- The Oxford Handbook of Transformations of the State
- List of Figures and Tables
- About the Contributors
- Introduction: Transformations of the State
- Changing Perspectives on the State
- Varieties of State Experience
- The Layered State: Pathways and Patterns of Modern Nation State Building
- The Emergence of the New World States
- State Formation and Transformation in Africa and Asia: The Third Phase of State Expansion
- State Theory: Four Analytical Traditions
- Limited Statehood: A Critical Perspective
- State Transformations in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalization and the State: Sovereignty as the External Side of Modern Statehood
- Sovereign (In)Equality in the Evolution of the International System
- The Competition State: The Modern State in a Global Economy
- The Embedded State: The New Division of Labor in the Provision of Governance Functions
- Multilevel Governance and the State
- Beyond the State?: Are Transnational Regulatory Institutions Replacing the State?
- Security, Intervention, and the Responsibility to Protect: Transforming the State by Reinterpreting Sovereignty
- Ambiguous Transformations: The 2007/08 International Financial Crisis and Changing Economic Roles of the State
- Environmental Risks and the Changing Interface of Domestic and International Governance
- State Transformations among the Affluent Democracies
- The Transformations of the Statist Model
- From Industrial Corporatism to the Social Investment State
- The Changing Role of the State in Liberal Market Economies
- ISI States Reverse Course: From Import Substitution to Open Economy
- Welfare State Transformation: Convergence and the Rise of the Supply-Side Model
- The State and Gender Equality: From Patriarchal to Women-Friendly State?
- From the Positive to the Regulatory State: A Transformation in the Machinery of Governance?
- Migration and the Porous Boundaries of Democratic States
- Plurinational States
- The Changing Architecture of the National Security State
- Transformations of the Democratic State
- The Peculiarities of Post-Communist State Development: Institutional Consolidation and Elite Competition
- The Transformation of the State in Eastern Europe
- Resources as Constraints? Natural Resource Wealth and the Possibility of Developmental States in the Former Soviet Union
- The Transformation of the Russian State
- China: Economic Liberalization, Adaptive Informal Institutions, and Party-State Resilience
- States in the Global South: Transformations, Trends, and Diversity
- Human Development, State Transformation, and the Politics of the Developmental State
- Rentier States and State Transformations
- Predatory States and State Transformation
- State Failure and State Transformation
- Ethnicity and State Transformation in the Global South
- Democracy and Regime Change in the Global South: Causes and Trends
- Emerging Welfare States in Latin America and East Asia
- Conclusion: States Transforming
- Name Index
- Index of Subjects
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews the large and influential literature investigating the causal relationship between resource abundance and predatory state institutions, autocratic politics, and civil war. It emphasizes the diversity of findings and identifies an orthodox position positing an unmediated effect of resource abundance; a heterodox position contending that the relationship is mediated by important variables; and a heretical position that denies any systematic relationship between resource abundance and political-economic outcomes. The chapter then considers three key challenges to the main claim positing a relationship: problems of measurement, problems of properly specifying the relevant counterfactual, and problems of identifying causal mechanisms. It concludes that state institutions are largely exogenous to resource abundance and that theories of resource abundance should be incorporated into broader and more encompassing theories of state formation and its consequences.
David Waldner is Associate Professor of Politics in the Department of Politics and Director of the Middle East Studies Program, both at The Woodrow Wilson University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
Benjamin Smith is Associate Professor of Political Science and Research Foundation Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
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