- The Oxford Handbook of Transformations of the State
- List of Figures and Tables
- About the Contributors
- Introduction: Transformations of the State
- Changing Perspectives on the State
- Varieties of State Experience
- The Layered State: Pathways and Patterns of Modern Nation State Building
- The Emergence of the New World States
- State Formation and Transformation in Africa and Asia: The Third Phase of State Expansion
- State Theory: Four Analytical Traditions
- Limited Statehood: A Critical Perspective
- State Transformations in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalization and the State: Sovereignty as the External Side of Modern Statehood
- Sovereign (In)Equality in the Evolution of the International System
- The Competition State: The Modern State in a Global Economy
- The Embedded State: The New Division of Labor in the Provision of Governance Functions
- Multilevel Governance and the State
- Beyond the State?: Are Transnational Regulatory Institutions Replacing the State?
- Security, Intervention, and the Responsibility to Protect: Transforming the State by Reinterpreting Sovereignty
- Ambiguous Transformations: The 2007/08 International Financial Crisis and Changing Economic Roles of the State
- Environmental Risks and the Changing Interface of Domestic and International Governance
- State Transformations among the Affluent Democracies
- The Transformations of the Statist Model
- From Industrial Corporatism to the Social Investment State
- The Changing Role of the State in Liberal Market Economies
- ISI States Reverse Course: From Import Substitution to Open Economy
- Welfare State Transformation: Convergence and the Rise of the Supply-Side Model
- The State and Gender Equality: From Patriarchal to Women-Friendly State?
- From the Positive to the Regulatory State: A Transformation in the Machinery of Governance?
- Migration and the Porous Boundaries of Democratic States
- Plurinational States
- The Changing Architecture of the National Security State
- Transformations of the Democratic State
- The Peculiarities of Post-Communist State Development: Institutional Consolidation and Elite Competition
- The Transformation of the State in Eastern Europe
- Resources as Constraints? Natural Resource Wealth and the Possibility of Developmental States in the Former Soviet Union
- The Transformation of the Russian State
- China: Economic Liberalization, Adaptive Informal Institutions, and Party-State Resilience
- States in the Global South: Transformations, Trends, and Diversity
- Human Development, State Transformation, and the Politics of the Developmental State
- Rentier States and State Transformations
- Predatory States and State Transformation
- State Failure and State Transformation
- Ethnicity and State Transformation in the Global South
- Democracy and Regime Change in the Global South: Causes and Trends
- Emerging Welfare States in Latin America and East Asia
- Conclusion: States Transforming
- Name Index
- Index of Subjects
Abstract and Keywords
The import substitution industrialization (ISI) model is a subtype of organized capitalism prevailing from the 1930s to the 1980s. Policies and institutions shifted rents from raw materials exports towards a nascent manufacturing sector to expand consumer non-durables production and, in time, to leap into consumer durable and capital goods production with high local content and tariff protection. This package also created new social groups, organized capital and labor, that enhanced state capacity for direct economic management. The core transformation during the past 30 years happened in how the state exercises control over the economy, rather than in simply more or less state. Direct bureaucratic control and corporatist intermediation gave way to the use of rules, guidelines, and competitive pressures to shape individual and firm behaviors. This chapter considers the former British Dominions (Australia, Canada, New Zealand), Iberia (Spain, Portugal), and the three largest Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico).
Keywords: import substitution industrialization model, Latin America, Southern Europe, Antipodes, neoliberal reforms, trade protection, sheltered manufacturing, trade unions, welfare systems, income transfers
Herman Schwartz is Professor of Politics in the Politics Department at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
Sebastián Etchemendy is Associate Research Professor of Political Science in the Department of Political Science and International Studies of the University Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina; currently on leave as adviser to the Argentinian Minister of Labor.
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