 294, 297, 310, 317, 321
Cloodt, M. 586
‘clusters’ of technical excellence 550 see also regional clusters
Coca Cola 36
Cockburn, I. 372n
cognitive biases 134–5
‘not-invented here’ syndrome 448–9
(p. 673) cognitive psychology 165
Cohen, W. M. 238, 561, 567
collaboration 21, 44, 422, 462–77
architecting the ecosystem 476–7
businesses and universities 18, 21, 34, 65, 75–7, 191, 467–8
complementarities and synergies 464–5
Cooperative Research Centres, Australia 467–8
defined 462–3
differences from networks 463
and diffusion of new product meanings 150
and ecosystems 207
external 21, 117
with external designers 154
and geographical closeness 40
government policies 468–70
horizontal/vertical structures 463
instabilities and tensions 470–1
inter-firm 184
learning and capabilities 465–6
network analysis 112
and new product development 535
partner selection 473–5
research discipline approaches 464
role of the broker 472–3
strong and weak ties 471–2
structuring and organizing 475–6
and sustainable innovation 301–2
and technical standards 470
uncertainty and complexity 466–7
with users 382
collaborator/competitor roles, and strategic management 410–11
communication networks 105, 107
communities of practice 384
compatibility, and open innovation 449–50
competitive advantage 254
and aesthetic/symbolic product dimensions 148
and coordinative capabilities, Japan 341
and corporate social responsibility 305
and eco-efficiency 294–5
and environmental and social rule-setting 292
and sectoral differences 184
and strategic networks 216
and sustainable products 303
sustainable 397
and technology 382
type (cost/differentiation), and competitive environmental strategy 307–9
and value-creating systems 213
in value networks 214
complementary assets 8, 11 Fig. 1.1, 12, 36–7, 64, 73, 74, 75, 79, 229
and markets for technology 234
and open innovation 450–1
complex systems 104–5, 117, 390
complex network analysis 103, 104, 107–8
complexity theory 104, 328
Compustat database 402
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 386
Computer Aided Design (CAD) 386
confirmation bias 134–5
Confucianism 368
‘conspicuous consumption’ 278
Constant, E. 379
consumer innovation see user innovation
consumer society 278
consumers/customers
as drivers of innovation 191–2
ethnographic approaches 55, 131
feedback 533
identifying needs 55
involvement in innovation 65, 390
pro-environmental and pro-social choices 291
qualitative approaches 55
quantative approaches 55
switching costs 12
and value nets 215 see also user innovation
consumption of innovation 19–20, 33–4, 271–86
adoption studies 271, 275–8
business-to-business transactions 285–6
consumption studies 271, 278–80
costs and financial benefits 282–3
and cultural meaning of objects 274
‘Diderot effect’ 279
emotional and symbolic dimensions 142–3, 278
green electricity tariffs case 281–2, 283–4
(p. 674) and information provision 283–4
and inscribed and attached meaning 279
‘intended’ and ‘perceived’ value gap 274
and inward and outward meanings 278–9
lessons from the past 272–3
priority of motivations 285
quantitative and qualitative research 274
and ‘reflexivity’ 278
and services 280
social and cultural context 279
social and personal factors 142–3, 280, 283, 284–5
and social status 285
Toyota Prius (hybrid car) case 280–1, 282, 283, 284
‘trickle-down effect’ 273, 279
contingency theory 631, 638
continuous aim gunfire 9–10
Continuum design company 145
Cook, Tim 33
Cool, K. 239
Cooper, R. G. 531, 610, 615
Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs), Australia 468
‘co-opetition’ 218–9
coordinative capabilities, Japan 16, 336, 338, 340–3, 346, 349, 350
copyright 196, 560–1, 565–6, 568
enforcement 566
and the service sector 610
cordite 33
Core Wireless patents 574
Corley, K.–588
Corning Incorporated 9
corporate governance, financial aspects of innovation 252, 255 Tab 13.1
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 292
and sustainable innovation 304–6, 307
corporate stock holding 253–4
corporate strategy
and sustainability 292, 294, 307–10, 308–9 Fig. 15.1, 311
and technology 382–4, 390
creative accumulation 184
‘creative destruction’ and innovation 30, 45, 184, 311, 369, 370, 377 see also disruptive
innovation; radical innovation
creativity 5, 24, 34–5
‘componental’ vs. improvisational’ 129
defined 122
design as 141
encouraging 17
microsocial nature of 176–7
Crick, Francis 376
critical path analysis (CPA) 635
crowdsourcing 19, 94–5, 125
combining with lead user method 96
combining with toolkits 95–6
culture and innovation
artefacts 487
basic underlying assumptions 487
and espoused values 487
five dimensions 485–6
national 485–6
and organization and management theory (OMT) 483, 484 Tab 24.1, 487
and strategies of action 488
cumulative innovation 442, 563 see also incremental innovation
Cusumano, M. A. 447, 653, 654, 656
Dahlander, L. 444
Das, T. 470–1
data, knowledge compared 121, 122
‘data deluge’ 385–6
D’Aveni, R. A. 402
Davenport, T. H. 121
Davis, E. P. 260
Davis, F. D. 277
‘de facto’/ ‘de jure’ standardization 569
de Jong, J. P. J. 84
de solla Price, D. J 71
De Tienne, D. 487
De Winne, S. 521
Deakin, S. 254
decarbonization 297
deep smarts 17, 133–4
Delcamp, H. 570
Dell 42, 408. 424
Den Hertog, P. 611
(p. 675) Deng Xiaoping 357
Denmark, R&D 257, 259 Tab 13.2, 261
design 22
and adoption 271
building 380
and consumption 274, 275
convergent 148
as creative problem solving 141
dominant 148–9
empathic 131
as the form of things 140
and the innovation of meaning 139–40, 141–3
and re-interpretation 149
toolkits for self-design 92–4
Design Continuum, 172, 175, 176
design theory 16, 337, 340, 348
design-as-activity 337
design-as-information 337
design-based comparative advantage 336, 337 Fig. 17.1, 338–9, 350, 351
and capability building 344–6
design-driven innovation 22, 139–57
and new perspective in innovation 155–7
as a process of interpretation 152–5, 153 Fig. 8.3, 156
and radical innovation of meaning 140, 145–6, 147 Fig. 8.2
relevance 147–51
designers:
external 154
portfolio of 154–5
role as interpreters 153–5
‘superstars’ 154
Deutsche Bank 385
Dhanaraj, C. 663
Diderot, Denis 279
Dierickx, I. 239
diffusion:
and consumption 271
contagion 150, 151, 151 Tab 8.1
convergence and re-interpretation 148–9
determinants and dynamics 149–51, 151 Tab 8.1
neglect in innovation studies 285
Rogers’ framework 275–6, 277
speed 149, 150, 151 Tab 8.1
‘trickle-down effect’ 273, 279
digital cameras 63, 125, 347, 633
digital piracy 562, 565, 566
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology 566
digital technologies 4, 13, 15, 380, 384–8
and third industrial revolution 376–7
DiMaggio, P. J. 175
dioxins 293
Direct Line Insurance 614
disciplinary plurality 7
disruptive innovation 13–14, 23–4, 37–8, 124–5, 404, 427, 633–4, 637, 638
Dittman, H. 278
division of labour 6–7, 83, 303
DNA structure, discovery 376
Dodgson, M. 116, 117,
Dolby 422
Doran, D. 652
Dosi, G. 146, 192, 255–6
Dougherty, P. 483
Dow chemical 237
Dow Jones Industrial Index 304
Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) 305
Doz, Y. L. 221, 428
Drucker, Peter 53, 66, 122–3, 421
drug use and addiction 317, 318
‘harm reduction’ approach 318
‘war on drugs’ 318
Du Pont 9
collaboration with BT 475
and critical path analysis 635
Dukerich, J. 497
Dushnitsky, G. 241–2
Dutton, J. 497
DVD6 video 237
Dvir, D. 638, 639
Dyer, J. 584
dynamic capabilities theory 11, 11 Fig. 1.1, 12
Eastman Kodak 633
eBay 59, 208
eco-efficiency 294, 307, 309, 310
‘bottom up’ 302
eco-labelling 284, 309
(p. 676) economic growth
China 355, 358
as evolutionary process 104
impact of technological changes 377
and innovation 28–9
Japan 335–6
long wave concept 38
new growth theory 28
and public investment in science 75–6, 77–8
and sectoral differences 184
economic theory 10–11, 11 Fig. 1.1, 271
classical 274
and strategic management 399–400
economies of scale 61
and producer innovation 83–4
Economist, The 27–8, 376–7, 388
economy, ‘closed loop’ 296–7
Edgett, S. J. 610, 615
Edison, Thomas 9, 33, 163–4, 489
Edison Menlo Park Research Laboratory, US 170–1
education and science, public investment in 72–3
Egg Banking 385
Einstein, Albert 376
Eisenhardt, K. M. 175, 207, 220, 584, 634
electric vehicles (EVs) 430 see also hybrid cars
electron-tunnelling microscope 376
Eli Lilly 45
EMI 36
EMS systems, growth of 301
engineering sector, and problem-solving networks 114–15
engineering services 379–80
Enkel, E. 444
environment:
benefits of hybrid cars 280–1
eco-labelling 284
and innovation 292–300
environmental concerns 271, 279, 310
China 360, 363
costs as ‘public bads’ 290
impact of business models 429
vs. personal benefits 283
sustainability 79, 300
tangible/intangible impacts of business activities 293–4
environmental innovation capabilities 300–2, 311
in-house vs. external development 301–2
management integration 302
environmental regulation 290
and business efficiency 194–6
complements to ‘statist’ model 292, 305–6, 310
firms’ involvement in 292
Japan 347
toughening in developing countries 340
environmental values:
and adoption of environmentally-friendly products 281–2
and personal identity 280–1
Erez, M. –491
Ericsson 571
eScience 385
ethnographic research 55, 131, 145
Eureka programme 469
Europe:
electric power generation system 297
‘harm reduction’ approach to drug addiction 318
markets for technology 232
patent licensing 232
sustainable innovation survey 300
European Patent Office (EPO) 237, 573
European Strategic Programme on Research in Information Technology (ESPRIT) 468
European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) 571–2
European Union (EU) 10, 185, 284, 297, 548, 609
R&D spending targets 43
evolutionary economics 11 Fig. 1.1, 11–12, 104, 187
excavator industry 38
‘experience curve’ effects 61
Express Scripts 403
extreme sports 88
Facebook 59, 653, 657, 660
failure:
in evolutionary economics 12
group tolerance of 128–9
in innovation 17–18
(p. 677) organizational tolerance 24, 41, 64
Faraday, Michael 376
fashion, and eighteenth century consumption 272–3
fashion-based industries 148
feedback control mechanism 176
Feldman, M. 573
fertilizers 32
Fifth Generation Computer Systems project, Japan 468
financing of innovation 9, 248–66
bank-based and stock-market based distinctions 253–4
convergence 264–5
‘coordinated market economies’ 252–3, 255 Tab 13.1, 256, 258, 262–4
exchange networks 103
generic market failure issues 249–51
and innovation systems 255–7
‘liberal market economies’ 252–3, 255 Tab 13.1, 256, 260, 262, 265
national financial systems 251–5, 261–4, 263–4 Tab 13.3, 265
outsider/insider dominated systems 256–7, 260–1
and the pharmaceutical sector 193
and R&D 257–8, 258–61, 259 Tab 13.2
variations in legal systems across countries 254
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) 386
Finkelstein, S. N. 89
Finland, R&D 257, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 261
Finn, M. 422
fire engineering services 34, 382, 388
firefighters 128, 130
Firefox open source software 85
Fishbein, M. 277
Fisher, C. M. 129
Fisher, W. W. 565
Fitzmaurice, J. 277
fixed costs, reducing 60
Fjeldstad, O. D. 214
Fleming, L. 571
flexible labour markets, inhibiting venture capital 262
float glass manufacturing 37
Flowers, S. 84, 616
Floyd, C. 538
focal firms 205, 207, 214, 218, 223–4n, 303
focalization, and diffusion of new product meanings 150
Ford, Henry 7, 29, 169–70
Ford, J. 574
Ford Motor Company 36, 168–70, 171, 343, 629, 652
innovative collaboration 465
Fortune 500’ 403
Foss, N. J. 507, 514, 515–16, 519, 520, 521, 522
fossil fuels 296
Foster, Richard 276, 403
France:
demand-led innovation 192
motivation of sustainable supply chain management 303
R&D 257, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 261, 548
venture capital financing of innovation 262
franchising 60
Franklin, Benjamin 322
Franklin, Rosalind 376
Freeman, C. 514
Freeman, R. E. 304
‘freemium’ pricing 58, 432
free-riding, in strategic networks 217
French Revolution 27
Friedland, R. 168
Friedman, M. 304
FTC Data 402
FTSE 100, London 403
Fu, X. 262, 519–20
Fuji Film 125
Fuji-Xerox 634
‘functional fixedness’ 87, 134
Funk, J. L. 215
Furman, J. L. 262
future-ready innovation 23–4, 117
future-resilience, and sustainable innovation 311
‘fuzzy front end’ and project management 18, 533
G8 countries, and markets for technology 232
Gale, D. 262
Galison, P. 376
Gallegati, M. 110
Gallini, N. T. 235–6
Gambardella, A. 446
games, PC and console 93, 144, 145
Gann, D. 116, 117, 444
Gans, J. 564
Gantt, Henry 636
Gardiner, P. 650
Garnsey, E. 78
Gassmann, O. 444, 544
Gates, Bill 661, 662
Gavetti, G. 125
Gawer, A. 447, 498
Geels, F. W. 298, 299
Geertz, C. 485
Gehry, Frank 31, 380, 613
Gemuenden, H. G. 491
Gemünden, H. 518
gene patents 573
General Electric (GE) 36, 387, 401–2, 636, 659
General Motors (GM) 629
General Public License 89
geography of innovation 39–40
universities and regional clustering 78
George III 273
George, G. 429, 469
Germany 351
flexible labour markets 262
manufacturing sector 40
‘new techno-nationalism’ 360
R&D 257, 258, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261, 548
venture capital financing of innovation 262
Gerstner, Louis 658–9
Giarratana, M. 235
Gijbers, G. 107
Gilbreth, Frank 7
Gillette 424–5, 432
Gilson, R. J. 262
Gioia, D. 497
Giuri, P. 236, 446
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 45, 453
‘automation’ of drug discovery 384
cell chemistry analysis and new ‘leads’ 385
Center for Excellence in External Drug Discovery 444
global financial crisis 2008/9
and financing of R&D 260, 261
and financing of innovation 9, 265
global value chain (GVC) framework 303–4
globalization 43, 360, 372
of capital flows 261
of share ownership 261
Google 125, 403, 476, 648, 653, 657, 663
and platforms and business models 660–1
Google Sketchup 96
Gordijn, J. 434
government:
environmental regulation 290, 310
policies for collaboration 468–70
role in innovation policy, China 9, 358, 361
R&D spending targets 43
role in financing research and education 69–70
science and education funding 72–3
Graebner, M. E. 584, 589
Graham, S. J. 573
Grameen Bank423
Granovetter, M. 113, 471
graphical user interfaces 36, 124, 221
Graves, Michael 154
green electricity tariffs 19, 271–2, 281–2, 283–4
green marketing 309
green technologies 79, 271, 284
and business models 431 see also hybrid cars
greenhouse gas emissions 79, 280, 281, 297
Greenstein, S. 653
‘greenwashing’ 302
Grid technologies 385
Grindley, P. 469
Grodal, S. 462
Grokster 565, 566
group-level knowledge, creativity and innovation 126–33
benefits of minority opinions 128
brainstorming 129–30, 164
norms aiding/inhibiting creativity 128–9
processes guiding innovation 129–31
cohesion can hurt creativity 127–8
intellectual diversity helps innovation 126–7
‘groupthink’ 127
(p. 679) Grove, Andy 63
GSM standards 236, 237
Guerraz, S. 422
Guerrieri, P. 256
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao 31
guillotine, the 27
Gulati, R. 216
Gupta, G. 649
Guthrie, J. P. 507
GVO 131
Haber, Fritz 32
Hakanson, L. 544
Hall, B. 251, 562
Hall, J. 302, 304
Hallen, B. L. 220
Hambrick, D. C. 397–8, 401
Hamel, G. 221
Hampden-Turner, C. 486
Hansen, M. T. 472
hard-disk drive industry 38
Hardy, C. 483
Hargadon, A. B. 126, 129–30, 174, 443
Harquail, C. 497
Hart, O. 305
Hayashi, A. M. 426
HBOS 385
Heathrow Airport, London 32
Heimer, C. A. 642
Henderson, R. M. 298, 372n, 429, 653, 656
Henkel, J. 447, 448–9
Henneberg, S. 217
Heskett, J. 142
Hess, A. M. 135n
Hewlett-Packard 650
Hibbert, P. 474
Hickeman, A. 214
hierarchies 129, 132–3
high-low pricing 58
Hindustan Unilever 437
Hirschberg, Jerry 130
Hirschman, A. 256, 629
Hirschman, E. C. 278
history-friendly simulation models 198
Hitachi 473
Hitt, M. A. 426–7
Hoegl, M. 491
Hofer, Chuck 401
Hoffmann, K. H. 300
Hofstede, G. 485–6
Hollywood, USA 40
Honda 632, 634, 651
partnership with Rover 474
Hoogma, R. 298
hovercraft 9
Hoyer, W. D. 95
HP 236
Hsu, D. 564
HTC 476
Hu Jintao 360
Huang., J. 519
Huawei 366
‘blue army’ 366
hub firms 205, 208, 213, 219
‘Hub, The’ 323
Huggies pull-up diapers 131
Hughes, T. P. 629
human capital 249, 250, 258
and innovative performance 505–6
Human Resource Management (HRM) 20, 505–24, 508 Fig. 25.1
antecedents to practice 520–1
clustering practices 521–2
direct link with innovation 514–17
finer/richer grained causal stories 523
‘high road’/‘low road’ work practices 515, 516
‘interactions’ approach 516
literature on 506–21, 508 Fig. 25.1
‘knowledge incentives’ 519, 520
and marketing 63–4
moderated and mediated relationships 517–20
‘network competence’ 518
network effects 506
organizational complementarities 509
practices 507–9
research gaps 521–4
role of innovation 509–14
specific practices 522
stock option schemes 520
time-series evidence 521
Huxham, C. 474
(p. 680) hybrid vehicles 19, 271, 280–1, 282, 283, 284, 336, 347
hypercompetition 22, 397, 402–5, 406, 409, 412, 413
Iansiti, M. 207, 653
IBM 32, 125, 221, 231, 236, 237, 369, 384, 390, 453, 485, 636, 663
Academy of Technology 383
and collaborative innovation 462
and platforms 658–9
R&D 551
technology and strategy 383
ThinkPlace 383
ICAP, and trade in technology 241
Imperial College, London 281
incremental innovation 6, 31–2, 33, 37, 41, 71, 650
balancing investment with radical innovation 14–15, 15 Fig. 1.2
and coordinated market economies 253
in machine tools 194
and sustainability 291, 294, 300, 301 Fig. 15.1, 310
in technology 143, 144 Fig. 8.1, 146, 147 Fig. 8.2
incremental innovation in meaning 143, 144, 144 Fig. 8.1, 157n
and user-driven innovation 140, 145, 147 Fig. 8.2
India:
Aravind Eye Care System 319
catching up indifferent sectoral systems 197
R&D 548, 550
individual/small group innovation 166, 173–7
acquisition 173–4
conception 174–5
construction 175
domain-specific schemas and scripts 168, 172
interaction with organizations and institutions 166, 177n
and the larger context 164, 173–4, 176–7
organizations as arenas for 171–2
individual creativity and innovation 6, 10, 17, 33, 34–5, 361
deep smarts help creativity 133–4
and managing of social innovation 322
cognitive biases hurt creativity 134–5
relationship between creativity, knowledge and innovation 133–5
industrial economics (I/O) 399–400, 406
Industrial Revolution 7, 42, 271, 272–3, 378
industrial structure analysis 11
Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan 472–3, 474
information and communication technologies (ICT) 8, 35, 199, 359, 561
business models 421, 422
and intellectual property 19
patents and compatibility standards 573–5
platforms 22
and productivity growth 28–9
sectoral systems analysis 197
and user innovation 85
information asymmetry 191, 234, 239–40, 241, 251, 300, 400
information, knowledge compared 121, 122
Ing Group 437
InnoCentive 155, 449, 454, 472
innovation 26–45
capturing returns 35–7
combinatorial power 29–30
continuous 164, 170
and creativity 34–5
defined 5, 53
failure in 17–18
geography of 39–40
and growth 28–9
in historical perspective 27–8
and institutions 8, 166, 167–70, 176, 492 Tab 24.2, 492–5
and M&A 579–95
modular 37
organizational routines of 40–1
organizing 482–99
pace of 31–3
patterns of activity 38–9
pervasiveness 30–1
practice, connections with context 7–8
process integration 15–16
process types 18–24
relational nature 33–4
three phases of 61
varieties of 37–8
innovation ecosystems 21, 204–24, 390, 476–7
activity architecture 222
boundaries 207–8
control mechanism 221
control migration 221
creation of 222–3
defined 205–6
dynamics 207
and entrepreneurial firms 220
formal coordination devices 208–9
informal coordination devices 209
and institutions 209
management of value creation and appropriation 220–1
network embeddedness stream 210, 210 Fig. 11.1, 211–12 Fig. 11.2, 213, 215–18
network management stream 210, 210 Fig. 11.1, 212 Fig. 11.2, 213, 218–20
strategic coordination 223
structure of 208–9
technological architecture of 222
value architecture of 222
value creation stream 210, 210 Fig. 11.1, 211 Fig. 11.2, 213, 213–15
innovation management 3–24
as analytical lens 11, 11 Fig. 1.1, 12
changing nature 6–7
defining the scope 4–6
marketing as a source 19
practice 13
recurrent challenges 13–18
theory 10–12, 11 Fig. 1.1
innovation policy framework, China 358–60, 371
innovation research 83
growth in 26
hard core 28–41
network analysis in 106–13
new ‘interpretation’ perspective 155–7
protective belt 27, 42–5
and sectoral differences 185–6
‘stylized facts’ 4, 26–7, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 41
user innovation 85–6
‘innovation technology’ (IvT) 16, 22, 24, 384, 390
Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) 569, 570
‘institutional logics’ 168
institutional theory 209
neo- 165, 168
institutions:
in Actor Network Theory 165
as collaborative partners 12
as constrainers and enablers of innovations 166, 167–70
as context for innovation 8, 176–7, 492 Tab 24.2, 492–5
effect of regional and national differences 40
and innovation ecosystems 209
interaction with individuals/groups and organizations 166, 177n
isomorphism 168
and the machine tool sector 194
national characteristics 192
and the pharmaceutical sector 193
and sectoral systems 189 Fig. 10.1, 189–90, 192, 199
and social innovation 328–9
and the service sector 196
intangibles:
information on expenditure on 43
investment in 29
managing 16–17, 24
measurement difficulties 17
Intel 63, 453, 498, 648, 655
intellectual property rights (IPRs), 91, 192, 193, 229, 239–40, 242, 320,
complementary assets framework 564
and computer software 562
cross-licensing agreements 230
Fair, Reasonable, and Non-Discriminatory (FRAND or RAND terms) 571
fragmentation 240
and legal mechanisms and open innovation 451, 452
licensing agreements 230
and litigation 230, 236, 567–8, 573–4
and the management of innovation 559–75
(p. 682) and markets for technology 229, 230, 234, 240, 242
and the pharmaceutical sector 193
platform strategies 564
protection 12, 453
recent developments 572–5
standard setting strategy 568–72
standards 561–3
and strategic thinking 563–8
technical/marketing consortia 570
and user innovations 91
weak enforcement, China 369
wide contexts of 561–3
internal coupling 117
Internet 6, 9, 14, 19, 28, 43, 56, 58, 135, 209, 320, 345, 375
advertising 59
banking 57
business models 421, 422
use, China 372
and user innovation 85
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 569
invention/s 5, 35, 123
and deep smarts 134
iPad 57, 653
iPhone 30, 57, 95, 653, 657
iPod 34, 57, 59, 144, 424, 632, 637, 653, 659
affective aspects 277
and assimilation/differentiation 278
Ireland, R. D. 426–7
Iron Curtain 401
Irwin, D. 469
Isen, A. 132
Ishida, Kengo 130
Israel, venture capital financing of innovation 262
Italy 40
furniture industry 149, 150
triadic industrial structures 112
iTunes 34, 59, 144, 424, 566, 637, 653
Ive, Jonathan 33, 141
Iyer, B. 209, 224n
Jackson, S. E. 520–1
Janis, I. 127
Japan 16, 335–51, 368, 369
architectural integrality/export ratio correlations 351 Fig. 17.2
automotive industry 7, 336, 341–2, 343, 345–6, 347, 349–50
capability-architecture-performance framework, Japan 336, 337–9
coordinative capabilities 16, 336, 338, 340–3, 346, 349, 350
consumer product innovation 84
financing of innovation 265
flexible labour markets 262
importance of innovations 339–40, 514
influence of post-war labour shortages 8
integral architecture, evolution of 347–50
markets for technology 232
nature of effective innovation 336–9
patent system 192, 232
productive performance, advantages and improvements 341–2
productive/market/profit performance, Cold War period 344–5
productive/market/profit performance, post-Cold-War 345–6
R&D 257, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261, 335, 548
venture capital financing of innovation 262
Japan Victor Corporation (JVC) and platforms 659–60
Jarillo, J. C. 216
Jaumotte, F. 262
Jaworski, B. J. 62
jazz improvisation 17
JEDEC (Solid State Technology Association) 572
Jefferys, J. 378
Jehl, Franics 171
Jensen, Jacob 154
Jensen, M. 518
Jiang Zemin 359
Jimenez-Jimenez 487, 516
Jobs, Steve 33, 63, 124, 489, 637
Johnson, M. W. 429, 432–3, 435
Johnson, Samuel 27
Johnson, Steven 102
Johnston, W. J. 219
JP Morgan 324
(p. 683) Judson, Whitcomb 170
Jung, D. 489
Jung, T. 237
Juniper Networks 403
‘just in time’ system 7
Kaasa, A. 486
Kaizen 31
Kaldor, Nicholas 26
Kanter, R. M. 633
Kaplan, S. 436
Kapoor, R. 207, 220, 589
Karjalainen, T. M. 150
Kase, R. 113
Katila, R. 585–6, 587
Katz, R. 127
Katz-Navon, T. 278
Kearns, Robert 36
Keen, S. 110
Kelly, D. 616
Kemp, R. 298
Kenwood 659
Kerzner, H. 635
Kiechel, Walter 401
Kim, W. 262
Kimberley, J. R. 427
Kimberley-Clark 131
Kindle 59
Kinect 36
King, A. 303
Kiron, D. 306
kite surfers’ user innovations 87
Klann, William 169
Klein, B. 626, 629–30
Klenow, P. 469
Klepper, S. 38–9
Klueter, T. 241–2
Knight, F. 466
knowledge:
and appropriability regimes 36
as a commodity 239–40
complementary assets 229
contextual nature of 174
cumulative nature and open innovation 452
defined 121–2
differences between science, technology and business innovation 18
diversity 155
economic value 74–5
engineering 379
about environmental impacts 293–4
and the evolution of economic systems 187
external sources 229
‘leaky’ 124
link with technological invention 376
and the machine tool sector 194, 195
non-excludability 73
non-rivalry 73
and the pharmaceutical sector 193
as a private good 73
as a public good 72, 73
public and private 44–5
and radical innovations 71
and sectoral systems 188–9, 189 Fig. 10.1, 190–1, 197
and the service sector 196
‘spillovers; 73, 75, 77, 190, 295
‘sticky’ 39–40, 124, 155, 249, 447
tacit 122, 126, 131, 133, 134, 191, 194, 249
uncertainty about ‘usefulness’ 77
knowledge, relationship with creativity and innovation 17, 121–35
group level 126–33
individual level 133–5
organizational level 122–6
paradoxical nature of 121
knowledge-bases, for companies and organizations 581
knowledge economy, the 76, 223, 602
knowledge management 122, 382 PDF
and internationalization of R&D 555–6
Kodak 63, 125, 407, 633
Koehn, N, 272
Koen, P. 533
Kohli, A. J. 62
Kondratieff, Nikolai 38
Koput, K. W. 412
Korea 40, 350, 368, 369
R&D 257, 258 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 261, 548
Kosonen, M. 428
Kramer, S. J. 132
Krippendorff, K. 142
Krishnan, V. 649
Kuznets, S. 186
(p. 684) labour markets:
coordination 252–3
migration, US and China 342–3, 365
shortages, and coordinative capabilities 343 see also flexible labour markets
Laing O’Rourke 388
Lakatos, I. 26–7
Lakhani, K. R. 454
Lanjouw, J. O. 567
Lanoie, P. 295–6
laser development 376
Lash, S. 280
Lau, C. 518
Laursen, K. 112, 238, 446, 449
Lawrence, P. R. 631
Layne-Farrar, A. 574, 575
Lazonick, W. 253
lead user method 90–2
combining with crowdsourcing 96
identification of lead users 90–1
lead user workshops 91
lead users 19, 21, 34, 86–8
ahead of trend 86–7
‘betweeness centrality’ 89
high expected benefits 86, 87
marketing’s relationship with 65
leaders and leadership:
CEOs 62–3
of creative individuals 35
and future-readiness 23
and IBM 383
and organization and management theory (OMT) 483, 484 Tab. 24.1, 488–90
transactional 489
transformational 489
‘lean production’ 7
learning:
cognitive elements, and the evolution of economic systems 187
as a core process and outcome 12
importance in catching up 197
inter-organizational 216
internal and external sources 190
as a key determinant of innovation 187
in the service sector 196
in single/multiple domains 166 Fig. 9.1, 173–6
for technological regime change 299
learning theory 400
Lee, C-H., 209
Lehnerd, A. P. 649, 650
Lenfle, S. 637
Lennox. M. 303
Lenovo 359, 365
Leonard-Barton, D. 466
Leonardi, P. 488
Lerner, J. 251
Levien, R. 207, 653
Levinthal, D. A. 238
licensing agreements and intellectual property rights 232–3, 230, 234, 422, 562, 575
lifecycle approach to ecosystem creation 222
Lilien, G. L. 91–2
Lim, K. 89, 589
Lin, C. 490
Lin, H. 490
Linde, C. van der 295
Link, A. 469, 475–6
LinkedIn network 653
‘Linus’ law’ 94
Linux operating systems 85, 453
Live Aid 320
Llerena, P. 300, 302
Loch, C. 637–8
Loewy, Raymond 140
Lokshin, B. 471
Lomi, A. 112
Lopez, M. V. 305
Lopez-Cabrales, C. 519
Lord, M. 588
Lorsch, J. W. 631
loss leader/leader pricing 58
Love, J. 516
Lovins, Amory 296
Lunsford, D. A. 276
Lux, T. 110
Luzzi, A. 446
Macaulay, S. 108
MacGarvie, M. 562
machine tools 8, 191, 192
Japan 336
numerical control 378
sectoral systems analysis 194–5
(p. 685) MacMillan, J. C. 404
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 36
Magretta, J. 421, 432
Mahnke, V. 521
Makri, M. 586
Maldonado, T. 141
Mallette, P. 487
management fads 7
Manhattan project 628, 637
Mann Gulch fire 128
March, J. 452–3, 465–6
market/s:
co-evolution with innovation 185
creating new 56–7
disruptive effects of rapid changes 14
gaps in existing 56
orientation 62
role in social innovation 324
‘social-constructionist’ view 146
market-facing innovation 19–20, 285, 381, 383, 390
market pull innovation 146, 147 Fig. 8.2
marketing 19, 53–66
how to market 60–1
as a location for innovation 53, 54–61, 66
national 192
as a source of innovation 53–4, 61–5, 66
and strategic management 398
what to market 57–9
who to market to 54–7
marketing research 274, 284
Marketing Science Institute 402
markets for technology 19, 229–43, 564–5
‘appropriability’ 234
barriers to trade 238–42
China 358–9
‘competition and rent dissipation effects’ 234
complementary assets 234
contract incompleteness 239–40, 242
cross-licensing agreements 230
cultural and organization barriers to trade 242
cumulative technologies 240
demand side 238
differences between large and small firms 237–8
ex-anti-contracts and ex-post contracts distinctions 230
firms’ incentives to participate 233–8
firms’ revenue-driven motivations 233–5
firms’ strategic motivations 235–7
future research directions 242–3
and G8 countries 232
information asymmetry 234, 239–40, 241, 250, 266n
intellectual property rights 229, 230, 234, 239–40, 242
intellectual property rights and litigation 230, 236, 567–8, 571, 573–4
interaction with financial markets 243
international licensing 234
license agreements 230
pharmaceuticals 233
‘rent dissipation effects’ 238–9
‘revenue effects’ 238–9
size of 231–2
strategic patenting 240
and ‘stick’ licensing 235–7
technological alliances 229–30
‘technological generality’ 234–5
‘transaction costs’ 234
and uncertainty 239–40, 241
unused patents 240
Markides, C. 437
Marshall, Alfred 351
Martin, B. 28, 76
Martin, J. 126
Martin, J. A. 175
Marx, Karl 377
Mason, Edward 399
mass production 7, 169–70, 629
Matsushita 466
partnership with Philips 474
Mazda 652
McCloskey, D. N. 71
McCracken, G. 272
McDonald’s 324
service innovation 601, 607
McDonough, E. 490
McGahan, A. 235
McGrath, M. E. 649
McGrath, R. G. 427
McKinsey 172, 401
(p. 686) McWilliams, A. 305
meaning:
of consumed objects and activities 278–80
diffusion of new product meanings 149–15
design and the innovation of 139–40, 141–3
as dimension of innovation 143–4, 144 Fig. 8.1, 147
emotional 142, 156
incremental innovation in 143, 144, 144 Fig. 8.1
incremental innovation, and user-driven innovation 145, 147 Fig. 8.2
inscribed and attached 279
inward and outward 278–9
radical innovation in 143–4, 144 Fig. 8.1, 149, 154, 156
radical innovation, and design-driven innovation 145–6, 147 Fig. 8.2, 153
symbolic 142, 156, 278
and interpretation 151–2
Meckling, W. 626, 629–30
Medici family 111
mediated networks 214
Megaupload 565
Merck 45
mergers and acquisitions (M&A) 23, 230,
acquisition implementation 588–9
characteristics of the technological environment 584
conceptualization in the context of innovation 590
cross-border acquisitions 591
dyadic-level factors 585–6
empirical considerations 593 Fig. 29.3, 593–5, 594 Fig. 29.4, 29.5, 595 Fig. 29.6
firm-level factors 587–8
importance of 580
and innovation 579–95
international 549–50
knowledge-based acquisitions 585–6
major themes and research findings 581–3, 581 Fig. 29.1, 582 Fig. 29.2
and the nature of knowledge 584
organizational learning perspectives 583
performance of the firms involved 584
in pharmaceutical sector 194
and R&D 586
relatedness and innovation outcomes 591–2
relatedness of the acquired knowledge base 586–7
Resource Based View Logic (RBV) 581–3
size of knowledge base 587
system effects of 592–3
transaction cost perspectives 583
Meurer, M. J. 568, 574
Meyer, M. H. 649
Michie, J. 515, 516
micro-credit 327
microsociological perspectives 173
Microsoft 9, 36, 145, 476, 477, 574, 638, 648, 655, 661, 663
contrasted with Apple 661–2
innovative collaborations 465
Windows 410, 653
Windows 7 476
microwaves 134
middle class, eighteenth century 273
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig 140
Millard, A. 171
Miller, D. J. 584
millwrights 378
mimeograph pens 171
Mina, A. 254
mircroreplication 172–3
Miron-Spektor, E. 490–1
MIT 468
Mitsubishi 650
Mitzenmacher, M. 107–8, 111, 116
‘mixed reality’ simulation studios 387
mobile payment standards 470
mobile phones 55, 57, 94, 385, 661, 662
licensing costs 561–2
mass diffusion 31, 58
number of users, China 372 see also smart phones
mobile phone industry:
China 365
Nokia’s decline 43, 221, 601
Model T Ford 29, 169
modelling, digital 379–80, 386–7
Moertl, P. 321
Mohrman, A. M. 105
Mohrman, S. A. 105
Mokyr, J. 71
(p. 687) Möller, K. 219
Moore, Gordon 63
Moore, J. F. 206–7
Morison, E. E. 276
Morrison, P. D. 87, 89
Mosaid 574
Mothers Against Drunk Driving 326
Motorola 237, 365, 473, 476
Mouzas, S. 217
Mowery, D. 462, 464, 563
MP3 players 57, 144, 237
MPEG-2 (digital image compression) 230
Muffato, M. 649
Mulgan, G. 317
Müller, M. 303
multinational corporations (MNCs/MNEs), and research and development 18, 548–57
China 9, 364–5
coordination and control 554–5
corporate technology units 553–4
different types of activity 552 Tab 27.1, 552–4
knowledge management 555–6
need for coordination 551–2
Mumford, M. D. 321
Munshi, N. 490
Myriad Genetics 573
Nag, R. 398
Nakajima, K. 350
Nalebuff, B. 218
Nambisan, S. 663
nanotechnology 77, 199, 376, 573
Napster 565
Naranjo-Valecia 487
NASA:
Columbia space craft disaster 134
‘Phased Project Planning’ (PPP) system 531, 634
National Health Service (NHS), UK 608
National Institute for Clinical Excellence, UK 34
Naughton, K. 651
Navez, E. 491
NDC (Nippon Denso) 650
Needham, Joseph 355
Nelson, R. 73, 192, 197, 239, 482, 561, 567
Nemeth, C. J. 128
neo-classical economics 11
neo-institutional theory 165, 168
Netherlands:
user innovation 84
venture capital financing of innovation 262
Netscape 655
network analysis 10, 102–17
agent-level behaviours 104
‘analytical’ perspectives 106
basics 105–6
contribution to innovation management 116–17
data gathering 103
developments 103–4
dynamics and evolution 104
exponential random graph models (ERGM) 111–12, 113
importance in innovation management 104–5
in innovation research 106–13
‘law of propinquity’ 108–9, 115
longitudinal approaches 112–13
‘metaphor’ perspectives 106, 112, 117
Mitzenmacher’s hierarchy 107–8, 111, 116
multi-level approaches 113
power law degree distribution 108, 109–10
and SIENA software 104, 112–13
weighted analysis approaches 113
‘network insight’ 217–18
networks 205–6, 464
boundaries 105–6, 107
centrality to innovation 102
closed 105–6
differences from collaboration and innovative management 463
ego- 103–4, 105, 108, 113
evolution of 107
examples of 103
links 103
in the machine tool sector 194–5
management skills 412–13
managing innovation 114–16
and managing social innovation 322
and organization and management theory (OMT) 483
and sectoral systems 189, 189 Fig. 10.1, 191
(p. 688) of niche actors 299–300
nodes 103, 165
of novel solutions to social problems 320–1
open 105–6
in the pharmaceutical sector 194
and platforms 556–7
primary data 106
problem-solving 114 Fig. 6.1, 114–15
and reciprocity 111, 112, 113, 217
secondary data 106, 111
in the service sector 196
single-node 106
small-world 103, 108
strong and weak ties 108, 109 Tab 6.1, 113, 165, 471–2
structural holes 108, 109 Tab 6.1, 116, 165, 171, 464, 471, 472,
and strategic management 409–10
system openness and diffusion contagion 151, 151 Tab 8.1
two-node (affiliation) 106
user 205–6
new product development, managing 18, 530–46
global teams 544–5
input/output driven 539–41
internal links 20
matrix organizations 541–3, 542 Fig. 26.3
organization 531, 539–45, 542 Fig. 26.3
portfolio management 531, 536–9, 538 Fig. 26.2
product development funnel 530, 531–6, 532 Fig. 26.1
project team structures 543–4
‘new Taylorism’ 401
New York Times 403
Newman, M. E. J. 110
Newton, Isaac 445
niche actors 299–30
Nicholls-Nixon, C. L. 588
Nidumolu, R. 300, 307
Nightingale, P. 71
Nike 60, 154, 175
9/11 attacks 129
NineSigma 155, 449
Nintendo 144, 145, 148
Nissan 652
and collaborative innovation 465
Nissan Pathfinder 130
Nobel, Alfred 33
Noble, D. F. 378
Nohria, N. 216
Nokia 43, 148, 221, 407, 476, 477, 571, 574, 661, 662
‘global nomads’ 55
and service innovation 601
Nollywood, Nigeria 40
Nonaka, L. 634
Noria, N. 214
Normann, R. 213–14
Norway, and R&D 257, 259 Tab 13.2, 261
‘not-invented-here’ syndrome 90, 127, 383, 448–9, 493
Novartis 125
NTP 230
Nuvolari, A. 443
Obama, Barack 28
Oberg, C. 217
O’Brien, J. P. 250
Ocasio, W. 494
Ocean Tomo 241
Ogburn, William 163
Ohly, S. 113
Ohmynews, South Korea 320
Oke, A. 490–50, 519
on-line communities 88–9
on-line shopping 14
open innovation 22–3, 38, 64–5, 154, 199, 422, 442–57
acquiring 445, 445 Tab. 22.1
connect and develop strategy (P&G) 383–4
coupled models 447–8
defined 442
external factors/contingencies 451–3
future research 454–5
importance of 443–4, 444 Fig. 22.1
improving theory 455–6
inbound 444, 445 Tab 22.1, 450, 451
internal contingencies 448–51
managerial implications 456
and new product development 535
network analysis of 112
(p. 689) outbound 444, 445 Tab 22.1, 450, 451
paradigms 409
and R&D 443
revealing 445 Tab. 22.1, 446–7
research themes 444–8, 445 Tab 22.1
selling 445 Tab. 22.1, 446
skill sets 449
sourcing 445 Tab 22.1, 445–6, 447
open source software 45, 85, 89, 422, 451–2
projects 568
Opsahl, T. 429
O’Reilly, C. A. 633
organic cotton suppliers 303
organic food movement, UK 299
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 10, 185
research typology 70–1
organization and management theory (OMT) 483
current research with implications for innovation 484 Tab 24.1, 484–91,
embedded agency 495
future research 491–8, 492 Tab 24.2
identity and innovation 492 Tab 24.2, 497–8
identity and innovation ‘claim-making’ 498
institutional context for innovation 492 Tab 24.2, 492–5
institutional distance and innovation 495
institutional logics and innovation 493–5
leaders and innovation 484 Tab 24.1, 488–90
organizational fields and innovation 493
practice adoption and innovation 492 Tab 24.2, 496–7
role of teams in innovation 494 Tab 24.1, 490–1
organization theory (OT) 10, 636
and strategic management 398–9
organizational behaviour, and strategic management 398
organizational culture 23, 64
organizational routines 40–1, 191, 337, 341
organizations/firms
as actors and arenas for innovation 167, 170–2, 176
changing role in innovation 44
core capabilities underlie innovation 122–4
core rigidities inhibit innovation 124–5
differences between large and small, in markets for technology 237
external collaboration 21, 34, 44
fragmentation 172
importance of scientific understanding 74–5
incentives to participate in markets for technology 233–8
interaction with institutions and individuals/small groups 166, 177nn
interactions with universities 75–7
inter-functional coordination 62
internal coupling 20–1
inter-organizational collaboration and networks 33, 78, 105
‘knowledge’ boundaries 191
non-firm 184, 187, 191
non-market relations 184
and ‘spaces for innovation’ 39
stories about innovation 126
strategic integration 21–3
unused technologies 448
and the wider context 8, 10, 187, 198–9
Ormerod, P. 110
Orsato, R. J. 307–9
Oshika, T. 350
Ostlund, L. E. 276
outsourcing 60
in strategic networks 216
Oxford Handbook of Innovation 4
Ozcan, P. 220
P2P innovations 59
Padgett, R. C. 300
Page, K. 466
Pain, N. 262
Panasonic 345, 366, 473
Pandora 566
Parkhe, A. 663
‘Pasteur’s Quadrant’ 71
patent licensing 232–3, 234, 422
cross-licensing 232–3
Europe 232
Japan 232
patent trolls 574
(p. 690) patents and patenting 10, 35, 73, 184, 186, 192, 262, 376, 560–1, 564–5
academic/university 44, 75, 563
biotechnology 232, 237
and business methods 609
citation data 197
donating 45
effect of national differences 40
first-to-invent/first-to-file 192
‘green’ 302
holding fees 563–4
and Huawei 366
imperfections 36
Japan 232, 335
and litigation 230, 236, 567–8, 573–5
pharmaceuticals 193, 232, 241
portfolios 562
recent developments 5725
sales of 232–3
sectoral differences 185
as source for network data 106
and standards 571
strategic 240
unused 240
US 232, 335, 567
Pattison, P. 112
PatVal1 survey 232, 243n
PatVal2 survey 233, 240, 243n
Pavitt, Keith 74
Pavitt taxonomy 74, 183, 185–6
‘pay what you want’ pricing 58
Pedersen, T. 507
Pelz, A. 127
Penrose, Edith 400
Pepsi 36
Perkman, M. 432
Perkmann, M. 76
‘permission model’ of advertising 58
Petkova, A. P. 274
Petruzelli, A. M. 302
pharmaceutical sector 8, 42, 64, 74, 77, 191, 192, 197
approval for new drugs 34
‘automation’ of drug discovery 384
and biotechnology 71–2, 77, 193
cell chemistry analysis and new ‘leads’ 385
complementary assets 12
generics 60
IdeaPharm 125
importance of secrecy 73
and markets for technology 233
patenting 193, 232, 241
and public policy 193
sectoral systems analysis 193–4, 198
Philips 300
partnership with Matsushita 474
Phillips, N. 116, 117
Phills, J. A. J. 317, 324
‘picturing’ 217
Piller, F. 93
Pirate Bay 565
Pisano, G. P. 568
Plastic Logic 422
platforms 22, 38, 199, 208–9, 648–63
and the automobile industry 650–1, 652
challenges of evolution and change 658–62
design rules 651, 655–6
Google 660–1
importance of 648–9
in industry 652–6
internal 649–51
issues for future research 662–3
JVC and Sony 659–60
major themes and research findings 649–57
Microsoft vs. Apple 661–2
modular components 650
network effects and multi-sided markets 656–7
supply-chain 651–2
play and playfulness 24
encouraging 17
Podolny, J. 466
Poetz, M. K. 94
Polaroid 125
Porsche 652
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey 497
Porter, Michael 184–5, 294–5, 296, 307, 399, 400
‘five forces’ framework 183, 184
value chain model 183, 213, 214
portfolio management 531, 536–9, 538 Fig. 26.2
key challenges 536–7
(p. 691) techniques 537–9, 538 Fig. 26.2
portfolios, balancing 14–15, 15 Fig. 1.2
Postrel, V. 148
pottery, eighteenth century 273
Powell, W. W. 412
Prahalad, C. K. 427
Prahbu, J. 487
premium decoy pricing 58
Prencipe, A. 652
price innovation 58
price setting 399
private-collective innovation model 89
privatization, China 362
process innovation 37, 74, 185, 186, 302, 337
and product life cycle (PLC) 38–9
complementarity with product innovation 39
relation between expected benefits and investment 86
for coordinative capabilities 341, 349, 350
process theories 166–7, 177n
Procter & Gamble (P&G) 31, 61, 64, 125, 237, 383–4, 386, 387, 388
Connect + Develop initiative 383–4, 409, 444
InnovationNet 384
product champions 64
product councils, and MNCs 554
product development funnel 530, 531–6, 532 Fig.
fuzzy front-end 533
product definition 533–4
product development 534–5
stage-gate processes 531–2
testing and launch readiness 535–6
product innovations 37, 38, 39, 57, 74, 145, 186, 302, 337
coordinative capability for 349
fit with process innovation 39, 336
for integral artefacts 349, 350
and the Japanese auto industry 349
and product life cycle (PLC) 38–9
relation between expected benefits and investment 86
user 84, 192
product life cycle (PLC) 38–9
product-portfolio matrix model 401
product-process architecture 337–8
product systems, complex 552
productivity growth 28–9
Profit Impact of Market Strategies database (PIMS) 401–2
Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) 629, 632, 635, 637
project management 20–1, 41, 132, 625–42
adaptive model 20, 626, 627–8 Tab. 31.1, 630, 634–5, 638
and contingency theory 631, 638
converging themes of research 639–42
diamond framework 638
disruptive/breakthrough innovations 633–4, 637, 638
early formulations 628–30
fully-embedded projects 639, 640
how innovation management thinks about projects 630–5
how project management thinks about innovation 635–9
hybrid organizations 640
improvised activity 641
matrix structures 629, 632
multidisciplinary projects 379
optimal model 20, 626, 629–30, 636, 637, 638
project pace dimensions 639
RAND studies 629
risk management 637–8
standalone projects 639, 640
supply/demand uncertainties 629
systems integrator organizations 629
triple constraint model 636
Project Management Institute (PMI), US 636, 637
Project SAPPHO 10, 514
Propellerhead 34
prototyping 379–80
Prusak, L. 121
psychological pricing 58
psychology 10, 35
public funding of science and education 69–70, 72–4
and economic growth 77–8
and economic benefits for society 75–6
Puma 154
Puranam, P. 588–9
pyramiding 91
(p. 692) Qualcomm 571, 648
‘quality management’ standards 301
Quality of Working Life movement 7
quantitative research:
marketing 55, 274
sectoral systems 185, 197
quartz watches 147
radical innovation 6, 31, 32–3, 37, 71
balancing investment with incremental innovation 14–15
and liberal market economies 253
for sustainability 291, 300, 301 Fig. 15.1, 310
systems 297–8
in technology 139, 143, 144, 144 Fig. 8.1, 147 Fig. 8.2, 149
radical innovation in meaning 143–4, 144 Fig. 8.1, 149, 153, 154, 156
and design-driven innovation 140, 145–6, 147, 147 Fig. 8.2
enabled by radical innovation in technology 144
Radio Frequency Identification Devices RFIDs) 16, 230
Radio Shack 403
Rajala, A. 219
Ralph Lauren Polo 56
Rambus case 574
Ramirez, R. 213
Rammer, C. 518
Ramo-Wooldridge 629
RAND Corporation 629
Ranft, A. 588
rapid prototyping (3D printing) 195, 388, 389
Raymond, E. S. 94
Raynor, M. E. 124
Razgaitis, S. 240
razor and razor blade business model 432
RCA 659
ReachOut!, Australia 320
Reagan, Ronald 469
reciprocity, in networks 111, 112, 113, 217
record companies and labels 565–7
Recording Industry Association of America (RIAAA) 566
Reebok 175–6
reference pricing 58
regional clusters 78, 195
China 363–4
regulation 8, 14 see also environmental regulation
Regus Group 406
Ren Zhengfei 366
Renault 652
Rennings, C. 295
research:
‘hard core’ of ‘progressive’ field 26–7
OECD typology 70–1
public/private funding balance 72
‘protective belts’ 27
qualitative and quantitative 9–10
‘stylized facts’ 26–7
transformational impact 6–7
research and development (R&D) 13, 54, 61, 83, 90, 117, 196, 448, 449, 450, 453, 456, 564
and absorptive capacity 12
China 355, 357–8, 359, 369
commercialization of intellectual property rights 574
component vs. architectural 372n
costs 579
geographical decentralization 549–51
growth, 1920s and 1930s 6
internal 186
Japan 335
and marketing 64–5
as measure of scientific intensity 74
and mergers and acquisitions 586
and open innovation management 443
product approval committees (PAC) 535
product decision teams (PDT) 535
product development management 18, 530–46
and sectoral differences 185
shift of thinking in the role of 42–4
‘spaces for innovation’ 39
‘spillovers’ 559, 563
stage-gate management systems 41
as stimulus for innovation 18
supervisory committees (PSC) 535
research and development (R&D) expenditure 10, 183, 186, 257–8
China 357, 359
Denmark 257
France 257, 258
Germany 257, 258
Japan 257, 258, 335
Korea 257, 258
Norway 257
Sweden 257
UK 257, 258
US 257, 258
research and development (R&D) financing and investment 9, 12, 194, 195, 249–51
bond markets 259 Tab 13.2, 260
and capturing returns 35, 36, 297
Denmark 259 Tab 13.2, 261
and environmental regulation 296
Finland 259 Tab 13.2. 261
France 259 Tab. 13.2, 261
Germany 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261
Japan 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261
Korea 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 261
multinational enterprise investment, China 364, 365
Norway 259 Tab 13.2, 261
private 73
public 72
public/private balance 9
realizing value 73–4
share ownership and the structure of capital markets 258–61, 259 Tab 13.2
Sweden 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 261
UK 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261
US 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261
research and development (R&D) intensity 183, 185
China 357
link with corporate social responsibility 305
and sustainable practice 300
research and development (R&D) internationalization 18, 548–57
adaptive innovation 553
coordination and control 554–5
different types of activity 552 Tab 27.1, 552–4
emerging and unresolved issues 556–7
generic innovation 553
international rationalization of manufacturing 550
knowledge management 555–6
need for coordination 551–2
Research Associations 463
Research in Motion (RIM), 230
research institutes 70, 77
‘residual’, the 28
respirator masks 123–4
RFID (radio frequency identification) 230
Rhapsody webcaster 566
Ricardo, David 344
Rindova, V. P. 274
Rip, A. 298
risk 3, 12, 24, 250, 253, 276, 291, 370, 466
and innovation ambition and amplitude 6
managing 636, 637–8, 642
modelling 385–6
and psychological safety 128–9
and radical innovation 14, 637–8
risk aversion 250, 368
Ritter, T. 219, 518
RJR Nabisco 658
Robertson, D. 649
Robinson, E. 272–3
Robson, M. 185
Rogers, D. S. 302–3
Rogers, E. M. 151, 275–6, 280, 281, 285, 413
Rolls Royce 650
DAME project 385
service innovation 601
University Technology Centres 385
Roper, S. 516
Rosen, Hilary 566
Rosenberg, N. 71, 663
Rosenbloom, R. S. 207, 427
Rothaermel, F. T. 135n
Rothwell, R. 650
Roussel, P. A. 538
Roveda, M. 649
Rover, partnership with Honda 474
Royal Crown Cola 36
Royal Society 74
RPX 561
Rumelt, R. P. 407
(p. 694) Ryan Air 611
Rysman, M. 570
Sabbagh, K. 650
Sakakibara, M. 469
Sako, M. 652
Salter, A. 76, 112, 384, 446, 449
Sampat, B. 563
Samsung 32, 476
Santos, F. M. 207
Santos, J. 428
Sanz-Valle 487, 516
Sasheen decorative ribbon 123
Sawhney, M. S. 649, 663
Schankerman, M. 567
Schein, E. 487
Schendel, Dan 401
Scherer, M. 185
Schilling, M. A. 463
Schmalensee, R. 399
Schmenner, S. C. 618n
Schoeffler, Sidney 401
School of Everything 320
Schot, J. 298, 299
Schreier, M. 94
Schumpeter, Joseph 5, 6, 26, 29, 30, 38, 77, 83, 102, 104, 163, 186, 377, 403, 464, 482, 524
Schumpeter Mark I and II sectors 183, 184, 185
dynamic change between 186–7
science:
China, historical achievements, 355, 368
China, research system, 1949–1966 356–7
and economic growth 75–6, 77–8
and environmental monitoring 293
impact on society 69–70, 79
interaction with technology and business innovation 9, 69–79
nature of, and relationship with technology 70–2
and public policy 72–4
as stimulus for innovation 18
science-based entrepreneurial firms 77–8
science-based industries 74–5
science-based sectors 186
Scilly Isles shipwreck (1707) 132–3
Scotchmer, S. 239
Scott, William 27
Seal, D. 305
Sears 403
Seat 651
Second World War 8, 72, 340, 360, 368, 401
sectoral classification 185–6
sectoral differences 8, 10, 183
corporate social responsibility-innovation link 305
importance 184–6
in pace of innovation 30
sectoral systems 10, 183–99
catching up 197–8
dynamics 190–2
elements 188–90, 189 Fig. 10.1
expansion of types examined 196–7
and financing of innovation 256–7
foundations 186–8
implications for management and future developments 198–9
simulation models 198
at work 193–6
Seebode, D. 300
Seidenberg, Ivan 408
Seidl, V. P. 534
Sels, L. 521
Sematech, 468–9, 470, 475–6, 477
semiconductors 29, 42, 44, 89, 147, 191, 197, 198, 232, 237
Serrano, C. 232
services 8, 42, 57, 600–18
approaches to managing 610–12
appropriability regimes 609–10
barriers to innovation 608–9
blueprinting 613–14, 615
consumption of 280
defined 602–5
dependency on scientific knowledge 74
design and development stages 612–16
is formalizing effective? 616, 617
forms of innovation 605–7
heterogeneity 605, 607
human resources practices 618
and IBM 383
inseparability 604–5, 606
intangibility or immateriality 16, 17, 604, 606
intellectual property protection 618
(p. 695) intra- and inter-organizational and relational forms of innovation 608
investment in innovation 43
opportunities for product innovation 39
perishability 605, 606–7
personalization 381
sectoral systems analysis 195–6, 197
reverse product life cycle (PLC) 39
research blind spots 5, 8, 42
technology and innovation in 381 Tab 19.1, 381–2
toolkits for self-design 92–3
unproductivity 603, 604
variation in share of GDP 258
Seuring, S. 303
Sexton, D. L. 426–7
Shah, S. 88, 89
Shalizi, C. H. 110
Shane, S. 77
shareholders
and the financing of innovation 260–1
maximization 265
value, non-growth definitions 305
Sharp 345
Sheehan, M. 515, 516
Shenhar, A. J. 631, 638, 639
Shepp, Larry 167
Shipton, H. 517
shop floor innovation 515
Shostack, G. L. 613
Shovell, Admiral Sir Cloudsley 132–3
Siemens 36
Silicon Valley 40, 370
SilkAir 437
Simcoe, T. 570, 573
Simon, H. 141, 380
Simpson, T. W. 650, 651
simulation models 380, 386–7, 389
sectoral systems 198
sina.com 359
Singapore Airlines 437, 611
Singapore University 319
Singer 60
Skerlevaj, M. 113
Skoda 651
Small Business Innovation Research Programme (SBIR) 258
smart phones 5, 14, 16, 221
first (Simon) 32
Smith, A. 299
Smith, Adam 6–7, 603
Smith-Doerr, L. 412
Smithian Economics of Scale 231
snowboards 83
SNP (human genome) patents 230
social exchange theory 95
social innovation 9, 316–29
asset-based 322
impact and scale 326
distribution of benefits 324–5, 329
involvement of disadvantaged individuals and groups 322
link between understanding of social problems and novel solutions 326, 327–8
novel solutions focus 319–21
novel solutions, historical and social embeddedness 320–1, 325, 326–7, 329
organising models 321–4
political dynamics 323
social problems as social constructions 318–19, 325, 326, 329
social problems as starting point 317–19
and social transformation 325–9
structuration lens 323–4, 325, 329
research 316–25
resistance to change 323
role of context 322–3
theoretical framework 325–9, 327 Fig. 16.1
Social Innovation Park, Spain 323
social media 6, 59, 85
Social Network Analysis (SNA) 10, 103, 107, 108
social network theory 168–9, 174
and brokerage models 165, 166 Fig. 9.1
social networking 16, 375, 383, 390
social networks 103, 320
and adoption of innovation 276
and consumption 285
for technological regime change 299
social psychology 26, 271, 277
sociology 10, 26, 271
socio-technical systems 298–9
(p. 696) software 191, 192, 224n
beta form 17
data analysis 385
enabling user innovation 85
importance of development in banking 43
and intellectual property rights 562
online community involvement 34
sector, as small-world ecosystems 209
solar photovoltaic (PV) industry, China 363
Solow, R. M. 28
Somaya, D. 567
Sony 34, 145, 345, 407, 466, 632, 650
AIBO robot 274–5
and platforms 659–60
Walkman 275, 279, 632, 650, 659, 660
Sosna, M. 428
SoundExchange 566
South Africa, R&D 548
Southwest Airlines 56, 424
specialization, in strategic networks 216
Specialized Engineering Firms (SEFs) 231
Spector, B. 428
Spencer, J. W. 446
Spencer, Percy 134
Sperry, Elmer 176
Spicer, A. 432
Spiro, J. 108
Srikanth, K. 588–9
Stabell, C. B. 214
stage gate systems and processes 41, 302, 531, 535, 635, 636, 637
stage model research 1778n
stakeholder engagement, and sustainable innovation 304–6, 307
stakeholder theory 304
Stalker, E. M. 524, 631
Standard and Poors 403
Stanford University, US 410, 468
Starbucks 56, 57
Starck, Philippe 154
Steensma, H. 486, 588
Stern, S. 564
‘stick’ licensing, and markets for technology 235–7
Stinchcombe, A. L. 640, 642
stock market capitalism 464
stock markets:
analysis of function 253
and R&D financing 259 Tab 13.2, 260
Stokes, D. 71
Stop Online Piracy Act, US (2012) 566
Storey, C. 616
Story of the Engineers (Jefferys) 378
strategic capabilities theory 12
strategic integration 117
strategic management 21–2, 397–413
ability to make innovation a key systematic capability 407–8
advent of empiricism 401–2
and competitive equilibrium 402
competitive ‘wave’ concepts 404–5
core tasks of general managers 411–13
and economics theory 399–40
end-users 411
entrepreneurial rents 406–7
‘exploitation phases’ 405, 408
historical assumptions 402
and hypercompetition 21–2, 397, 403–5, 406, 409, 412, 413
and industrial economics (I/O) 399–400, 406
and legitimacy 398
and marketing 398
measures and measurement 406–9
network management skills 412–13
network structures 409–10
and organization theory 398
and organizational behaviour 398
resource-based views 399
re-structuring costs 408
role of suppliers 410–11
roles of competitors/collaborators 410–11
and social acceptability 398
stock-market based metrics 408–9
sustainable competitive advantage 397
systematic innovation as strategic process 405–6
theoretical and empirical traditions 398–402
theory borrowed from resource-based views 400
transient advantage strategies, and sustainable strategies 406–8
(p. 697) transient advantage ‘wave’ 404, 405 Fig. 20.1, 408, 411, 412, 412
universities as ‘anchor tenants’ 410
who should we study? 409–11
Strategic Management Journal 204
strategic management theory 10–11
strategic networks 206, 216–17
strategy management, and organization 579–95
importance of 580
major themes and research findings 581–3, 581 Fig. 29.1, 582 Fig. 29.2
and shaping the ecosystem 204
Strogatz, S. H. 103
structural contingency theory 524
Structural Genomics Consortium 45
structure-conduct-performance paradigm 399
‘styling’ 140
Sullivan, Louis 140
Sundback, Gideon 170
supply chain 22, 107, 185, 206, 221, 294, 299, 387, 430, 498, 658
innovation 59, 422
integration 16
platforms 651–2, 653, 654, 655, 656–7
sustainable management 302–4
surgery:
medical robot system 83
preventing infections, lead user study 91
sustainable innovation 23, 271, 290–311
‘beyond compliance’ 290, 292, 309
and business models 306–7, 423, 429–31
defining a strategy 307–10, 308–9 Fig. 15.1
efficiency effects 294–6
environmental innovation capabilities 300–2
information and knowledge effects 293–4
key questions 291
managing stakeholders 303–4
managing supply and value chains 302–4
social benefits 296
social embeddedness 298
system innovation and technological regimes 297–300
transformational effects 296–7
Sutcliffe, K. 130
Sutton, R. 129–30, 174
Suzuki 470
Svahn, S. 219
Swap, W. 122, 127, 129
Swatch 144
Sweden, R&D 257, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 261, 557
synthetic nitrogen 32
system innovation:
sustainable 310–11
and technological regimes 297–300
system openness, and diffusion of new product meanings 150–1
systems theory 635
Szczesny, J. 652
tablet computers 57
Tabrizi, B. 587, 634
Taiwan 40, 368, 369, 463, 489, 510, 519
Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) 472–3, 474
R&D 548
Takeuchi, H. 634
Target 154
Taylor, Frederick W. 7, 636
Taylor System 343
TD-SCDMA mobile communications technology, China 363, 367–8
teams 17, 20, 122, 132, 514–15, 523, 612, 628, 633, 641
composition and organization and management theory (OMT), 456, 483
role in innovation 33, 35, 41, 124, 126, 382, 494 Tab 24.1, 490–1, 516, 519, 634, 637
and R&D 31, 385, 531, 531, 543–5, 557
technological convergence 364, 552
technological determinism 42, 374
technological regimes, system innovation 297–300
technology, and technological innovation 15–16, 42, 375–91
brokering 171
change and disruption 14, 208
diffusion of innovation 149
digital infrastructure 385–6
as dimension of innovation 143–4, 144 Fig. 8.1, 147
dominant designs 148–9
(p. 698) as driver of eco-efficiency improvements 294
and the environment 23, 292–300
‘general purpose’ 32
‘green’ 79, 430, 271, 284
impact on work and skills 377–9, 389–90
import/export ratios, Japan 335
incremental innovation 143, 144 Fig. 8.1, 146, 147 Fig. 8.2
incremental innovation, and market pull 146, 147 Fig. 8.2
and innovation ecosystems 222
and the innovation process 384–8
interaction with science and business innovation 69–79
and machine tool sector 195
modelling and simulations 386–7, 388, 389, 390
nature of, and relationship with science 70–2
and the pharmaceutical sector 193
and problem-solving 379–80
and productivity growth 28–9
and the progress of ideas 376
radical innovation 139, 143, 144, 144 Fig. 8.1, 147 Fig. 8.2, 149
radical innovation, and technology push 146, 147, 147 Fig. 8.2
and radical sustainable innovation 310, 311
rapid prototyping 388, 389
research system, China 1949–1966 356–7
and sectoral systems 188–9, 189 Fig. 10.1
and services 196, 381 Tab 19.1, 381–2
shift from development to interpretation 155–6
simulations 386–7, 389
as social construction 412
and social innovation 319–20
and strategy 382–4, 390
technology push vs. market pull 21, 146–7
trade surpluses, Japan 335
visualization 387–8
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) 276–7
Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2) 277
technology markets see markets for technology
Teece, David 8, 36–7, 73, 234, 421, 429, 451, 464, 564, 568
television advertising 59
Tellis, G. 487
Tencent Group 359
Teng, B. S. 470–1
Tenkasi, R, V. 105
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) 277
Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) 569, 570
Thomke, S. H. 633
Thompson Reuters ‘Web of Knowledge’ database 602
Thornton, P. H. 494
3D products 96 see also rapid prototyping
‘time and motion’ 7
Timmor, Y. 278
TiVo recording device 59
toolkits for user innovation and design 19, 92–4
combining with crowdsourcing 95–6
TopCoder 454
Torrisi, S. 236, 241
Toshiba 34, 473
Townes, Robert 376
Townsend, J. 185
Toyota 9, 335, 473, 632, 651
Toyota Prius 271–2, 280–11, 284
Toyota Production System 7, 336, 341
Toys R Us 408
trade secrets 560–1
trade theory of competitive advantage 16, 340
trade unions, influence on corporations 254
trademarks 196, 560, 610
transactions cost theory 400
trial-and-error learning 93
Triandis, H. 277
Tripsas, M. 125
Trompenaars, F. 486
Tsuru, T. 350
Tushman, M. L. 633
Twitter 59, 653
Tylecote, A. 256
Tyze social network 320
Uglow, J. 272
Ulrich, K. 649
(p. 699) Unilever 31, 61
United Kingdom (UK)
consumer product innovation 84
expenditure on intangibles 43
financing of innovation 265
manufacturing sector 40
organic food movement 299
R&D 257, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261, 548
venture capital financing of innovation 262
United States of America (USA) 351
biotechnology industry 242, 262
consumer product innovation 84
executive recruitment 108
financing of innovation 265
labour migration 342–3
manufacturing, high technology/environmental practice link 300
markets for technology 231, 232
patent regime 192, 232–3, 567
R&D 257, 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260, 261, 548, 557
stock market 253
‘war on drugs’ 318
Universal Oil Products (UOP) 231
universities 186, 193
as ‘anchor tenants’ 410
‘Cambridge Phenomenon’ 78
collaboration with businesses 18, 21, 34, 65, 75–7, 191, 467–8
current numbers, China 357
‘entrepreneurial’ 75
and innovation policy, China 1980s/1990s, China 358–9
and innovation policy, China 1949–1966 356–7
and patents 44, 75, 76, 563
public/private funding 72
start-up companies 75, 76
Urban, G. L. 90
Urry, J. 280
US Coast Guard 129
US Court of Chancery 571
US Department of Defence 378
US Federal Trade Commission 571–2
US Food and Drug Administration 34
US Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) 297
US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) 232, 557
user-driven design 144–5
user innovation 19, 83–96, 191–2, 371–2, 390, 442, 447
communities of 88–9
concept of 83
explosion of academic research 85–6, 86 Fig. 5.1
frequency 84
how users innovate 88–9
importance 84
increasing significance of 85
and incremental innovation of meaning 140, 145, 146, 147 Fig. 8.2
methods for exploiting 90–6
paradigm shift 83–6
reasons for underestimation of significance 85–6
and social innovation 320
theoretical explanations 86–90
which users innovate and why 86–8
why users freely reveal 89–90
user networks 205–6
Usher, Abbot Payton 163
Utterback, J. M. 38, 148–9, 276, 632
Uzzi, B. 108
Vaadi, M. 486
value capture
challenge of 63
and organization culture 64
role of marketing 64
value chain 185, 206
Porter’s approach 184
sustainable management 302–4
value constellations 206, 213–14
value nets 206, 215, 218
value networks 199, 206, 207, 214–15
and business models 423
value proposition (4 Ps) 57–9
delivering 60–1
value shops 214
Van Der Heyden, L. 428
van der Valk, T. 107
van Everdingen, Y. 486
variance theories 167, 177n
Venkatesh, V. 276–7
(p. 700) Venkatraman, N. 209
venture capital 251
China 359, 367
and financing of innovation 262
and flexible labour markets 262
and R&D financing 258, 259 Tab 13.2, 260
Verizon 408, 476
Victorian London 6
Virgin Atlantic 609–10
Virgin Galactic 605
virtual organizations 206, 213
virtual reality 387, 389
visualization 387–8, 389
Volkswagen 470, 651, 652
Volvo 7
von Hippel, E. 39, 84, 86, 89, 90, 92, 445–6, 447
von Krogh, G. 89
Von Tunzelman, G. N.
Vonartas, N. S. 105
Vredenburg, H. 304
Waarts, E. 486
Wachtler, J. 128
Wagner, M. 300, 302
Waguespack, D. M. 571
Waldfogel, J. 562–3
Waldstrom, C. 107, 111, 112
Wallin, M. 448–9
Wal-Mart 28, 58, 324
Walsh, J. 237, 561, 567
Walumbwa, F. 490
Wang, L. 300
Wao, D. A. 239
Warde, A. 274
Warell, A. 150
Warner, Harry 132
Warner Brothers 132
Watson, James 376
Watts, D. J. 104
Webcaster Act, US (2008) 566
Weber, Max 485
Wedgwood, Josiah 7, 9, 273, 279
Weick, K. E. 128
Weiner, M. 214
Weisbach, M. S. 262
West, J. 571, 653
Westley, F. 322, 324, 328
Wheelwright, S. C. 544, 632, 638, 649
Wikipedia 85
Wilkins, Maurice 376
Wilkinson, I. F. 219
Williamson, O. E. 482
WINTEL standard 410
Winter, S. 73
Wollering, Max 169
Womack, J. 341
Woo, C. U. 588
Woodrow Wilson, Thomas 469
Woodward, J. 378, 631
World Intellectual Property Office 572–3
World Trade Organization, and IPR negotiations 573
Wu, A. 489
Xbox Live 476
Xerox 36, 42, 237, 407, 424
Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC) 63, 124
and service innovation 601
Yang, Q. G. 262
Yet2.com 241, 472
YouTube 85
Yunus, Mohamed 423
Zaccai, Gian 172
Zaheer, A. 216
Zahra, S. A. 469
Zhang, M. 470
Zhou, H. 517
Ziedonis, A. 563
zippers 170
Zirpoli, F. 652
Zoghi, C. 517
Zopa 59
Zott, C. 421, 423, 426, 428, 434
Zysman, J. 256