Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 February 2020

(p. 867) Index of Subjects

(p. 867) Index of Subjects

Numbers in bold refer to tables and figures

affluent democracies, 12, 22–24, 37–39, 48, 169, 177, 182, 185, 357–385, 393, 403, 834
compared: comparative political economy typologies, 361–375, 363–364, 367–373, 566, 566n3;
cross-national variation, 358, 361–375, 363–364, 367–373
and democracy: democratic governance, 359;
democratic quality, 565, 572;
unequal democracies, 579;
see also democracy
and ethnicity: ethnic diversity, 774;
territorial and ethnic cohesion, 359–360
and labor market &economy: female labor market participation, 90, 363–364, 379, 403–404, 416, 418, 465, 469, 482–495, 485;
GDP, 43, 82, 87, 102, 185, 359;
labor market indicators, 363–364;
macro-economic indicators, 370–371
and policy spheres: environmental risk and policy, 339, 342, 347;
tax policies, 174, 238, 243–246, 245–246, 250;
welfare states, 359, 366, 367–369, 382
and state structure: access to political power, 19;
decentralization, 269–282;
“despotic” vs. “infrastructural” power, 14, 14n6, 170–171, 179, 180, 183;
forms of state intervention, 380–385;
governance, 179–180;
group partnering, 179–180;
import substitution industrialization model (ISI), 365;
independent administrative bodies, 577–578;
institutional dimensions of modern statehood, 195–196, 572–578;
national sovereignty, 360;
policy convergence, 470, 474;
political science typologies, 361;
TRUDI ideal-type modern state, 13n4, 158–159, 196–198, 200–206, 360–361, 375, 384, 818n1
and trajectories: contested state authority, 179, 430;
developmental trajectories, 237–251;
European integration, 13, 45, 180, 269–282, 360, 376, 383, 400, 468–469, 525, 527, 543, 551, 604;
neoliberal turn, 375–380;
piecemeal reform, 569–572;
post-war stabilization, 568–569;
state transformations, 357–385, 363–364, 367–373, 565–580, 823–826
Afghan Taliban, 551, 737, 748
Afghanistan, 118, 120, 156, 676, 747–749, 754, 786, 818
Africa
history: colonial legacy, 656, 733–734, 750;
European scramble for Africa, 78;
imperialism, 78;
slavery, 117, 118, 683
regions: French West Africa, 120;
sub-Saharan Africa, 119–122, 154, 674–678, 682, 694n3, 731, 750, 753, 764, 773, 782, 819
and state development: democratic transition and resource wealth, 717;
development of territorial states, 78;
developmental trajectories, 125;
multiparty elections, 739;
post-colonial conflict and violence, 126–127;
predatory states, 732–734, 736;
state formation and transformation, 116–128
see also colonialism/colonization; Global South; and individual countries
agrarian sector, 6, 366, 470
electoral role of farmers, 84, 85n9, 88
(p. 868) agrarian society, 37, 63–65, 66, 75, 88, 105, 139
agriculture
and labor issues: coerced labor, 102;
female labor, 820;
slavery, 117;
subsistence, 722
parameters: ecological influences, 102;
effect of disease on, 102–103, 106
policy: EU policy, 272, 276;
international regulation, 286
polity: agro-literate polities, 64–65, 67
and production issues: export-oriented, 382;
genetically modified food, 253, 263;
high value crops, 103, 460;
plantations, 112, 117
Albania, 610
Algeria, xiiin5
American Revolution, 76, 99, 521
American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), 504
anarchy, 2, 4, 161, 162, 202, 306, 307, 749, 756
Ancien Régime (ruling forces before 1789): 88, 91
Angola, 122, 232, 717, 722, 731, 752
antidumping provisions, 44
Argentina, 37, 100, 105, 110–113, 357, 365, 455–458, 460–461, 831n4
economy: automobile industry, 449;
“capitanes de la industria”, 451;
Roca-Runciman Pact (1930), 448
politics & state: democratic institutions, 102;
democratization, 785, 799;
populism, 447–448, 451;
semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460
trade system: import substitution industrialization (ISI), 453;
inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
liberalized trade, 446;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
welfare & education: literacy rates, 102;
public education, 800;
welfare state, 797–798, 800, 802, 803, 805
arms control, 258
Asia
conflicts: peace and war, 68;
post-colonial conflict and violence, 126–127
economies & trade: financial crises (1990s), 39, 45, 181, 182, 294, 324, 400, 830;
import substitution industrialization (ISI), 20, 22, 175, 182, 829;
international financial pressure, 181;
“tiger” economies, 38, 618, 622, 629, 699, 703, 829
history: colonial legacy, 656, 750;
imperialism, 78
state & democracy: productivist welfare, 181–182;
public spending, 175, 181;
regional governance development, 278;
state formation and transformation, 116–128, 180–182;
statist models, 393;
transition to democracy, 180, 182;
welfare state and social protection, 798–799, 800–801, 803–804
see also colonialism/colonization; Global South; and individual countries
Asian Development Bank, 278
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 831, 831n5
atrocity crimes, 12, 127, 187, 310, 523, 738
Australia, xiiin5,; 78, 427–428
economy & trade system: automobile industry, 449;
inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
politics & state: Labor Party, 453, 490;
semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460;
unitary national identity, 449
welfare & education: gender equality policy, 489–490;
immigration control, 518;
social spending, 458–459;
welfare state, 453, 457
Austria, 86, 87, 203, 282, 361, 377, 381, 410, 412, 416, 474, 486, 517, 572, 823
economy: Austro-Keynesianism, 414;
coordinated market economy, 566;
corporatism, 412, 414;
demand stimulation, 414;
unionization, 414
politics & state: consociational democracy, 575;
education, 526;
federalism, 540, 822
South Tyrol question, 543
(p. 869) Austro-Hungarian Empire, 69, 78, 78n3, 88, 534, 768
authoritarian regimes, 1, 6, 7, 13, 19, 36, 158, 278, 549, 590, 602, 627
economies: association with oil wealth, 717–719, 735;
link with import substitution industrialization, 451
politics: control of the public sphere, 14;
electoral autocracy, 8;
elite networks and coalitions, 740;
political competition, 783, 791;
regime typology, 783;
state autonomy from civil society, 9, 626;
transition to democracy, 21, 572n9, 782, 784–787, 785
resurgence, 25
autocracies, 8, 9, 160, 183, 250, 590, 597–598, 619, 643–644, 780, 789
Azerbaijan, 594–595, 597, 620, 623–625, 627, 631n23, 632
Aztec Empire, 104–105, 107, 108
Bali, 65
Balkan states
EU accession, 184, 603, 609–612
transition to democracy, 184
see also individual countries
Balkan wars (1990s), 80
Baltic states, 543, 623
see also individual countries
Bangladesh, 250, 311, 340, 738, 768, 786
Bank for International Settlements (BIS), 323, 324, 325, 329, 330
Bank of England, 429, 433
behavioral norms, 198
behavioralism, 33, 36, 38
Belgium, 81, 85, 87, 375, 380, 381, 517
economy: coordinated market economy, 566;
corporatism, 410, 414, 416;
industrialization, 88, 118
politics & state: constitutional reform, 544;
democracy, 566, 770, 826;
education, 526;
federalism, 566, 576–577;
plurinationalism, 359, 383
Bhutan, 674, 786
bicameralism, 10, 822
Boer War, 67
Bolivia, 79, 100, 104–106, 109, 112, 278, 785, 803, 831nn4, 8
democratic institutions, 102
Transparency International corruption score, 110
Bosnia and Herzegovina, 541
Botswana, 8, 629, 676, 678, 716, 722, 786
Brazil, xiiin5, 37, 99, 100, 623, 684
economy & trade: automobile industry, 449;
GDP, 799;
import substitution industrialization (ISI), 453;
inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES), 447, 449, 451, 455;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
politics & state: development and state transformation, 699, 701–703;
civil society actors, 702–703;
semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460
welfare state: conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs, 628, 701, 830;
social protection, 798;
social rights recognition, 628;
welfare state, 802–803
Bretton Woods institutions, 206, 231, 323, 427, 445, 569, 570, 817
see also International Monetary Fund;
World Bank
BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), 5, 818
British Empire, 68, 78, 122–123, 126, 449
see also colonialism/colonization;
Great Britain
British Rail, 508
Bulgaria, 47n4, 79, 184, 603, 605, 609
state reform, 606–608, 612, 613
Transparency International corruption score, 607
bureaucratic capacity, 13, 15–17, 37, 101, 123–125, 619–620, 692, 702–703, 823, 836
see also elites;
governance
Burma (Myanmar), 119, 121, 122, 127, 232, 683, 766, 769, 786, 831n5
see also Myanmar
(p. 870) businesses
comparative advantage, 178, 365, 396, 416
and state: bargaining power, 502;
capital mobility, 41, 240, 502;
corporate taxation, 43;
exit options, 42, 240;
national champions, 174;
“regime shopping”, 41
types of: consortia, 291;
multinational corporations (MNCs), 193, 243, 628, 835;
transnational corporations (TNCs), 142, 449, 450–451
Calvinism, 9, 67, 137
Cambodia, 786, 831n5
Khmer Rouge, 311
Canada, 78, 99, 100, 105, 108
economy: automobile industry, 449, 452, 455;
GDP, 102, 454–455;
natural resources, 438;
neoliberal reform, 435–436
politics & state: bi-cultural national identity, 449;
federalism, 428, 454, 540;
multicultural state, 523, 540;
multinational state, 535;
“National Policy” (1871–1940), 449;
political system, 574–575;
Québec, 435, 447, 448, 450, 535, 536–542, 544;
semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460
trade system: inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
protectionist policy, 449–450;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
welfare & education: gender equality policy, 490;
literacy rates, 102;
social spending, 458–459;
welfare state, 430, 436, 454
capital
accumulation, 138, 447, 693, 707
movement: flight, 40–41, 328;
flows and mobility, 42, 43, 142, 239, 276, 378, 421, 468, 816, 820
capitalism
characteristics: advanced, 375;
free-market, 40, 243, 393, 602, 603;
industrial, 35, 781
modern, 76, 172;
liberal, 71, 366;
neoliberal, 45, 49, 375;
organized, 445
and economic development, 7
global dynamics of, 138
and political system: concessions capitalism, 643;
regulatory, 287, 511;
state intervention, 14, 171–172;
welfare, 45, 171, 366, 374, 375;
welfare state domestication of, 237
political types: authoritarian, 71;
communist, 704, 827;
crony, 40, 400, 641;
egalitarian, 49n5;
oligarchic, 45
post-war, 172, 411
varieties of, 14, 49, 49n5, 206n9, 240, 247, 365–366, 374, 416, 428
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (2001), 263
caste segregation, 7, 65, 695, 697n7, 705, 706
Catholicism, 80, 84, 85, 88, 89, 91–92
Cayman Islands, 41, 174
Central African Republic, 676, 834
Central America, 105, 693, 741, 790
Central Europe, 69, 82, 183, 278, 520
see also East Central Europe; post-communist countries; and individual countries
Chicago School, 39
chiefdoms, 63, 105, 106, 108, 119, 120–121
Chile, xiiin5, 37, 39, 102, 105, 109, 110, 247, 357, 445, 460, 676, 698, 828, 829, 831n8
economy: growth and GDP, 678, 685
politics & state: democratization, 785, 797, 799;
Socialist Party, 802;
welfare state, 796–798, 800, 803, 805–807
China, xiiin5, 19, 25, 64, 70, 454, 684–685
economy: agricultural collectives, 654, 694;
authoritarian capitalism, 71, 664–665, 704;
capitalist class, 654;
collective enterprises, 184, 660;
economic liberalization, 654;
economic reform, 621n6;
economic resilience, 327;
economic rise, 5, 21, 654–655;
hukou system, 520;
industrialization, 17;
market orientation, 14;
private enterprise, 184, 659–662;
property rights, 184, 655
history: Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), 656;
development and state transformation, 699, 703–707;
early state-building, 118, 656, 657;
Great Famine (1958–1961), 704; (p. 871)
Mandarin system, 65;
Mandate of Heaven, 65;
Opium Wars (1839-1842, 1856-1860), 656;
Warring States period (475–221 BC), 656
People’s Liberation Army, 656
politics & state: adaptive institutions, 184, 655, 658–668, 666;
authoritarian embeddedness, 704;
Communist Party, 21, 184, 621n6, 654–658, 663–664;
despotic vs. instrumental power, 658–659;
elite competition, 656–657;
elite politics, 663–664;
formal despotism, 184–185, 658;
social protection and welfare, 798;
state transformation, 184, 654–668, 827–828;
state-owned enterprises (SOEs), 654
population size, 231
trade system: foreign direct investment (FDI), 654;
foreign economic policy, 332;
US dollar reserves, 331
citizenship, 68, 139, 383, 484
basic types: ius domicilii, 520;
ius sanguinis, 516, 519, 520, 523;
ius soli, 516, 519, 523
consequences: benefit entitlement, 467;
membership boundaries, 519;
participatory, 81;
rights and obligations, 518–519, 534, 543, 807
level: denizenship, 519;
European Union policy, 524–527;
Heimatrecht, 520;
hukou system, 520;
local, 520;
quasi-citizenship, 519;
transnational, 524
scope: dual, 519, 543;
multiple, 527, 528
shared, 171
state regulation, 516–528, 825
civil liberty and civil rights, 171, 314, 359, 457, 549, 556, 565
institutionalization, 81
effects of securitization, 177, 310, 552, 818, 825
Western democratic, 519
civil rights movement, 569, 820–821
civil servants, 39, 373, 396, 431, 593, 797
see also bureaucrats
civil society, 7–9, 39, 136, 143, 180–181, 183, 261–264, 376, 490–491, 494, 567–568, 570–571, 606, 620, 695–699
see also non-governmental organizations;
political sphere;
public–private partnerships;
public sphere;
state-society relations
civility, 140
class-analytic political theory, 131, 132–134, 133, 138, 142
class consciousness, 69
class power, 6–7, 83–84, 133
class structure, 141
history: constellations, 6–7, 10;
democracy development, 781
structural features: institutionalized class relations, 133;
post-war erosion, 470;
reproduction, 138;
social coalitions, 83–84
class struggle and conflict, 35, 79, 132–134, 133, 428
clientelism, 8, 10, 181, 568, 571, 610, 697, 703, 708, 802, 821, 827, 831, 836
Coase theorem, 501
Cold War, 4, 89, 229, 258, 360, 568
threat pattern: existential threat, 306;
nuclear threat and deterrence, 70, 307, 549;
threat defusion, 309
trajectory: bipolar world order, 5, 816, 818;
end of C. W., xi, 5, 18, 40, 46, 172, 549, 573, 737, 784
see also communism;
post-communist countries;
Soviet Union
Colombia, 100, 105, 278, 445, 748, 752, 785
colonialism/colonization, 1, 78
development relationship: d.r., pre- and post-colonial, 105–109, 128:
colonialism hypothesis, 108–109;
geography hypothesis, 106–107;
indigenous persistence hypothesis, 107
history: disease environment and settlement patterns, 102–103, 106, 109, 120;
frontiers on wheels, 516;
independence wars, 99;
introduction of disease, 117–118;
legacy in the Global South, 22, 750;
penal colonies, 117;
post-colonial state legacies, 123–128;
post-colonial violence, 766;
preparation for independence, 122–123;
slavery, (p. 872) 117, 118, 683;
“state death”, 3;
wars of independence, 122;
Western European state model, 3, 78, 79, 116, 118, 534, 821
identities: elite actors, 112;
colonizer identity, 109, 111–112;
effects on indigenous identity, 126–127, 683, 766
New World: overview, 99–113: British colonization, 108, 110, 111–113;
effects of European settlement on N.W., 100, 109–112;
geographic variations in the N.W., 100–104, 109;
indigenous populations, 99, 100, 104–109;
levels of European settlement, 109–111;
plantocracy, 117;
Portuguese colonization, 99;
slavery, 117;
Spanish colonization, 99, 103, 104, 108, 110–113
rule, forms of: concessionaire rule, 120;
extractive institutions, 109–110, 111;
indigenous collaboration, 120;
indigenous institutions, 119–123;
indirect/direct rule, 119–126, 750;
institutional interaction, 99, 104–105, 111–112, 119–120, 122;
restrictive institutions, 104
Where? Africa and Asia, 116–128;
Caribbean settlement, 99, 112;
see above, keyword New World
Who? Belgian colonialism, 127;
British colonialism, 118, 120–123, 125–126;
Japanese colonialism, 118, 124–125, 674, 675, 722
communism, 13–14, 19, 21, 25, 89, 90, 182–185
breakdown: collapse of, 39, 40–42, 587;
dismantling and democratic transition, 45
see also China;
post-communist countries;
Soviet Union;
totalitarianism
community-based organizations (CBOs), 696n5
Community of Independent States (CIS), 279, 626–627
community self-rule, 270, 274, 277–278
comparative politics studies, 9, 256n1, 780–781, 783
aspects: cross-national variation, 12, 173;
macro variables, 160;
methodological nationalism, 5, 274, 533, 748
comparative dimensions: across policy, 188;
across space, 188;
across time, 187–188
type-making: typologies, 46, 49, 154, 170–172, 188, 361–362, 365–367, 373–375, 467–468, 566, 657–658, 823;
varieties of capitalism school, 14, 49, 206n9, 238, 247, 248, 249, 566
competition state thesis, 18, 172–173, 206, 210, 237–251
consequences: decline of the welfare state, 238;
effects of competition on the welfare state, 248–250;
inter-state competition, 242–250;
neoliberal convergence, 238, 244, 247–248
methodological aspects: causal mechanisms, 240–243;
competitive constraints, 242–250;
definition, 239–240;
structural determinism, 238, 242–243
taxation case study, 243–248, 245–246, 250
Congress of Vienna (1815), 76
consociationalism, 384–385, 540–541, 568, 570, 686, 763, 768, 770–772, 774
Consumers International (CI), 295–296
coordinated market economies (CMEs), 365–366, 377, 411, 412, 566, 580
corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards, 291
corporatism/corporatist state model, 14, 19, 38, 362, 375, 381, 410–422, 445–461, 570, 657
Costa Rica, 110, 111, 679
economy: GDP, 102
politics, state & welfare: healthcare, 802;
IADB government effectiveness score, 102;
pensions system, 800;
welfare state, 796, 797, 802, 806
Council of Europe, 543
crimes against humanity, 207, 738
Croatia, xiiin5, 184, 605, 609–611
Cuba, 78, 278
culturalist political theory, 131, 133, 137–138
focus: cultural representations and practices, 133, 140;
identity effects, 133; (p. 873)
rituals and social practices, 133, 138;
social discipline, 139–140
view of state: state as ideological construct, 137, 143;
state–society boundary, 133;
state transformation, 143;
theater state, 65, 137
Cyprus, 12, 15, 41, 542, 612
Czech Republic, 280, 357, 486
Czechoslovakia, 78n3, 79, 603
Darfur, 176
decentralization, 2, 7, 8, 123, 269–282, 376, 576–577, 595, 770–771
see also devolution;
federalism
decolonization, 3, 153, 638, 724, 737, 746, 818, 833
right to self-determination principle, 201–202, 207, 733
deindustrialization, 6, 819, 821, 824, 829
democracy
effects of: correlation of d. with life expectancy, 694;
effects of d. on health outcomes, 694;
effects of oil wealth on d., 717–718
politics of: collective self-rule, 77, 88;
consensus, 8, 204–205, 209, 226, 566, 570, 826;
direct, 575–576, 578;
fragmentation of political representation, 89–90, 384, 571, 578, 797;
institutionalized, 80, 572, 773, 774;
parliamentary accountability, 76, 80, 88, 565;
promotion of, 18
transition to, 19, 21, 45, 81, 82, 90, 180, 182, 184, 494, 572n9, 640, 654, 655, 717, 782, 784–787, 785, 791, 799
see also affluent democracies;
democratic procedures;
democratic regime/system;
democratization
democratic procedures
elections: election monitoring, 208, 263;
elections, 9, 19, 80, 208, 384, 519, 565, 571, 572, 580, 602, 697, 782, 786;
participation, 9, 81, 574, 576;
suffrage extension, 19, 76, 77, 80, 88, 90, 565, 568
types and switches in types: alternative vote system, 575;
constitutional reform, 19, 273, 544;
electoral formulas, 88;
electoral reform, 80–81, 573–575;
first-past-the-post system, 574;
majoritarian system, 436, 566, 573–574;
mixed system, 573, 574;
proportional representation, 78, 88, 436, 566, 573–574, 595
voting, forms and mechanics: absentee ballots, 519;
e-democracy, 576;
referenda, 9, 19, 573, 574, 575;
representation quotas, 19;
secret voting, 76, 81;
single non-transferable vote, 573
democratic regime/system, 1, 6, 17, 20, 183, 565, 568
liberal/illiberal: illiberal democracy, 7, 19, 605, 612;
liberal democracy, 14, 19, 185, 549, 572, 602, 603, 608, 612, 781;
liberal Machiavellianism, 69
parties: christian democratic, 45–46, 85, 89–90, 171, 366, 367, 368, 373–375, 467–468, 823, 824;
social democratic, 45–46, 85, 89, 171, 366, 367, 368, 373–375, 404–405, 467–468, 698, 708, 823, 824
systems: hybrid, 19, 602, 784–791;
majoritarian vs. consensus, 8, 19, 566, 570;
parliamentary, 76, 80, 88, 183, 361, 566, 569, 575, 577, 593, 716, 822;
presidential, 10, 361, 822;
semi-presidential, 361, 566;
Westminster system, 436, 574
Democratic Republic of Congo, 153, 156, 186, 676, 678, 683, 722, 731, 733, 735, 737
democratization
development: diffusion and convergence, 4, 33, 79, 82, 83, 172–173, 826;
extension of rights after war, 67, 77;
global, 19;
Global South, 686, 779–793;
multiple pathways, 83;
national trajectories, 80, 83;
suffrage extension, 19, 76, 77, 80, 88, 565, 568, 569;
third wave, 79, 590, 638, 780, 786–787, 826;
uneven, 76, 81–83
factors: effects of income distribution and inequality, 82, 101–102;
party politics, 76, 78–79, 83, 84, 570–575, 578;
political struggle, 781–782;
religious factors, 84–85, 88, 91–92;
self-enforcing, 7;
structural conditions, 780–781
(p. 874) Denmark, 71, 80, 85, 243, 280, 347, 412, 474, 573
economy: agriculture, 414;
coordinated market economy, 566;
demand management, 414;
ICT development, 416
politics: corporatism, 410;
democracy, 81, 92, 570, 575;
flexicurity, 247
dependency theory, 110, 451, 679–680
despotic vs. infrastructural power, 14, 14n6, 170–171, 179, 180, 183, 189, 645, 821
Deutsche Bank, 326
developing/developmental states
effects of: direct vs. indirect colonial rule, 125–126;
geography, 100–104;
resource wealth, 618–632;
transnational environmental governance, 350;
systemic vulnerability, 622
human development, 691–709
pathways: developmental trajectories, 124, 125–126, 181;
embeddedness of development, 695–696, 698, 707–708;
post-colonial legacies, 123–128;
pre-colonial/post-colonial relationship, 105–106, 128
politics & state: bureaucratic elites, 622n9, 696;
civil society, 181, 695–699, 700–701;
collective goals, 696;
low wage manufacturing exports, 5;
public spending, 181;
state capability and governance, 693–696, 699–709;
state-led development, 124–125, 625–626, 628–629;
state–society relations, 8, 181
see also Asia;
Global South;
Latin America;
post-communist countries
developmental state model, 124–125, 381, 393, 686, 691–709
devolution, 7, 376, 383, 427, 537, 540–541, 576–577
see also federalism
differentiation theory, 224, 224n4
diplomacy, 12, 276, 289, 322, 457
disease control measures, 257, 258, 259–260, 289
drug cartels, 41
drug smuggling/trafficking, 47n4, 551, 731, 736
eagle, xiii
East African Community (EAC), 279
East Central Europe, 183, 588, 589, 592, 596, 604, 610
Eastern Europe, 21, 25, 79, 81, 88, 183–185, 188, 278, 358n2, 486, 523, 535, 538, 602–613, 644, 646, 784, 827
East Timor, 187, 207
ecological interdependence, 339, 343–344, 349
ecological zones, 100, 101–102
economic activity, 2, 75, 243, 427, 433, 504, 610, 748, 820
see also economic growth and development;
economic integration;
financial markets;
global markets;
globalization;
markets;
trade
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 312
economic crises and state transformation, 37, 324–330, 427, 801
see also financial crisis;
Great Depression
economic growth and development, 17, 43, 185
democracy: correlation of GDP with democracy, 82;
democratic impetus of economic growth and development, 82
economics: Fordist growth model, 6, 140, 206, 241, 247, 250, 327;
global production, 174, 460;
new growth theory, 693n2;
stagflation, 38, 241, 430, 453
effects of: geography, 100–104;
resource abundance, 714–726;
social capital and synergy, 142
environment: disease environment factors, 102–103, 106, 109;
temperate/tropical state comparisons, 102
state-led, 124–125, 618
economic integration, 21, 238, 240, 243, 247–249, 275, 325, 466, 551, 816
see also financial markets;
global markets;
globalization;
markets;
trade
economic liberalism, 323
economic shock, 37, 427, 801
Ecuador, 100, 105, 278
(p. 875) democratic institutions, 102
Transparency International corruption score, 110
education, 5, 6, 14, 17, 378, 416, 418–420, 433, 438, 625, 693
lifelong learning, 487
Egypt, 121, 153, 340, 779
El Salvador, 105
elites
types: bureaucratic, 10, 593, 620, 622n9, 696;
economic, 17, 102, 112, 135, 139, 142, 592, 685, 707;
financial, 326, 327–328;
industrial, 181, 619, 620, 626, 695, 696, 699;
mercantilist, 111;
political, 3, 8, 20, 64, 69, 71, 78, 89, 118, 207, 549, 567, 574, 591, 593, 683, 699, 801, 826
modalities: competition, 3, 8, 588–589, 592–598, 603–604, 656–657;
indigenous/local, 78, 733, 750, 755;
interests, 140–141, 755;
military-police complex, 548;
networks and coalitions, 740;
unconstrained, 183, 591
state, 3, 6, 180, 182, 362, 460, 540, 750, 751
see also governance
embedded authority, 256n1
embedded state, 209–210, 253–264, 270, 709, 816, 817
contrast with sovereign state, 261
see also governance
employers’ associations, 7, 579
enabling state, 19, 477
“end of history” thesis, 40
English School, 221n1
entrepreneurs, 6, 35, 377, 486, 660–661, 730, 733
see also innovation
environmental change
aspects of: climate change, 175, 194, 278, 308, 339–340, 343, 345, 349;
CO2 emissions (greenhouse gases), 231, 349–350;
global warming, 71, 175, 338, 349, 818;
loss of biodiversity, 175;
ozone depletion, 175;
water stress, 340
nexus: direct and indirect consequences, 339–340;
ecological interdependence, 339, 343–344, 349
environmental degradation, 41, 308, 310, 501
environmental policy and governance, 175–176, 278, 338–350, 826
actors: bureaucratic rule-making networks, 345–346;
non-state and transnational actors, 346–347;
role of the state, 346
instruments: certification schemes, 349;
forest management, 346–347;
international environmental law, 342–346;
Kyoto Protocol, 231, 344, 345;
multilateral agreements, 343;
voluntary programs, 346
trends: diffusion and harmonization, 341–342;
environmentalization of the state, 350;
governance turn, 346;
internationalization of environmental politics, 340–346;
privatization of environmental politics, 346–349
environmental protection, 17, 44, 172, 290, 308, 341, 342, 346–347, 350, 399, 549
environmental sustainability standards, 291, 348
Estonia, 357, 517, 623
Ethiopia, 118–120, 674, 683, 770, 786n5
ethnic cleansing, 70, 207, 359, 603
ethnic conflict, 7, 21, 80, 126–127, 185–186, 739, 751, 763–775, 765
ethnic diversity, 682–684, 763–775
ethnicity, 7, 537
and the state: effects on state transformation, 763–775;
institutionalization of, 126–127
see also minorities;
race;
racial division
ethno-nationalism, 7, 80, 185–186, 621n7, 763–764, 768–774
eunuchs, 65
European Central Bank (ECB), 16, 49, 435, 578, 580
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 282
European Commission, 264, 275, 296, 297, 431, 452, 487, 494, 503, 525, 526, 609, 610
European Common Market (1957), 12, 396, 400
European Community, 466
European/continental statism, 36, 38, 172
(p. 876) European Court of Human Rights, 263
European Court of Justice (ECJ), 263, 264, 281, 383, 504, 525
European Economic Community (EEC), 269, 275, 524, 569, 819
European Fiscal Compact, 579
European Free Trade Association, 466
European Monetary System (EMS), 400, 401
European Monetary Union (EMU), 45, 360, 435, 511
European Parliament, 261, 297–298, 580
European Stability Mechanism (ESM), 511, 579
European Union (EU), xiiin5, 4, 16–17, 40, 70–71, 174, 179, 204–205, 269
characteristics: elections, 572;
intergovernmentalism, 543;
lack of democratic legitimacy, 77, 261, 572;
multilevel governance, 269–282, 376;
post-national polity, 77;
qualified-majority voting (QMV) system, 175, 376;
regulatory state exemplar, 500, 503–508;
unanimity principle, 10
entry/exit: accession process, 184, 543, 604–607, 610;
enlargement, 184, 468, 602–613;
exit procedure, 281
institutions/actors: Committee of the Regions, 277;
Expert Group in Gender Equality, Social Inclusion, Health, and Long-term Care, 493;
member states, 17, 281, 360, 526;
referenda, 573;
regional government, 271–275, 277, 280, 542–543, 577, 826
instruments: acquis communautaire, 525n2, 543n1, 606, 607, 609, 612, 613;
directives, 260, 281, 296;
four freedoms (single market), 47n4, 504, 524–525;
free movement, 524–527;
Open Method of Coordination, 469, 825;
Single European Act (1986), 431, 573;
standards setting 295–296;
Women’s Charter (2010), 487
policies: agricultural policy, 275;
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), 395;
competition policy, 41, 45, 264, 378;
currency integration, 12, 13, 90;
gender mainstreaming policy, 492–493;
promotion of democracy, 184;
trade policy, 45;
Schengen zone, 47, 524, 525, 527
politics of: domestic intervention, 209;
evolution of authority, 271–274, 272–273;
integration, 13, 45, 180, 269–282, 360, 376, 377, 383, 400, 468–469, 525, 527, 543, 551, 572, 604;
interest group pressure, 264;
leverage, 604–606, 609–613;
liberalizing agenda, 45, 504;
Lisbon strategy, 487;
policy competence, 209, 271–274, 272–273, 276;
social and political integration, 12–13, 15, 180
treaties: Amsterdam Treaty (1997), 492, 494, 525;
Lisbon Treaty (2007), 573;
Maastricht Treaty (1992), 157, 503, 525, 543, 573;
Treaty of Rome (1957), 524
Euroskepticism, 538
Eurozone, 12–13, 331, 332, 573, 580
budget deficit crisis, 41, 395, 578, 579
exchange rates, 323, 331
external shocks, 43, 82–83
failed states, 7, 21, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158–159, 162, 186, 207, 676, 686, 732, 737
see also fragile states;
state breakdown/failure
fair trade standards, 291
family
models: adult worker model, 484–487;
dual earner/dual carer model, 476, 484–487
position: role in social protection, 17;
structure, 7;
work-family balance/reconciliation, 177–178, 373, 380, 382, 416, 469, 487–488
support measures: childcare provision, 18, 178, 373, 382, 416, 484;
early childhood education and care (ECEC), 418;
family policy, 475–477;
parental leave, 382
see also welfare state;
women
fascism, 81n6, 84, 89
federalism, 7, 10–11, 273, 280, 467, 540–542, 576–577, 641, 770, 822
feudal warriors, 65
feudalism, 65, 77, 516, 641
financial capital, 6, 240
(p. 877) financial crisis (2007–2008), 16, 19, 34, 45, 210, 322–334, 460, 511, 559
development: central banks’ response to f.c., 329;
financial bailouts, 327, 428, 436;
housing market boom and bust, 434–435;
neoliberal economics, 326–328;
neoliberal hegemony, 242, 328;
Troika (ECB, EU, IMF) management of f.c., 16
and the state: austerity measures, 174, 327, 478, 579;
challenge to theories of the state, 47–49;
effects on state policy, 332;
effects on welfare policy, 478–479;
intergovernmental problem-solving and cooperation, 77, 328–334;
state transformation, 578–580
financial markets, 19, 39, 206, 376, 816, 819, 825
features: bond markets, 15, 41, 174;
international/global, 43, 174, 293–294, 324, 326–328, 332–333, 378, 384, 414, 453, 511, 572, 580, 591, 816;
local, 332
reform: deregulation, 374, 434, 445;
liberalization, 454, 799, 816
see also financial crisis;
global markets
financial regulation and reform, 286, 294, 298, 326–328, 332–333, 591
Basel: 1988 Basel Accord, 324;
2010–2011 Basel Accord, 511;
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, 289–290
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), 294
Financial Stability Board (FSB), 329, 332–333
Financial Stability Forum (FSF), 329, 330
Finland, 79, 86, 280, 377, 476, 486, 489, 568, 823
economy: corporatism, 410, 412, 413;
ICT development, 416
politics & state: gender equality policy, 489;
state-led industrialization, 413
flexicurity, 247
foreign direct investment (FDI), 4, 243, 430, 452, 455, 456, 625, 631, 654, 816, 831
Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan, 349
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 347–349, 510
fragile states, 154, 156, 158, 162, 644, 746
see also state breakdown/failure;
failed states
France, xiiin5
history: civil unrest (1968), 15;
French Revolution (1789-1799), 76, 87–88;
“immunity” to fascism, 81n6
politics & state: Constitution 1946, Fourth Republic), 281;
dirigisme, 393, 395, 399, 400, 401, 402;
interventionist economic planning, 426;
privatization, 506–507;
reform, 402–404;
Socialist Party, 492;
statist model, 48, 175, 393–405;
unemployment rate, 402
welfare state: gender equality policy, 492;
social spending and welfare state, 381, 401, 402;
state of providence, 18n8;
universal citizenship rights, 492
free-rider/collective action problem, 133, 135, 135n7, 501
tragedy of the commons, 162
Freedom House, 186, 626n17, 731, 783, 784
functionalism, 67, 270, 275, 277, 767
Fund for Peace Failed States Index, 676
G7/G8/G20, 202, 260, 324, 328–329, 572, 580
game theory, 135n8, 139
gender issues and government policy, 7, 18
gender equality: inequality, equality and, 373, 382, 465, 475, 482–495;
mainstreaming and outcome equality, 382, 492–493
social norms and policy change, 177
see also family;
women;
women-friendly state
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, 1947)), 206, 257, 258, 259, 360, 376, 819
genocide, 127, 136, 207, 313, 359, 683, 747, 752, 767
geopolitics, 5, 12, 62
aspects of: expanded state role in g., 48;
g. interaction with economic sphere, 13, 395;
shifts and shocks in g., 18
EU membership benefits, 594
see also military interventions;
security;
terrorism;
war/warfare
(p. 878) German National Standards Institute (DIN), 294
Germany, xiiin5, 45, 71, 85n9
economy & society: central bank independence, 411;
electricity sector, 508;
export-led growth, 430;
guest workers, 523;
industrial relations system, 42;
liberal economic order, 426;
telecommunications sector, 508
politics & state: anti-terror database, 553;
citizenship and immigration policy, 523;
corporatism, 411;
ethnicity-based nationhood, 523;
German Basic Law (1949), 281;
Green Party, 492;
privatization, 507;
security response to 9/11 attacks, 555;
SPD Party, 492;
state as moral project, 70
reunification (1990), 523
welfare state: gender equality policy, 492;
pension system, 411n1;
social expenditure, 471;
welfare state, 42, 44n3, 411
global health politics, 259
global institutions, 3, 271, 292, 298, 333, 680, 681, 831, 832
see also international institutions;
international organizations
global markets
economy: capital markets, 4, 294, 378, 453–454, 820, 830;
competition, 11, 325, 328;
global production chains, 4, 174, 460;
integration, 4, 446, 461;
profit opportunities, 241
state: effects on states/state system, 174–175, 193–212;
shocks and inequalities, 206;
standard setting, 179–180, 290–299;
welfare state competitive disadvantage, 238
see also globalization;
markets;
trade
Global North, 26, 157, 158, 260, 375, 838
Global South, 23, 25–26, 154, 673–687
conflicts: civil wars, 187, 679, 683;
ethnic conflict and war, 185–186, 683–684, 684, 763–775, 765;
humanitarian and military intervention, 186–187;
secessionist movements, 187;
terrorist networks, 187;
violence and instability, 185–187
economy & society: effects of globalization, 681–682;
ethnic and national diversity, 682–684, 686, 763–775, 789;
GDP, 185, 677, 678, 714;
informal workers, 6;
linguistic diversity, 682–683, 764;
social and ethnic cleavages 25;
socio-economic development, 787–789, 788
history: colonial origin, 674–675, 680, 683;
effects of 9/11 terrorist attacks, 187;
effects of Cold War collapse, 186–187, 784;
late development and emerging powers, 684–685;
legacy of colonialism, 22, 185;
Western/European paradigms and bias, 152, 154–155, 157, 162
institutional and functional failure, 749–752
international politics: foreign aid, 680;
role of international organizations, 16, 260;
US foreign aid, 186
politics & states: democratization, 686, 779–793;
dysfunctional states, 186, 187;
limited sovereignty, 186;
natural resources and rentier states, 686, 714–726;
political institutions, 674;
Polity IV democracy scores, 675;
predatory states, 186, 187, 618, 686, 714, 730–742;
regime change, 784–787, 785;
representative democracy, 697;
state-building, 789–791;
state diversity, 674;
state failure and collapse, 186, 187;
state transformation, 185–187, 674–676, 763–775, 828–834;
World Bank governance indicators, 676
theories: deficit theory, 158–159, 162;
dependency theory, 679–682
welfare: poverty, 185, 677–679, 677, 682, 684, 687, 751, 780, 800, 803, 828, 831;
social welfare provision, 144;
welfare state emergence, 796–807
globalization
dimensions: economic, xi, 4, 15, 40, 142, 240, 249, 250, 293, 468–469, 477, 573, 681;
transborder flows, 193, 210n10
and formal coping: international regulatory cooperation, 500;
transnational regulatory institutions, 286–299
and national states: countered by domestic politics, 43;
effects on migration/immigration, 47, 47n4;
effects on national economic systems, 40–41, 375–376;
effects on states/state system, 1, 2, 15, 34, 40–42, 157, 172, 173, 188, 193–212, 681, 816–818, 835–836;
effects on the welfare state, 240;
trade openness and industrial policy, 41, 142, 370–371, 377, 412, 681
see also global institutions;
international institutions;
international organizations
gold standard 323, 324
governance
actors: actor constellations, 160–162;
non-state actors, 24, 142, 152, 154, 158, 161–162, 179, 209, 233, 259, 262–264, 347, 666, 748–749, 756, 833;
public-private partnerships, 14, 46, 142, 161, 262–263, 347, 467, 477
characteristics: distributed gov., 5;
economies of scale of gov., 274–275, 277;
etymological roots of “to govern”, xiiin4;
expression of community, 270, 274, 277–278;
general-purpose vs. task-specific gov., 279–280;
gov. with and without government, 748–749;
joint/hybrid gov., 180, 287, 298;
modes of gov., 157;
multilevel gov., 16–17, 142, 154, 180, 209–210, 269–282;
privatization of gov., 286–287, 291–299, 297, 346–349;
trust and legitimacy of gov., 152, 162, 279
global, 4–5, 157, 162, 226, 253–264, 289
institutions & regulation: global gov. institutions, 256–258, 263, 269–282, 510–512;
international gov. challenges, 173, 179;
limited statehood and gov., 159–163, 160;
regional, 271–275, 277, 280, 826;
rule-making processes, 142, 154, 286–299, 343–346, 748–749;
state capacity, 15, 131, 133, 134–138, 180, 645–646, 771–772, 788, 790;
transnational gov., 162, 180, 286–299, 348–349
World Bank gov. indicators, 623, 646–648, 648, 676, 694–695
see also international institutions;
international organizations;
transnational organizations and actors
governmentality, 137, 139
Great Britain
economy & society: class conflict, 428;
demand-led growth, 433;
nationalization of industry, 429;
“winter of discontent” (1978/79), 15
history: early capitalist system, 111–112;
national efficiency movement (early 20th century), 67;
pioneer industrialization, 171;
Poor Law (1834), 432;
Social Contract (1974), 427;
World War II coalition government, 3
politics & state: House of Lords, 81n5, 553, 556, 567, 572n9;
Keynesian era, 428–430;
National Health Service (1948), 429, 432, 476, 507;
neoliberal era, 430–435;
new public management, 210n11, 381–382, 431;
party politics, 84, 436;
welfare state development, 429
see also colonialism/colonization;
United Kingdom
Great Depression (1930s), 34, 323–325, 327, 329–332, 447, 459
great powers, 62, 69, 202–203, 222, 226, 230, 275, 395
Guatemala, 105, 110, 785
Guinea, 187, 676, 731, 738, 739, 741
Haiti, 676, 731, 785
Hanseatic League, 225
healthcare, 14, 374, 378, 434, 476, 625
High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (2003-2004), 305, 314
“high” vs. “low” politics, 12–13
Hinduism, 65
(p. 880) historical institutionalism, 38, 655, 658–659
analysis of colonialism, 123, 128
method: neo-Weberian perspective, 131, 133, 135–136;
path dependence thesis, 10–11, 43, 507;
weaknesses and draw-backs of, 48–49
and state: democratization and reform, 80–85;
political choice and state activity, 45–46;
role of the state, 33–34;
state persistence thesis, 42–44, 175–176;
state redeployment, 44–45, 173, 381;
state transformation thesis, 44–47
HIV/AIDS, 262, 702n11, 709, 820
Holy Roman Empire, 198, 225
human capital, 6, 415, 417, 418, 487, 527–528, 625, 625n13, 693, 698, 716, 836
literacy, 46, 102, 418, 420, 419
see also knowledge economy;
social investment state;
women-friendly state
human rights
aspects of: devaluation of citizenship, 519;
guarantees, 565
foreign intervention: military intervention, 18, 46;
responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P), 12, 18, 46, 176, 207, 305–317, 738, 745, 817
human rights abuse/violation, 186, 207–208, 232, 310–314
human rights law, 204, 520
Human Rights Watch, 176
human security agenda, 305–307, 316–317, 745, 755, 834
aspects of: collective security, 257, 315;
effects on idea of sovereignty, 310–314
see also humanitarian interventions;
military interventions
humanitarian interventions
law: emerging legal norms, 314–316;
legal reform, 311–314;
legality and legitimacy tension/gap, 310–314
process: collective responsibility, 314–315;
exceptions to non-intervention principle, 312;
neoliberal reform as precondition for hum. int., 39;
peacekeeping and state-building missions, 754–755;
responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P), 12, 18, 46, 176, 187, 207, 305–317, 738, 745, 817;
role of international institutions and organizations, 176, 232;
selective interventions, 232, 313
see also developing/developmental states;
military interventions
humanitarian security, 308
hunter-gatherers, 63, 99, 105, 106, 108
Iceland, 525, 559, 579
immigrants, 734
history: New World colonial, 103
labor market: guest workers, 520, 523;
low-paid labor, 437
law: illegal, 554;
voting rights, 19
society: cultural diversity, 527;
education levels, 734;
multiculturalism and integration, 523–524;
nativist hostility to, 521, 825
immigration
process: barriers to admission, 71;
barriers to citizenship, 383;
border controls, 47n4, 518, 521, 524, 526, 551, 559;
external and internal filters, 518
politics & state: asylum seekers, 383, 518, 524, 556;
government policies, 383, 521–522;
illegal, 15, 47, 47n4, 551, 554;
nation-building, 522–524;
repressive state responses, 47
imperialism, 3, 69, 78, 86–87, 116, 118, 159, 176, 203
import substitution industrialization (ISI), 20, 22, 175, 182, 365, 382, 399, 445–461, 624–625, 797, 816, 828–829
and the state: corporatist associations, 445;
link with authoritarianism, 451
“natural”/automatic, 448
Inca Empire, 104–105, 106, 108
Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues (Palme Commission), 309
(p. 881) Independent International Commission on Kosovo, 311, 312–313
India, xiiin5, 65, 68, 78, 349, 527, 684–685
history: British rule, 120, 121, 125–127, 680;
pre-colonial, 119;
princely states, 121, 125–126;
zamindar officials, 122
present: development and state transformation, 699, 703–707;
party politics and patronage, 705–706;
state nation model, 71
Indonesia, 78, 278, 623
industrial conglomerates
chaebol (South Korea), 366, 685
keiretsu (Japan), 366, 397, 399
industrial relations, 24, 42, 89, 90, 142, 143, 365, 411, 824
see also labor;
labor movement;
trade unions
industrial revolution, 82, 87, 171
industrialization
economy: capital/labor conflict, 91, 140, 450;
export-oriented, 142, 829;
Fordist production, 6, 140, 206, 241, 247, 250, 327;
technological advance, 118
environmental: costs, 17, 175;
risks, 338
history: late developers, 171–172, 394, 447–448;
structural prerequisites, 141;
West–East progression, 88
politics & state: democratic impetus, 82;
effects on politics, 35;
infant industry protection, 41, 174, 188, 396, 398;
state support, 394–395, 413, 451, 460, 679, 684–685;
state transformation and stabilization of i., 6
welfare: i. effects on social protection, 17;
health and safety issues, 17;
risk of unemployment, 17, 819
inequality
society: educational ineq., 693, 705;
effects of geography on ineq., 101–102;
effects of ineq. on longevity, 694;
global ineq., 832;
poverty and ineq., 48, 366, 367, 373, 474, 693–694, 699, 800, 803, 829;
resource ineq., 202, 203, 223–227, 228, 718;
social ineq., 436;
socio-economic ineq., 82, 203, 223, 225, 397–398, 411, 420, 434, 460, 469, 477, 493–494, 604, 626, 654, 701–702, 704–705
politics: institutionalized ineq., 200, 202–204, 209, 222–223, 227–228, 231;
legal ineq., 202, 223, 313;
negative effects of ineq. on governance institutions, 694;
political ineq., 223, 228, 230–233
states: ineq. between states, 24, 202, 221, 226
information and communications technology (ICT), 291, 415n4, 416–417, 502, 550, 553, 576, 819–820
see also innovation;
knowledge economy;
new technology
innovation
advantage: comparative, 416;
competitive, 46
aspects of: discretionary learning, 418;
influence of work patterns, 418;
free-market creative destruction, 439;
incremental vs. radical i., 412, 416, 417, 422;
product i., 411
knowledge: knowledge-intensive, 416, 418, 422, 438–439;
technological, 158, 347, 362, 374, 381, 415, 816, 819
politics: promotion of i., 239, 417;
public policies, 172
see also new technology;
social investment state
institutional change and reform, 20–21, 184, 233, 453, 490, 554–557, 572–578, 655, 657–668, 826
intellectual property rights, 44, 228, 229, 259, 264
Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), 102, 278
intergovernmentalism, 270–271, 275, 543
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), 209, 292, 294, 297–298
International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), 418, 420
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 230
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 557
(p. 882) International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), 305, 314
International Criminal Court (ICC), 176, 205, 231, 253, 259
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTU), 610
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 292, 293–297
International Finance Corporation (IFC), 348
international financial institutions (IFIs), 4, 5, 15, 39, 174, 325–326, 330, 580, 625, 820, 829–830
see also European Union;
International Monetary Fund;
World Bank
international governmental organizations (IGOs), 279n4, 289–290, 293
international institutions
characteristics: consent and consensus principle, 208–209, 229–232, 258, 279;
delegated authority, 205, 205n8, 837;
delegation to national bureaucracies, 16;
increasing authority of, 229–233;
influence of powerful states, 197, 224, 226–230, 232–233, 253, 313–314;
promotion of Western state model, 3
effects on: equality/inequality, 200, 202–204, 209, 222–223, 227–228, 231;
states/state system, 34, 40–42, 172, 193–212, 221–233, 253–264, 279, 330, 360, 376, 680, 816–817, 837
law: rule setting processes, 142, 154, 226–232, 286–299, 343–346, 748–749;
soft law, 176, 343, 344
see also international financial institutions;
international organizations;
non-governmental organizations;
supranational organizations;
transnational organizations and actors
International Labour Organization (ILO), 257, 262, 290, 494, 830n3, 836n13
international law, 2, 204–205, 221, 224, 225, 228, 230, 298, 311–314, 342–346
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 4, 16, 39, 174, 186, 203, 209, 224, 429, 569, 579, 680, 681, 816
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 292, 293–297, 346, 348
international organizations (IOs), 4–5
characteristics: competence to intervene, 258–261;
definition, 279n4;
dependence on state support, 260–261;
expansion of, 572;
governance functions, 256–258, 263, 269–282;
issue area growth, 257;
legitimacy, 313–314;
membership growth, 257;
operative capacity, 260;
state instruments, 254–258;
super-majority policy decisions, 279
effects on: states/state system, 34, 40–42, 172, 193–212, 221–233, 253–264;
institutionalization of inequality, 226
environment: civil society participation, 261–262, 263–264;
relationship with non-state actors, 262–263
International Panel for Climate Change, 209
international relations discipline, 9, 12, 23n9, 34, 66, 142, 223, 271
international sphere
global institutions, 3–4
and the state: constitutive role in state formation, 2–5;
impact on state development, 5;
dissemination of state role models, 3–4;
state survival function, 5
intervention state, 75, 76, 86, 88, 92, 360
see also social investment state;
welfare state;
women-friendly state
Iran, 118, 316, 674, 719n1, 782, 786
Iraq, 46, 229, 310–311, 312, 676, 718, 720, 738, 739, 749, 752, 754, 818
Ireland, xiiin5, 12, 41, 62, 249–250, 427–428, 430, 435, 438, 579
Sinn Féin, 534
Islam, 65, 551, 554
Islamic militias, 753
Islamic politics, 65
Italy, 8, 12, 45, 47n4, 63, 89, 281, 491, 506, 573, 574, 577
Japan, xiiin5, 3, 71
economy & society: coordinated market economy, 411, 566;
economic crises, 618n1;
economic stagnation, 400, 403–404;
employment maintenance, 381, 401;
export-led growth, 395, 399, 430;
keiretsu (conglomerates), 366, 397, 399;
unemployment rate, 403;
zombie companies, 403
history: colonial empire, 118, 124–125, 674, 675, 722;
Meiji Revolution, 10, 395
politics & state: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), 398, 401, 573, 826;
Ministry of Finance (MOF), 396, 403;
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), 175, 396, 398–399, 403;
party patronage, 570;
plan-rational system, 622;
reform, 402–404;
sovereign debt, 404;
state-building, 118;
statist model, 38, 175, 393–405;
welfare state, 86n10, 381, 404
Japan Financial Services Agency, 298
JVC (company), 291
Kazakhstan, 594–597, 623–625, 627, 631, 631n23, 632
Keynesian economics, 15, 17, 172, 257, 361, 426, 428–430, 501, 573
aspects of: demand management/stimulus, 36, 40–41, 43, 45, 174, 241, 362, 381;
supply-side, 421–422
see also liberal market economies;
liberal state model;
neoliberalism
Keynesian Welfare National State (KWNS), 239
knowledge economy, 6, 402, 469, 698
by sectors: knowledge-intensive industry, 415–416, 418, 421, 437, 438 knowledge-intensive service economy, 415, 421
Korean War, 828
Kosovo, 77, 207, 310, 312, 610–611, 738, 749, 754
Kuwait, 717, 718
Kyrgyzstan, 589, 594, 597–598, 624, 632
labor
characteristics: dual-earner model, 177;
gender division, 177;
migration, 4, 470, 516–528;
mobility, 41;
recommodification, 237;
training schemes, 172, 443;
work incentives, 239
conflict: bargaining power, 142;
capital/labor conflict, 91, 140, 450;
exploitative institutions, 104
forms: coerced, 102, 108, 111;
indentured, 117;
informal working, 6, 182
and state: employment protection legislation (EPL), 473;
rights, 44
see also labor markets;
labor movement;
trade unions;
wage bargaining
labor markets
gender: female entry/participation, 90, 363–364, 379, 403–404, 416, 418, 465, 469, 482–495, 485, 820;
gender equality policy, 482–495;
male breadwinner model, 379, 450, 468, 475, 484–487, 820
policy: active labor market policy (ALMP), 242, 363–364, 366, 380, 413, 418, 467, 474–475, 477, 803;
corporatist l.ms., 362;
flexibilization, 528, 804;
job creation/promotion, 18, 46, 174, 438–439;
passive vs. active, 18;
regulation, 473, 477
split: dual, 90, 473;
segmentation, 90
labor movement, 15, 39, 91, 362, 457, 797–799, 806
as an organization: militancy, 68–69;
women’s participation, 490
politics & state: communist/socialist conflict, 84, 92;
corporatism, 568;
role in welfare state building, 181, 366
land
aspects of: ownership, 6–7;
privatization, 704;
tenure, 349
redistribution: distribution, 6;
grants, 104;
reform, 181, 797–799, 828
land-grabbing, 657, 706
(p. 884) Latin America
economy: “Chilean model”, 39;
debt crisis (1980s), 5, 39, 457, 799, 816, 829–830;
import substitution industrialization (ISI), 20, 22, 175, 182, 382, 399, 445–461, 797, 829;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461;
transition to open economies, 22, 180
politics & state: indigenous community self-rule, 278;
national independence, 78;
welfare state and social protection, 181–182, 797–798, 799–800, 802–803
see also colonialism/colonization; Global South; South America; and individual countries
Latvia, 517, 623
law, see rule of law
League of Nations (1920-1946), 201
Lebanon, 770–771
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights, 606
Lesotho, 260, 681, 786
liberal market economies (LMEs), 1, 172, 175, 247, 365–366, 377, 411, 412, 420, 580
liberal state model, 13, 362, 381, 426–439
history: Keynesian era, 428–430;
neoliberal era, 430–435
and today’s state: anti-state ideology, 467;
arm’s length economic management, 172, 365, 381, 427;
new public management, 210n11, 381–382, 431;
role of the state, 428, 430, 436;
state intervention, 426–428, 429
liberalism, 70, 681
characteristics: embedded, 197, 204, 206;
free-rider/collective action problem, 133, 135, 135n7, 162, 325;
social contract, 133, 134, 139, 281
and state: consent to state power, 133, 135;
distrust of the state, 134;
theory of the state, 131, 133, 134–135;
threatened by preventive security doctrine, 549–550, 559;
tolerance of diversity, 539
liberalization
dimensions: capital, 42;
financial, 174, 453, 799, 819, 830;
market, 431, 452, 505, 511;
trade, 142, 257, 264, 453–456, 466, 502, 799;
unilateral, 240
and public: infrastructure services, 504, 506–509;
public goods provision and regulation, 501–508
varieties of, 49n5
see also privatization
liberation movements, 207
Liberia, 186, 187, 312
Libya, 46, 176, 187, 207, 314, 738
Liechtenstein, 41, 231, 575
Lithuania, 623
Lutheran church, 85, 88
Macedonia, 540, 610
Malaysia, 8, 121, 250, 278, 675, 786, 831n5
Maldives, 339, 350
Mali, 21, 46, 187
Malta, 526
managerial state, 157
Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), 348–349
market-making, 44, 338, 504
markets
aspects: creative destruction, 439;
domestic, 4, 6, 41, 243, 259, 365, 412, 446, 461;
integration, 12, 22, 242, 271, 289, 819, 831;
pre-modern, 64–65
and state: deregulation, 193, 374, 380, 415, 445;
myth of self-regulation, 45;
regulation and policing of, 45, 172;
regulatory institutions, 286–299
Marxism, 33, 500
aspects of: class conflict, 35, 132–134;
colonial analysis, 124;
“red international”, 80;
workers’ movements, 84
kinds of: neo-Marxism, 37;
structuralist, 134, 140
and state: view of the state, 34–36, 132–133;
withering away of the state, 35–36n2
mass media, 7, 338
Mayan people, 105
mediatization, 571, 578
mercenaries, 67, 196
Mercosur (1991), 263, 279, 455, 831n4
(p. 885) Mexico, xiiin5, 47, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 357, 685, 736, 749, 828
economy & society: automobile industry, 449;
drug-related crime, 749;
Monterrey grupos (business group), 451;
regional economic success, 461
politics & state: Nacional Financiera (Nafinsa), 447, 449;
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), 448, 450, 453, 455;
populism, 447–448;
semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460;
social spending, 458–459
trade system: inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
Microsoft, 291
migration, 47, 47n4, 516–528, 818
aspects of: emigration control, 520–521;
human capital, 527–528;
nation-building, 522–524;
passports, 521, 557
EU: European free movement, 524–527;
Schengen Agreement (1985), 383
see also citizenship;
national borders
Millennium Summit (2005), 315
military interventions, 37, 46
aspects of: peacekeeping and peace enforcement, 258, 310;
preventive war, 310–311;
regime change, 46, 187, 207, 311, 739;
retroactive justification, 311
law: legality and legitimacy tension, 310, 311;
responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P), 12, 18, 46, 176, 187, 207, 305–317, 738, 745, 817
minorities, 9, 277–278
rights, 19, 210, 543, 610
modernization theory, 6, 22, 33, 134, 154, 157
aspects of: colonial analysis, 124;
democratic impetus of economic development, 82;
diffusion processes, 35;
importance of technological innovation in development, 158
and state: state formation, 138–139, 532;
view of the state, 35–36
as a theoretical undertaking: new/neo-modernization theory, 82, 110;
teleological view, 75, 81, 158
Monaco, 174
monarchy
kinds of: constitutional, 565, 567;
parliamentary, 567;
republican, 742
Divine Right doctrine, 75n1
money laundering, 41, 732
Mongolia, 118, 674, 786, 792
Mozambique, 122
Mughal empire, 119
multiculturalism, 523–524, 540
multinational corporations (MNCs), 193, 243, 628, 835
Musica people, 105
Myanmar, 232, 683, 786, 831n5
Namibia, xiiin5
Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), 82, 88, 118, 203
national borders
effects: division of communities, 683;
effects of EU integration on n. bs., 383;
flow of goods and people, 47, 47n4;
policy spillover across n.bs., 376
territorial aspects: border controls, 47n4, 518, 521, 524, 526, 551, 559;
porousness, 47;
territorial integrity, 4, 551
see also citizenship;
immigration;
migration
national consciousness/identity, 69, 196, 201, 277, 516
nationalism, 68, 69n6, 71, 78, 88, 739
aspects of: anti-colonial, 79;
community construction, 533;
imagined communities, 201, 522, 537;
national identity, 201;
new regionalism, 542
trajectory: byproduct of modernization, 767–768;
conceptions of nationhood, 532–534;
nationalist demands and state responses, 537–542
(p. 886) national security state, 18, 19, 384, 547–560
processes: building homeland security/new security architecture, 552;
international cooperation, 557–558;
post-9/11 developments, 550–560;
threat to liberal democracy, 549–550
types: garrison state, 548–549;
preemptive/preventive state, 549–550
nationhood, 523, 527, 532–544
nation state or national state, see the state
natural law, 225
natural monopolies, 378, 500–502, 504, 509
natural resources
minerals, 103–104
resource curse/rentier theory, 619, 626, 714–726, 734–735
Nazi regime, 70, 81, 155, 523, 767
neocorporatism, 427–428, 436, 437, 439, 467
neofunctionalism, 255, 270–271, 275, 277
neoliberalism, 14, 15, 21, 172, 199n4, 240, 430–435, 500, 685, 833
aspects of: colonial analysis, 124;
cultural hegemony, 241–242, 572;
geopolitical challenge to neol., 48;
laissez-faire, 326, 362;
prescriptive and normative challenges to, 47–48;
Washington Consensus, 4, 40, 45, 46, 172, 182, 621
and capitalism: critique of crony capitalism, 40;
global logic of capital, 330
and state: critique of statism, 38–40;
effects on Global South states, 681–682;
role of the state, 33–34, 430–435;
state retreat and decline thesis, 33–49, 172, 381
neo-realism, 199n4
role of the state, 36
Nepal, 118, 674, 786
Netherlands, xiiin5, 79, 85, 87, 92, 111, 137, 206, 373, 476, 485, 486, 570, 571, 575
economy & society: coordinated market economy, 566;
Dutch miracle, 414;
industrialization, 88, 118;
multiculturalism, 523
politics & state: consociationalism, 770;
corporatism, 410, 412, 414, 416, 418;
democracy, 81;
welfare state, 823n2
New Public Management, 210n11, 381–382, 431, 571–572
new technology, 34, 40, 172, 291, 557
challenge to state intervention, 41
innovation: role of innovation in development, 158;
technological change/advance, 158, 378, 448, 502, 553, 819–820
see also innovation
New Zealand, 78, 117, 378, 574
economy & society: inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
politics & state: bi-cultural national identity, 449;
semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460;
social spending, 458–459
Nicaragua, 102, 278, 785
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 16, 40, 179, 208, 696n5, 817, 833
activities: regulatory, 511;
standards setting, 291
definition, 4n2
Nordic countries, 174, 175, 178, 374–375, 381, 404, 416, 418, 419, 489, 824–825
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, 1992/1994), 240, 263, 452, 455, 538, 542
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), xiiin5, 309, 310, 312, 314, 360, 376, 738, 836
North Korea, 13
Northern Ireland, 540, 541, 543, 555, 577, 764
Norway, 79, 86, 87, 92, 228, 245, 247, 363, 367, 368, 370, 377, 414, 416–417, 419, 485, 566, 570, 573, 575, 823
economy & society: oil resources, 418, 722, 735
politics & state: active industrial policy, 413;
corporatism, 410, 412;
credit socialism, 413;
gender equality policy, 489, 494
nuclear power, 230, 396, 569, 576
nuclear weapons, 259, 307
(p. 887) OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, xi, 15, 19, 158, 174, 178–180, 504–512
see also affluent democracies and individual countries
OECD Gender Initiative (2010 ff.), 486
oil rents, 714, 718, 724, 726
oil shocks (1970s), 38, 308, 465
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), 38, 721
Organization for African Unity, 769
organizational materialism, 135
organized crime, 310
Ottawa Landmine Convention (1997), 231
Ottoman Empire, 69, 78, 79, 88, 119, 768
Pakistan, 156, 316, 676, 768, 786, 818
Palestine, 77, 122, 683
Paraguay, 100, 105
path dependence, 10–11, 34, 43, 127–128, 141, 228, 507, 523, 734
Peace of Westphalia (1648), 198, 210, 746
pension systems, 379–380, 457, 466, 472, 797–803, 824
aspects of: multi-pillar, 473–474;
old age, 141, 437, 450, 473–474;
pay-as-you-go (PAYGO), 174, 379, 824;
reform, 474, 477, 701, 800, 802–803, 805, 829
types of: Beveridgean, 474;
Bismarckian, 474
People’s Health Movement (PHM), 264
Peru, 100, 104, 105, 106, 110
Philippines, 78, 278
Phoenicia, xiii
Pipil people, 105
pirates/piracy, 196, 732
Plaid Cymru, 538, 539
Plaza Accord (1985), 400
pluralism, 33, 134
view of the state, 34–36
plurinational states, 360, 532–544
aspects of: multinational states, 535;
nation-building projects, 522
and nationalism: internal nationalism, 383–384, 536–539;
nationalist demands and state responses, 537–542
see also nationalism;
plurinationalism
plurinationalism, 764, 770–771, 834
Poland, xiiin5, 78n3, 79, 85, 91n13, 183, 277, 280, 357, 593, 596, 603
political community, 19–20, 193, 201, 524, 532, 536–537, 815
political evolution and history
forms of government: city-states, 63–65, 76–77, 821;
cyclical theory, 65
see also historical institutionalism;
modernization theory;
state-building;
state formation
Political Instability Task Force (PITF), 747, 748
political sphere
mechanisms: collective action, 38, 665, 697, 709;
consensus, 8, 469, 556;
decision-making, 19, 568;
interest groups, 7, 16, 38, 88, 410, 445–446, 567–568, 605–606, 611, 725, 826
results: exclusion, 68–69, 773;
polarization, 84, 89, 91, 558, 573, 751;
protest, 15, 207, 260, 569, 579, 654, 665, 702, 738, 753, 779, 801;
radicalization, 84, 89, 91
structures, 2, 7, 20, 25, 269
political systems, 7–9, 19, 36, 132, 171, 202, 206–207, 436, 489, 557, 566n5, 666, 680
see also individual regime types
population transfer, 70, 118
Portugal, xiiin5, 78, 82, 86–88, 358n2, 565, 566, 572, 823n2, 825–826
Carnation Revolution (1974), 451
economy & society: inward and outward foreign direct investment, 456;
percentage share of imports and exports in GDP, 456;
population loss through emigration, 461;
trade liberalization, 454–456;
transition from ISI model to open economy, 445–461
politics & state: semi-sovereign status, 446–447, 460;
social spending, 458–459
post-communist countries, 21, 23, 25, 182–185
democracy: democratic deficit, 626;
democratization, 183;
elite competition, 588–589, 591–598, 603–604;
elite (p. 888) ideological deficit, 621–622;
Hungarian democratic reversal, 608–609
economy & society: adoption of neoliberalism, 39–40;
civil society, 183, 627;
economic constraints, 624–625;
economic growth, 630–631;
natural resource wealth, 618–632;
“seven families” business group, 451
EU: EU Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM), 608, 610;
EU leverage, 604–606, 609–613
indices: Human Development Index, 624;
World Bank governance indicators, 623, 631, 632
politics & state: bureaucratic constraints, 622–624;
bureaucratic embeddedness, 620, 625, 626;
inherited structures and legacy, 184–185, 588, 602, 619, 621, 623, 624;
institutions, 590–599;
need for state interventionism, 625–626, 628–629;
political trajectories, 603–605;
power sharing, 183, 185;
state development and transformation, 587–599, 602–612, 618–632, 826–828;
winner-take-all states, 183–184
see also individual countries
postmodern state, 22
poverty
aspects of: escaping, 18;
inequality and, 48, 366, 367, 373, 474, 693–694, 699, 800, 803, 829;
intergenerational transmission, 487, 488;
risk, 469–470;
subsistence agriculture, 722
fighting: alleviation, 468, 475, 626;
prevention, 18;
reduction, 17, 628, 630–631, 694, 701, 704, 706n13;
transfer payments, 18
kind of: absolute, 678;
relative, 22, 678;
child, 482, 487;
old age, 473, 474
world regions: Global South, 185, 677–679, 677, 682, 674, 687, 751, 780, 800, 803, 828, 831;
New World indigenous populations, 106–107
power relations, 12, 34–35, 226, 831
aspects of: asymmetrical, 222;
distribution and configuration, 6–7, 81;
false consciousness, 134, 135;
social classes, 133
in politics: hegemony, 134, 135;
impact of political institutions, 38;
incorporation of subordinate groups, 19;
power struggle and competition, 66, 77, 81, 117
power resources theory, 134, 140, 140n17, 232, 366, 467
pre-colonial states, 99–113, 119–120
predatory states, 125, 186, 187, 618, 667, 686, 714, 730–742
Princeton Project on National Security, 231n9
private military companies (PMCs), 752
privatization, 142, 158, 240, 455, 568, 591, 596–597, 606, 621, 623, 704, 824, 827
state enterprises, 377–378, 415, 431–432, 501–509, 577
product market regulation, 370–371, 378, 412–413
production regimes, 7, 365, 411, 823
public choice theory, 39, 134
public goods theory, 274–277, 500–503
public–private partnerships, 46, 142, 161, 262, 571
see also governance;
non-governmental organizations
public spending, 45, 46, 175, 241, 242, 366, 418, 437, 439, 458–59, 725
public sphere, 2, 7, 14, 261, 565, 578, 696n5, 697
Puerto Rico, 78
quasi-markets, 14
quasi-states, 154, 201, 201n7, 733–734, 746, 747, 750–751
race, 7, 90, 141, 155, 239, 492, 494, 522, 536, 683
racial division, 126, 127, 359, 428, 683
racial discrimination, 7, 127, 428, 519
(p. 889) Regional Assistance Mission for the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), 161
regulatory ideas, 198
regulatory state, 19, 286–299, 383, 499–512
aspects of: liberalization and privatization of public goods provision, 501–508;
market competition, 290, 291;
market regulation, 500–501;
“race to the top”, 290;
welfare gains and losses, 508
levels: European Union exemplar, 503–508;
global governance institutions, 510–512;
privatized rule-making, 286–287, 291–299, 297
rule-making issues: accountability issues, 509–510;
consumer participation, 296–297;
equity concerns, 509;
principal-agent problems, 503;
regulatory capture, 296n8, 297, 502;
rule-making dimensions, 288–292, 289
religion
development of world religions, 65
effects on state-building, 84–85, 88, 91–92
religious conflict, 21, 80, 84, 524
rent-seeking, 40, 183, 383, 588–589, 591, 593, 603, 612, 618, 630, 724, 730, 732, 734–736, 740, 771, 774
representative government, 3, 697n6
republicanism, 64, 84–85, 88, 91, 565
revolution, 20–21, 68–69, 185, 237, 523, 567, 638, 753, 779
Rhine River Commission, 257
ritual, 65, 133, 137, 138
Roma people, 535
Roman Empire, 64–65, 116
Romania, 47n4, 526, 588, 598, 603, 605, 606–609, 612
rule of law, 154, 159, 171, 549, 550, 554, 565, 603, 606, 610–613, 642, 646, 676, 755
institutional aspects: institutionalization and the constitutional state, 196;
judicial review, 10, 19, 361, 572, 822
Russia, xiiin5, 25, 67, 70, 155, 171–172, 316, 394, 517, 540, 631n23, 827, 835
economy & society: crony capitalism, 641;
GDP, 647;
mineral resources, 623
state & politics: authoritarian turn, 641–643;
communist legacies, 644;
corruption, 183–184;
despotic capacity, 183–184, 645;
elites, 592, 593, 595;
measures of stateness, 645–649;
“sham federalism”, 641;
state capacity, 645–649;
state transformation, 637–649;
state weakness, 620, 638–639, 640, 642–644, 646–647;
state-building under Vladimir Putin, 639–644;
winner-take-all state, 183–184, 593, 594, 598;
World Bank governance indicators, 646–648, 648
see also Soviet Union
Russian Empire, 78, 88
Rwanda, 127, 682, 683, 751, 752, 754, 769, 772, 790
Saudi Arabia, 674
Scandinavia, 42, 84, 88, 91, 402, 483–484
knowledge-intensive production, 693
welfare state, 89
Schumpeterian workfare state, 22, 477
Scotland, 79, 280, 524, 534, 536, 538, 541, 577
Scottish National Party, 538, 539
secessionist movements, 79, 187, 540
secularization, 89, 470
securitizing state, 18n8, 47
security
approaches: preventive, 177;
proactive vs. reactive policy, 310
aspects of: identification of threat, 177;
information and communications technology (ICT), 550, 553;
risk and danger, 310–311;
surveillance, 14, 16, 177, 384, 551, 559, 825;
threats to, 11, 177, 194, 308, 309–310, 339–340
kinds of: conceptual change, 306–310;
economic, 308;
environmental, 308, 338–350;
human, 306, 307;
humanitarian, 308;
issue areas, 306, 307–308;
military, 307;
national, 18–19, 306, 307, 384;
referent objects, 306, 307;
societal, 307
and politics & state: anti-terrorism measures, 47;
architecture, 547–560;
effects on civil liberties, 177, 310;
effects on sovereignty rights, 310–316;
reinterpretation of sovereignty, 305–317;
state expansion and advance, 176, 177, 384
scope: geographical scope, 306, 308–309;
global, 308–309;
international, 309; (p. 890)
internal/external distinction, 547, 550, 551;
transboundary risk, 339
see also national security state;
terrorism
security community, 308
security economy, 551–552
service economies, 6, 379, 415, 418–420, 469, 824
shadow states, 124
Shekel, xiii
ship of state, xiii, xiiin6
Sierra Leone, 121, 187, 312, 738, 748, 751, 753, 786
Singapore, 19, 124, 125, 247, 250, 394, 618, 674, 676, 678, 674, 685, 786, 831n5
Slovakia, 184, 277, 280, 357, 589, 598, 605–606
Slovenia, 357, 517
social capital, 142, 162
social insurance state, 44n3
social investment state, 19, 22, 404–405, 410–422, 477, 487–488, 693
social movements, 15, 569–570, 579, 697n6, 821
social norms, 18
social policy research, 10
social protection, 17, 44n3, 175, 178, 366
aspects of: Global South, 686–687;
public support for, 42;
“race to the bottom”, 41, 172, 468
see also welfare state
social revolution, 37, 70
social rights, 472
Social Science Research Council, 37
social security state, 18, 18n8
social structure, 9, 21, 780–782
aspects of: class cleavage, 6–7;
inegalitarian, 701;
power configuration/distribution, 6–7
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), 558
Somalia, 163, 202, 674
economy & society: foreign aid, 186, 737;
linguistic diversity, 682
politics & state: failed state, 21, 153–156, 676, 683, 737, 747–748, 752–754, 833;
quasi-state provinces, 159;
Siad Barre regime, 748, 752, 754;
state-building, 755
Sony Corporation, 291
South Africa, xiiin5, 78, 629
caste/race segregation, 7
politics & state: African National Congress (ANC), 702, 709;
development and state transformation, 699, 701–703
South African Development Community (SADC), 279
South America, 100, 504
economy: GDP, 102
history: colonization, 103, 108, 110;
developmental differences, 102
see also colonialism/colonization; Global South; and individual countries
South Korea, 5, 38, 181, 357, 362, 365, 528, 618, 622n9, 628n19, 674, 796, 818, 828, 830, 831
economy: chaebol (conglomerates), 366, 685;
coordinated market economy, 411;
GDP, 678, 799
politics & state: development and state transformation, 691, 699–701, 708;
social protection and welfare, 798–801, 803–805;
statist model, 393–395;
sovereign debt, 49, 174, 323, 374, 820
sovereign states system
aspects of: anarchy, 202, 209, 307;
communitarian bonds, 211–212;
competitive advantage, 77;
functional equivalence of states, 223–226;
global constellations, 5;
interdependence, 210, 256–258;
normative change, 306;
policy convergence, 211;
victory of nation state principle, 78, 80, 82, 91
beyond the nation state: internationalization of state authority, 254–256;
supranational authority and governance, 258–261
effects on s.s.s.: effects of globalization/internationalization, 173, 193–212,222–223, 226–233, 253–264;
effects of European integration, 45, 269–282;
institutionalized inequality of (p. 891) states, 202–204, 208–209, 221–233, 348;
legal pluralism, 205, 210;
plural authorities, 209–210
interaction: institutionalized cooperation, 227–228;
mutual recognition among states, 61, 153, 194, 196–197, 200–202, 211;
strategic bargaining, 270–271
sovereignty
aspects of: capacity to govern, 49, 200, 201, 207;
constitutional limitation, 281;
forfeiture of sovereignty, 305;
internal/external authority, 201n5;
limited authority, 210–211;
loss and gain of sovereignty, 17;
national security, 306, 307, 317;
normative and instrumental autonomy, 197;
normative change, 306;
organized hypocrisy (Krasner), 197, 208;
right and r