- The Oxford Handbook of Transformations of the State
- List of Figures and Tables
- About the Contributors
- Introduction: Transformations of the State
- Changing Perspectives on the State
- Varieties of State Experience
- The Layered State: Pathways and Patterns of Modern Nation State Building
- The Emergence of the New World States
- State Formation and Transformation in Africa and Asia: The Third Phase of State Expansion
- State Theory: Four Analytical Traditions
- Limited Statehood: A Critical Perspective
- State Transformations in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalization and the State: Sovereignty as the External Side of Modern Statehood
- Sovereign (In)Equality in the Evolution of the International System
- The Competition State: The Modern State in a Global Economy
- The Embedded State: The New Division of Labor in the Provision of Governance Functions
- Multilevel Governance and the State
- Beyond the State?: Are Transnational Regulatory Institutions Replacing the State?
- Security, Intervention, and the Responsibility to Protect: Transforming the State by Reinterpreting Sovereignty
- Ambiguous Transformations: The 2007/08 International Financial Crisis and Changing Economic Roles of the State
- Environmental Risks and the Changing Interface of Domestic and International Governance
- State Transformations among the Affluent Democracies
- The Transformations of the Statist Model
- From Industrial Corporatism to the Social Investment State
- The Changing Role of the State in Liberal Market Economies
- ISI States Reverse Course: From Import Substitution to Open Economy
- Welfare State Transformation: Convergence and the Rise of the Supply-Side Model
- The State and Gender Equality: From Patriarchal to Women-Friendly State?
- From the Positive to the Regulatory State: A Transformation in the Machinery of Governance?
- Migration and the Porous Boundaries of Democratic States
- Plurinational States
- The Changing Architecture of the National Security State
- Transformations of the Democratic State
- The Peculiarities of Post-Communist State Development: Institutional Consolidation and Elite Competition
- The Transformation of the State in Eastern Europe
- Resources as Constraints? Natural Resource Wealth and the Possibility of Developmental States in the Former Soviet Union
- The Transformation of the Russian State
- China: Economic Liberalization, Adaptive Informal Institutions, and Party-State Resilience
- States in the Global South: Transformations, Trends, and Diversity
- Human Development, State Transformation, and the Politics of the Developmental State
- Rentier States and State Transformations
- Predatory States and State Transformation
- State Failure and State Transformation
- Ethnicity and State Transformation in the Global South
- Democracy and Regime Change in the Global South: Causes and Trends
- Emerging Welfare States in Latin America and East Asia
- Conclusion: States Transforming
- Name Index
- Index of Subjects
Abstract and Keywords
Sovereign equality—the idea that all sovereign states are formally equal—is a fundamental tenet of international law, many international institutions, and much international relations theorizing. This chapter analyzes the origins of the sovereign equality concept and its contested nature, the claim that institutions can equalize relations among otherwise disparate states, and whether and how the erosion of state sovereignty is affecting the claim of equality among states. We argue that sovereign equality is a dynamic concept composed of three constitutive components—functional, legal, and political—that stand in changing tension to one another. The degree of equality achieved on any one dimension largely depends on the nature of international institutions and how they distribute rights and privileges. The chapter identifies three patterns by which international institutions act as state equalizers and unequalizers. We conclude by considering the future of sovereign equality and its implications for a changing international system.
Lora Anne Viola is Assistant Professor of Foreign and Security Policy at the John F. Kennedy Institute of the Free University Berlin, Germany.
Duncan Snidal is Professor of International Relations in the Department of Politics and International Relations of Oxford University and Fellow in International Relations at Nuffield College, University of Oxford, UK.
Michael Zürn is Professor of International Relations in the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the Free University Berlin, Director of the Division “Global Governance” of the Science Center Berlin (WZB), and Co-Director of the WZB Rule of Law Center, all in Berlin, Germany; 2003 and 2004 founding Director of the Collaborative Research Center on Transformations of the State (TranState, 2003–2014) at the University of Bremen, and from 2004 to 2009 founding Dean of the Hertie School of Governance, Berlin, Germany.
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