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(p. xi) About the Contributors

(p. xi) About the Contributors

Barbara Abbott



is an Emeritus Professor of Linguistics and Philosophy at Michigan State University, where she taught from 1976 to 2006. Her main research interests are in semantics, pragmatics, and philosophy of language. She has published one book and a number of articles on topics ranging from reference and noun phrase interpretation to conditional sentences.



Christopher Barkley



has been a researcher in the Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, since 2015. His research focuses on using imaging methods and pharmacological probes to better understand the relationship between language and other cognitive systems, especially working memory.



Anne Bezuidenhout



has taught at the University of South Carolina since 1990, where she is Professor of Philosophy and Linguistics and affiliate member of the Mind and Brain Institute. Her research focuses on verbal communication in natural conversational settings which she studies using both formal and experimental methods.



Kaja Borthen



is Professor of Linguistics at Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway, where she is working in the section for Scandinavian Languages. She has done research on the semantics and pragmatics of various kinds of nominal expressions, and is currently leading a research project on pragmatic markers.



Berit Brogaard



is Professor of Philosophy at University of Miami and Professor II at University of Oslo. Her areas of research include philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and cognitive science. She is the author of Transient Truths (Oxford University Press, 2012), On Romantic Love (Oxford University Press, 2015), The Superhuman Mind (Penguin, 2015) and Seeing & Saying (Oxford University Press, 2018).



Leonard Clapp



is a Professor of Philosophy at Northern Illinois University, where he serves as Director of NIU’s graduate program in philosophy. Most of his research concerns the interface between semantics and pragmatics, and he is particularly interested in dynamic approaches to discourse and conversation.



Ryan B. Doran



is Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Classics at the University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada). He completed his PhD in philosophy at Northwestern University in 2012. His research interests are in the philosophy of language on topics such as reference and pragmatics.



(p. xii) Emily Fedele



received her PhD from the University of Southern California in 2016, focusing on reference resolution in Italian and English. In her dissertation, she investigated the interpretation of null and overt pronouns in both anaphoric and cataphoric configurations. She is currently a research associate with the Institute for Defense Analyses.



Jeanette Gundel



is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, where she has been teaching since 1980. She is also Associate Director of the Center for Cognitive Science and an affiliate member of the Department of Philosophy. Her research focuses primarily on the interface between linguistic theory and pragmatics, especially reference and information structure.



Peter Hanks



is the John M. Dolan Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Minnesota. His research is in philosophy of language and the history of analytic philosophy, with a focus on propositions and the early Wittgenstein. His book, Propositional Content, Oxford University Press, appeared in 2015.



Nancy Hedberg



is Professor of Linguistics and Cognitive Science at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada. She has worked on cleft sentences and other copula sentences, on reference, and on the meaning of prosody. She is currently doing research on reference and performance aspects of oral discourse in the Salish language Hul‘q’umi‘num’.



Elsi Kaiser



is an Associate Professor in Linguistics at the University of Southern California. She earned a PhD in Linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania in 2003. Her primary research focus is in language processing and psycholinguistics. She investigates the processes and representations involved in domains that involve multiple aspects of linguistic representation, such as reference resolution. She has conducted cross-linguistic work in typologically diverse languages in multiple language families (including Finnish, Estonian, French, German, Dutch, Bangla/Bengali, Hindi, Italian, Korean, Mandarin Chinese, and Vietnamese).



Ezra Keshet



is Associate Professor of Linguistics and Philosophy at the University of Michigan. He chiefly works on theoretical semantics, especially intensionality, focus, and anaphora. Recent research topics include conditional conjunctions (e.g., ‘Take another step and I’ll shoot!’) and a new dynamic semantics for plural anaphora.



Robert Kluender



is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, San Diego, where he has been teaching since 1991. He also serves on the Executive Committee of the Center for Research in Language. His main research interest is language and brain, focusing on syntactic processing, island constraints, and language evolution.



Emiel Krahmer



is a full professor of Communication, Cognition, and Computation in the Tilburg School of Humanities and Digital Sciences. In his work he studies how people communicate with each other, both in text and in speech, with the aim of subsequently improving the way computers communicate with human users. He was (p. xiii) PI on various externally funded research projects, including an NWO VICI project on the production of referring expressions, which ran from 2007 to 2013.



Alfons Maes



is a full Professor and Head of the Department of Communication and Digital Sciences, Tilburg School of Humanities and Digital Sciences. His work includes research on multimodal aspects of human communication with studies on visual metaphor, visual health communication, multimodal navigation communication, and information visualization. He received his PhD in 1991.



Michael O’Rourke



is Professor of Philosophy and faculty in AgBio Research at Michigan State University. His research interests include epistemology, communication and epistemic integration in collaborative, cross-disciplinary research, and linguistic communication between intelligent agents. He became interested in referential intentions in graduate school and has continued to work on related topics. He is Director of the NSF sponsored Toolbox Dialogue Initiative that investigates approaches to facilitating interdisciplinary research.



Marga Reimer



is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona in Tucson, where she has taught since 1992. Her main research interests are the philosophy of language, the philosophy of psychiatry, and (more recently) the intersection between these two areas.



Craige Roberts



is an Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at The Ohio State University. She studies formal semantics and pragmatics in the tradition of generative linguistics. She has worked on anaphora and its relationship to presupposition and the context of interpretation since her 1987 dissertation.



Anne Salazar Orvig



is professor of Linguistics at the University Sorbonne Nouvelle— Paris 3, where she has been teaching since 2003. She has conducted various studies in the field of pragmatics, both on dialogue and dialogism and on language acquisition. Currently, she is working on a dialogical approach to the acquisition and usage of referring expressions by young children.



Matthias Scheutz



is a Professor of Cognitive and Computer Science in the Department of Computer Science at Tufts University. He earned a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Vienna in 1995 and a Joint PhD in Cognitive Science and Computer Science from Indiana University, in 1999. His current research focuses on complex cognitive robots with natural language capabilities.



Florian Schwarz



is Associate Professor of Linguistics and a member of the graduate group in Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. His research integrates work in formal semantics and pragmatics with psycholinguistic methods, with a recent focus on experimental investigations of presuppositions and implicatures. Two of his main areas of theoretical work in semantics are definite descriptions and intensional semantics, specifically situation semantics.



(p. xiv) Anne Spire



holds a BA and MA from the University of Arizona. Her research interests include formal semantics, pragmatics, and the use of semantics in web technologies.



Kees van Deemter



is Chair in Computing Science at the University of Aberdeen. He works in Computational Linguistics, and his main area of expertise is Natural Language Generation. He is interested in logical and philosophical issues arising from this work, and has collaborated extensively with psycholinguists interested in algorithmic models of human language production. His book “Computational Models of Referring: a Study in Cognitive Science” (MIT Press, 2016) examines the production of referring expressions, combining computational and experimental methods, and placing Referring Expressions Generation in its historical context.



Jorrig Vogels



is a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Language and Cognition, University of Groningen (CLCG), where he works on a personal NWO VENI project on the role of perspective taking in the production of referring expressions. He is interested in both experimental and theoretical approaches to reference production and comprehension, especially in the influence of factors that exceed the local linguistic context. He received his PhD from Tilburg University in 2014.



Klaus von Heusinger



is Professor and Chair of German Linguistics and director of the Collaborative Research Center “Prominence in Language” at the University of Cologne. His research interests include the semantics and pragmatics of referring expressions and semantics-pragmatics in general. His current research focuses on differential object marking, discourse structure, and the encoding of definiteness and specificity in different languages, including Germanic, Romance, Altaic, and Semitic. He has edited various volumes and published in various journals, including Journal of Semantics, Lingua, Research on Language and Computation, and Theoretical Linguistics.



Gregory Ward



received his PhD in Linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1985. He is currently Professor of Linguistics, Gender, and Sexuality Studies and, by courtesy, Philosophy, at Northwestern University, where he has taught since 1986. His research is in the general area of discourse pragmatics, with specific interests in pragmatic theory, information structure, and reference/anaphora.



Tom Williams



is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at Colorado School of Mines. He earned a joint PhD in Cognitive Science and Computer Science from Tufts University in 2017. His current research focuses on enabling natural language capabilities for intelligent agents operating in uncertain and open worlds.



Ron Zacharski



is Associate Professor of Computer Science at the University of Mary Washington. He has worked on machine translation and multilingual information extraction. He is currently working on deep learning approaches to natural language processing.