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date: 25 May 2020

(p. 559) Index

(p. 559) Index

a/an vs. the 121–2, 136
Abbott, B. 121, 160n3, 253n17, 271
Abbott, B. and L. R. Horn 118, 126–7
Abelard, P. 169
accessibility
effect on choice of referring expression 342–4, 353–60
local vs. global 358
and memory 361
of mental representations 338–40
studies on effects 361–3
and word order 341–2
Accessibility Hierarchy (Ariel) 313–14
accommodation 120–1, 136
ACT (Set of Activated Entities) 462–4, 468–9
action sequences 469n2
activated cognitive status 71–2, 77, 89
activated entities 459, 464, 467
Acton, E. and C. Potts 64
acts of reference see speech acts of reference
Adams, F. and R. Stecker 229n43
Adequacy judgments 444
adverbial quantifiers, de re/de dicto distinction 176–7
agentivity 327
and subjecthood 320–1
aiming vs. having in mind 38, 41
Airport scenario 485–6
alignment, lexical 450
Allen, S. E. M. et al. 292–3
Almog, J. 227n41
Almor, A. 322
Alonso-Ovalle, L. et al. 324
ambiguity
negation 231
of pronouns 333
Anand, P. et al. 312
anaphora 470–1
and antecedents 386, 387
bridging 274
vs. cataphora 334–5
cross-linguistic variation 310–12
deep vs. surface 373–4
definite descriptions 375–8
dependencies 385
and familiarity presuppositions 262–5
in formal semantics 367
neuroscience studies 385–90
null vs. overt 323–5
psycholinguistic perspective 314–23
syntactic and referential 398–400
anaphoric demonstratives 239–40
anaphoric dependencies, recent studies 398–409
anaphoric reference, neuroscience studies 372–5
anaphoric relations 266–8
Anderson, J. C. 201–2
animacy, salience 340
animacy effect 348–52
Antecedent Contained Deletion 181n5
antecedents and anaphora 386, 387
anterior negativities 400–1, 405
Appelt, D. 415–16
Appelt, D. and A. Kronfeld 415–16, 420, 449, 453
approximative reference 489–91
Aquinas, T. 169–70
Areces, C. et al. 436–7
argument expression 288–93
argument positions, numbers of 21
Ariel, M. 313–14, 344
Aristotle 168–9
Arnold, J. E. 322, 355, 450
(p. 560) Arnold, J. E. and Z. Griffin 331–2, 345–6, 351, 352
Arnold, J. E., S. Brown-Schmidt, and J. C. Trueswell 316
Asher, N. and A. Lascarides 58, 326
Asher, N. et al. 368
assertions 18
assumptions in definiteness 122–8
Atlas, J. D. and S. C. Levinson 90
attentional resources, limited 331–2
attitude verbs, de re/de dicto distinction 175–6
attitudes, referential intentions as 33–4
attributive use vs. referential use 30–1, 38, 70n2, 110–13
audience, internal (talking to oneself) 40
audience-directed referential intentions 30, 36n27
Austin, J. L. 15n5, 26
Bach, K. 30–1, 32, 34, 41n37, 219n28, 232n49
Baget, J.-F. and M.-L. Mugnier 436
Baggio, G. et al. 371
Baker, C. L. 147n1
Bamberg, M. 289, 293
Bar-Hillel, Y. 260, 273
bare nominals 113–16
Barker, C. 102n3, 143
Barkley, C., R. Kluender, and M. Kutas 398, 400, 402, 403, 406
Barwise, J. and R. Cooper 137–8, 142–3
basic joint activities 49
Bäuerle, R. 184n8, 196
Bayesian model 411, 472
Beaumont, R. C. 107–8
Belz, A. and A. Gatt 443, 444
between-structure processes 463–6
Bianchi, A. 12
Binding Theory 334, 404n7
Birch, S. L., J. E. Albrecht, and J. L. Myers 322
Birner, B. J. 111
Bishop corpus 440
Bittner, D. 302
BLEU metric 443, 445
Bock, J. K. and R. K. Warren 339
Boër, S. E. and W. G. Lycan 482
Bolinger, D. 84
Boolean descriptions 422–3
Borthen, K. 112–13, 114–15
Bosch, P. and C. Umbach 319–20
Bouma, G. and H. Hopp 320
bound variables 252–6
Bowdle, B. F. and G. Ward 244–7
branch and bound algorithm 433–4
Branigan, H. P. et al. 450
Bratman, M. 33, 43
Braun, D. 224, 227–31
Brennan, S. E. and H. H. Clark 344
bridging anaphora 274
bridging inferences 105
Brown, G. 53n4, 56n7, 58–60
Brown-Schmidt, S. and M. K. Tanenhaus 351
Bulu (Bantu language) 262
Büring, D. 189
c-relation 37, 41n38
Cable, S. 201
Callahan, S. M. 385–7, 390, 409
Camera Adviser scenario 492
Cameron-Faulkner, T., E. V. M. Lieven, and M. Tomasello 299
Campbell, A. L. et al. 291
Carlson, G. N. 247
Carminati, M. N. 323–4, 324n8
Carnap/Agnew case (Kaplan) 24, 25n7, 35
Cartwright, R. 225n37
Castañeda, H. 215
Catalan, Position of Antecedent Hypothesis (PAH) 324
cataphora vs. anaphora 334–5
cataphoric relationships 402–9
Centering Theory (Givón) 315, 328, 354–5, 428, 429, 439
centred worlds 279
Chafe, W. L. 74–5, 439
Chai, J. et al. 461, 466, 471
chess analogy 14–15
children
choice of referring expressions 288–92
private languages 57n10
referential communication tasks 54
theory of mind (ToM) 54n6
working memory task 331
(p. 561) Chinese
bare nominals 114
cognitive statuses 77, 78–9, 81, 82, 84, 85, 88n24, 93, 95n31, 96
null vs. overt pronouns 324–5
personal pronouns 312
Chiriacescu, S. 156
Chiriacescu, S. and K. von Heusinger 156
choice function approaches 159, 161–2
choice negation 224
choice of referring expression 338–44
accessibility 342–4
dissociation from choice of referent 353–60
factors influencing 340–4
non-linguistic factors 338, 345–53
Chomsky, N. 366, 381
Christianson, K. and F. Ferreira 341
Christophersen, P. 118
Chung, I., O. Propp, M. R. Walter, and T. M. Howard 473
Chung, S. and W. Ladusaw 158
Clark, H. H. 49, 50
Clark, H. H. and A. Bangerter 450
Clark, H. H. and T. Henetz 50
Clark, H. H. and C. Marshall 274, 477
Clark, H. H. and D. Wilkes-Gibbs 36
classic model of referring 476–81
clefting 322
clitics, in first language acquisition 286–7, 305
closed world approaches vs. open-world approaches 469
co-indexation of anaphora 386
co-reference resolution 471
Coco, M. I. and F. Keller 452
Coconut corpus 439–40, 449
coconut experiment 492
code model of communication 56–8, 63–4
cognition 37–8
cognitive fix 56–7
cognitive load, effect on pronoun production 332
cognitive states 33
cognitive statuses 100–3
correlation with linguistic forms 79–98, 104
in the familiarity scale 74–6
in the Givenness Hierarchy, universality 68–73, 77–9
Cohen, P. R. and H. J. Levesque 415
coherence 423–4
coherence relations 325–30
collective plurals 424
Colonna, S., S. Schimke, and B. Hemforth 322
Common Ground 274
communication
in joint actions 50
referential 55–8
communication intentions 27n12, 32, 34
communication plans 32–3, 35n25
communication tasks, joint reference 50, 51–5, 58–64
comparatives 200
complex embedding environments 194–8
complex referring expressions 465–6
compositionality 1
computational modeling task 478
computational models of referring 494–5
Concept of Non-Shared Assumptions 306
conceptual accessibility 339
Conceptual Graphs 436
conceptualizations/mental representations
accessibility 338–40
reference to 337–8
Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) 423
Constraint satisfaction 434–5
Content Determination 429–31
context of utterances 260–2, 273
Common Ground 274
descriptive incompleteness 265–6, 278–9
domain restriction 266–8, 277–8
familiarity presuppositions 262–5
shifted perspective 268–71
two-phase models 274–5
context-dependence 425–6, 428
Context Principle (Frege) 15–16
context sensitivity 22, 271–2
contextually bound choice function approach to specificity (Kratzer) 161–2
contrastive focus 322, 323
controlling intentions 24–5, 35n25
conversation, intentions in 27
Conversational Implicature (Grice) 89n25, 91, 92n27, 461
(p. 562) conversational intentions 29
coordinating joint activities 49
Coordination Account (King) 24–5, 30, 38–9
corpora, reg evaluation 438–42
Cowan, N. 462–3
Cowart, W. and H. Cairns 334
Cowles, H. W. 322
Cowles, H. W. et al. 322
Crawley, R. J. and R. J. Stevenson 315
Cresswell, M. J. 185, 197
cross-linguistic variation, anaphoric forms 310–12
Cumming, S. 262, 279–80
d-linking (discourse linking) 154
D-type analysis 367–8
Dahl, D. A. 91
Dale, R. and N. Haddock 434
Dale, R. and E. Reiter 414, 416–20, 423, 448–9, 453, 481 see also Reiter, E. and R. Dale
De Cat, C. 306
de Hoop, H. 154
de la Fuente, I. and B. Hemforth 324
de re readings
constraints 191–8
context of utterances 261–2, 269, 271
de re/de dicto distinction 34, 168–71
empirical phenomena 173–8
multiple embeddings 178–9
non-noun phrases 200–1
practical applications 201–2
and scope theory 171–3, 179–91, 198–200
de se interpretations 270–1
de sensu 169
de Weck, G. 289
Dead End (de) 486, 487
Dechaine, R.-M. and M. Tremblay 116n18
deep processing 333–4
deferential intentions 31
definite articles 105n7, 106
negation 209n11
definite descriptions, presupposition accommodation 375–8
definite NPs 262–80
definiteness 70n4
ambiguity 128
assumptions 122–8
definitions 137–9
effect 131
familiarity theories 118–23, 135–7
vs. indefiniteness 132–3
negation 139, 140–1
partitives 142–4
quantificational status 141
and referentiality 105–6
strength 131–2
uniqueness 132–5
Deichsel, A. 156
deictic demonstratives 237–9
deictic gestures 265–6
deixis 249, 258, 473
in children’s narrative 289, 290, 305
demonstrative determiners 69, 71–2, 75–6, 78–81, 87–8, 95–6, 98
demonstrative pronouns 29, 71, 76, 82, 84, 88–9, 92–5, 98
demonstrative reference 39
demonstratives
anaphoric 239–40, 311
based on private shared knowledge 240–2
bound variable uses 252–6
cognitive statuses 80–3
deictic 237–9
discretionary 22n3
in first language acquisition 287, 290–1
generic uses 244–9
indefinite-this 243–4
inferable 242–3
in joint reference 64
kind-referring uses 244–8
in negative existentials 211
predicative use 249–51
quantificational uses 251–7
restrictive that 256–7
stereotypical uses with proper names 248–9
‘true’ 29
uniqueness 135
derived accessibility vs. inherent accessibility 342
Description Logic 436–7, 479
description theory 218
(p. 563) descriptive conditions 41
descriptive incompleteness 278–9
descriptive theory of reference 37
Determiner Phrases (DPs) vs. Noun Phrases (NPs) 2n1
determiners, first language acquisition 287–8, 293–8
deterministic algorithms 480
dialogue, influence in language acquisition 298–304
DIAREF corpus 284n1, 292–3, 299, 307–8
Dice coefficient 442–3, 445
dies-indefinites 156
Diesing, M. 154
differential object marking 106–7
direct reference, negative existentials 217–31
directing intentions 29
Direction Giving scenario 486–9
Dirty Floor scenario 490–1
discourse/spoken language
choice of referring expressions 343–4
spontaneity 21
discourse goals, or questions under discussion 32
discourse intentions 21–3, 26–7 see also referential intentions
discourse models, local vs. global 359–60
discourse prominence theories of specificity 165
discourse referents 366
discourse representation structure (DRS) 366, 368, 371, 373, 375–6, 380
Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) 162, 276, 365–6
vs. formal semantics 367–9
methodologies 381–3
proper names 378–9
discourse-relevant constituents 26–7
discourse salience 347, 357
discretionary indexicals 29
and demonstratives 22n3
discriminating cognitive fix 38
Discriminatory Power 483, 492
Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF) 423
dist-power algorithm 464
doctrine of acquaintance 212–13
domain goals 32
domain restriction 277–8
domain-independent algorithm 458
donkey anaphora 264, 275–7, 367–8
Donnellan, K. 19, 24, 30, 36n27, 38, 39–40, 70n2, 110–12, 153, 219–22, 270, 383
Doran, R. and G. Ward 250
downdating 275–6
Drawer corpus 441
dual-task experiment 331
Duan, M., M. Elsner, and M.-C. de Marneffe 348
dubbing intentions 31
Dutch
cataphoric relationships 404–6
first language acquisition 297
personal pronouns 311
presupposition accommodation 376–7
strong vs. weak pronouns 325
Duvallet, F. et al. 472–3
dynamic semantic theories 365
E-type analysis of definite descriptions 266
East Asian languages 406–8 see also Chinese; Japanese; Korean
Ebert, C., C. Ebert, and S. Hinterwimmer 163
egocentricity debate 478
ELAN (early left anterior negative) effect 370, 389
Elbourne, P. D. 197, 278, 279
electroencephalography (EEG) 369, 384
electrophysiological studies 369–72
methodologies 380–3
Ellert, M. 320
emotional deixis 249n12
empty sets 159
Enç, M. 70n2, 78n15, 147, 154, 157, 164
Entity Representation approach to specificity (Kamp) 162
entity resolution 458
Epistemic Constraint 39
epistemic contrasts in specificity 152–3
epistemic specificity 157
Evans, G. 19, 31, 41n39, 224n33, 234n53
event-related brain potentials (ERPs) 369–72, 381, 384–5, 387–410
Everett, A. 226
(p. 564) exceptional scope theories of specificity 158–60
exclusion negation 224
existential theories of specificity 166
existentials 131–2
Existing Fictional Entities view 225–7
expectancy hypothesis 355
Expectation Constraint 39, 40n35
experimental settings
children’s referring expressions 291–2, 295–6
influence of dialogue in language acquisition 298–304
explanatory failure 41–2
expressives 17
extra-mental entities 369
extrinsic task performance measures 445
eye-tracking studies 316, 317–20, 321, 323, 328–9, 334–5, 351–2
false belief task 54n6
FAM (Set of Familiar Entities) 462–4, 467
familiar cognitive status 71, 77, 88, 95, 105
familiar entities 459, 464, 467
familiarity implicature 123–8
familiarity presuppositions 262–5
familiarity scale 74–6
familiarity theories of definiteness 118–23, 135–7
familiarity theories of specificity 164
Farkas, D. 152, 154, 157
Fasola, J. and M. J. Matarić 471–2
feature tokens 60
Ferreira, V. S. and H. Yoshita 340
fictional entities 225–7
fictional realism 225
file change semantics 365, 367
Filiaci, F., A. Sorace, and M. Carreiras 324
filler syllables 285–6
finite clauses 180–1, 187, 188–9
Finnish
linear word order 318–20
personal pronouns 311
first-mention bias 316n6
flexible scope theory 159
Fluency judgments 444
fMRI studies 374
focus 72–3
explicit vs. implicit 74
and topicality 322–3
Focus of Attention (FOA) 339, 462–4, 467, 468–9
focus shifts 93–4
focus stack approach 428
Fodor, J. 182–4, 190, 198
Fodor, J. D. and I. A. Sag 147, 148, 150, 151–2, 153, 157, 158, 160–1, 166
Foraker, S. and B. McElree 322
form–function relationship 312–14
form-specific approach 325
formal semantics
vs. Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) 367–9
neuroscience approach 365–6
forms 67–8
and cognitive statuses 68–73, 79–98, 104
formulaic language 43
Fraurud, K. 136
Frederickson tapes 87n23
free indirect discourse (FID) 329–30
Frege, G. 1, 138, 170, 204n3, 219n25
Context Principle 15–16
French
clefting 322
language acquisition 284–7, 290–1, 292, 293–5, 297–8, 300–3, 305
frequency 447
Fukumura, K. and R. P. G. van Gompel 327, 348–9, 355
Fukumura, K., R. P. G. van Gompel, and M. J. Pickering 345–7, 352
Fukumura, K., R. P. G. van Gompel, T. Harley, and M. J. Pickering 347
fulfillment conditions 17
full brevity algorithm 417–18, 423, 434, 444, 446–7
Fuller, J. and J. K. Gundel 113n17
functional intentions 29
Game-Theoretical perspective 486
Gappy Proposition view (Braun) 227–31
Gardent, C. 423, 434–5
(p. 565) Gardent, C. and K. Striegnitz 448
Garnham, A. 313
Garrod, S. C. and A. J. Sanford 74–5
Garvey, C. and A. Caramazza 326–7
Gatt, A. 424
Gatt, A. et al. 442, 444, 445, 451
Gazdar, G. 231n47
gaze 52, 61, 470, 473
Geach, P. 264
gender matching studies 334–5, 404–5
general intentions 29, 35–6
Generalization X (Percus) 191–2, 201
Generalization Y (Percus) 192n19
Generalization Z (Keshet) 192–3
Generalized Grounding Graph approach 472–3
generalized quantifiers 137
generative grammar 2n1
generic uses of demonstratives 244–9
Geng, L. and H. Hamilton 493
genres and activities, influence on dialogue 302–4, 307
genuine names 215
Genuine Singular Terms 205, 207, 208, 212–17, 219, 221, 233
German
agentivity 321
ambiguity in definiteness 128
anaphoric reference 372–3
dies-indefinites 156
first language acquisition 291–2, 293
linear word order 319–20
personal pronouns 311
referential anchoring 163
Gernsbacher, M. A. 315
Gernsbacher, M. A. and S. Shroyer 155–6
gestures, deictic 265–6
gh-power algorithm 461–2, 472–3
between-structure processes 463–6
cognitive structures 467–9
memory model 462–3
within-structure processes 467
Gillon, C. 108
GIVE evaluation challenge 446, 487
given information vs. new information 340–1
givenness 339
Givenness Hierarchy (GH) 68–74, 100–5, 313–14, 458–61
bare nominals 113–16
first language acquisition 289
and Grice’s maxim of quantity 88–98
and natural language discourse 84–8
referential/attributive distinction 110–13
sense of ‘referentiality’ 105–9
universality 77–9
Givón, T. 165, 312, 353–5
Gleitman, L. R. et al. 340, 341
Glucksberg, S. et al. 54
GNOME corpus 438
Gordon, P. C., B. J. Grosz, and L. A. Gilliom 315
Görgülü, E. 111
Gorniak, P. and D. Roy 452, 470
Goudbeek, M. and E. Krahmer 450
gradability 426
grammatical form vs. logical form 207–8
graph matching algorithm 471
Graph search 432–4
graph-based algorithm 447
GRE3D3 corpus 441
GREC (Generating Referring Expressions in Context) challenges 363, 446, 448
greedy heuristic algorithm 418, 444, 446–7, 466
Green, G. M. 72n9
Greenfield, P. M. 288
Grice, H. P. 22n2, 24, 42, 88–98, 416, 461, 469
Grosz, B. J. and C. L. Sidner 32
Grosz, B. et al. 428
grounding 470
Gundel, J. K. 165, 313n4, 467
Gundel, J. K. and K. Johnson 54n6, 289, 290, 306
Gundel, J. K., D. Ntelitheos, and M. Kowalsky 306
Gundel, J. K., N. Hedberg, and R. Zacharski 100, 102–3, 108, 110, 114, 116, 165, 313–14, 465, 468
Gupta, S. and A. Stent 450
Hagoort, P. et al. 371
Hajičová, E. 428
Hamzelou, J. 57n9
(p. 566) Hankamer, J. and T. Sag 373–4
Hartshorne, J. K., R. Nappa, and J. Snedeker 316
Haugh, M. 65n16
having in mind vs. aiming 38, 41
Hawkins, J. A. 70, 71n7, 92n27, 117, 121, 125, 127
Hawthorne, J. and D. Manley 30n17
HCRC Map Task Corpus 52, 53, 59
Hedberg, N. A., E. Görgülü, and M. Mameni 107, 111, 115
Heeman, P. A. and G. Hirst 449
Heim, I. 76n12, 13, 118, 135, 138, 153, 159, 160, 264, 276, 365, 367
Heim, I. and A. Kratzer 173
Hendriks, P., C. Koster, and J. Hoeks 331
Hickmann, M. 289, 296
Hierarchical Distributed Correspondence Graph approach 473
hierarchical structures 35, 36
hierarchies of referring expressions 312–14
Higginbotham, J. 162
Hinterwimmer, S. and P. Bosch 311
Historical Block view (Donnellan) 219–22
Hobbs, J. 325–6, 328
Hopcroft, J. 437
Horacek, H. 423, 426–7
Horn, L. R. 122, 216n22, 231n47
Horn, L. R. and B. Abbott 117
Horn Scale 121
Hovy, E. H. 326
Hughes, M. E. and S. E. Allen 289–90, 292
Human–Computer interface 478
human-likeness criterion 454–5
human processing limitations 330–5
Hunt, L. III et al. 382
Hutchins, E. 51–2, 61–3
hyperintentionalism 42–3
hypothesization 460, 472–3
identifiability 71n7, 91, 95
identification of entities 491–4
if-clauses 181–2, 187, 189, 195
illocutionary acts 15–17, 26, 28
illocutionary intentions 27, 28
iMap corpus 450
implicit causality (IC) verbs 321, 326–7, 394
implicit partitives 164
in focus cognitive status 72–3, 77, 88, 89, 92, 101, 459, 460, 464
Incentive Constraint 39–40
Incremental Algorithm (IA) 418–23, 425, 431, 444, 446–7, 481, 485
indefinite articles 90–2
cognitive statuses 83–4
indefinite determiner this 102–3, 109, 112, 147, 155–6, 161, 243–4
indefinite proximal demonstrative forms 108–9
indefinites
vs. definites 132–3
with definite NPs 138–9
epistemic contrasts 152–3
exceptional scope theories of specificity 158–60
expressing specificity 148–50
German dies 156
in opaque contexts 150–1
partitive specificity 154
referential, specific, and non-specific 166
scopal specificity 151–2
specificity 146–8
as temporary state 122
uniqueness-neutral 125–7
topical contrasts 154–5
indexicality theories of specificity 160–4
indexicality theory (Fodor and Sag) 160–1
indexicals 279
automatic and intentional 19n1
discretionary 22n3
intentional and discretionary 29
pure or automatic 13n2
Inferables 74–6, 118, 164, 242–3
Information Sharing 476–8
breakdown 482–6
limitations 480–1
information structure 317–18
informativeness 288
inherent accessibility vs. derived accessibility 342
initiating intentions 24, 35n25
intend that vs. intend to 33–4, 36–7
Intensional Functional Application (IFA) 188
intensional operators 184–6
(p. 567) intention assemblies 35–6
Intention Generation Principle 25
intentional indexicals 29
Intentional Influences model (Jordan) 449, 492
intentions
general vs. specific 35–6
primary vs. secondary 35 see also referential intentions
interactive settings, referring expressions in 449–51
interestingness 493
intermediate intentions 24
Intersective Predicate Generalization (IPG) 194
Inuktitut language, first language acquisition 290
Ionin, T. 147, 149, 157
Ionin, T. et al. 143–4
Italian
cataphora vs. anaphora 335
null vs. overt pronouns 324
pro-drop 323–4
Jackendoff, R. 142
Janarthanam, S. and O. Lemon 450
Japanese
bare nominals 114
cataphoric relationships 407
cognitive statuses 77, 78, 80–1, 82, 86, 92n28, 93, 96–7
null vs. overt pronouns 325
Järvikivi, J., R. P. G. van Gompel, R. Bertram, and J. Hyönä 319
John Locke Lectures (Kripke) 222
joint actions 46–51, 57
referential communication 61–4
joint intentions 36
joint reference 49–50
negotiating 65
referential communication tasks 50, 51–5, 58–64
successful and unsuccessful 58–64
Jordan, P. W. 440, 442
Jordan, P. W. and M. Walker 449, 450
jove (Judicious Overspecification) 488–9
Kaiser, E. 311, 317–18, 320, 323, 325, 327–30
Kaiser, E. and M. Do 333
Kaiser, E. and J. C. Trueswell 318–19, 324, 325, 356, 357, 360
Kamp, H. 162, 165, 276, 365, 367, 378n5
Kamp, H. and A. Bende-Farkas 157, 162
Kamp, H. et al. 375
KAMP program 415–16
Kaplan, D. 19n1, 23n5, 24, 29, 35, 38, 219nn26, 27, 236, 273
Karimi, H., T. Swaab, and F. Ferreira 400–1
Karmiloff-Smith, A. 289, 295
Karttunen, L. 146, 151, 158
Katz, J. 219n28, 224n33, 231–4
Kazanina, N., E. F. Lau, M. Lieberman, M. Yoshida, and C. Phillips 404
Keenan, E. L. and J. Stavi 143–4
Kehler, A. 325–6
Kehler, A. and H. Rohde 328
Kehler, A. et al. 356
Kelleher, J. and G.-J. Kruijff 434
Kelleher, J. et al. 451–2
Kennington, C. and D. Schlangen 472
Kertz, L. et al. 315n5, 326
Keshet, E. 184n8, 188–9, 192–4, 195, 197
Keysar, B. 54–5
Khan, I. H. et al. 490
Kibble, R. and R. Power 429
kind-referring uses of demonstratives 244–8
King, J. C. 35n25, 135, 254–5, 279
Coordination Account 24–5, 30, 38–9
King, J. W. and M. Kutas 398
Kneale 169, 170
knowing and unknowing readers 482–3
Knowledge Base (KB) 426, 477, 480, 481
Knowledge Representation (KR) frameworks 432, 435–7
limitations 479–80
Koolen, R. et al. 446
Kopp, S. et al. 431
Korean
cataphoric relationships 406–8
null pronouns 325
Korta, K. and J. Perry 30
Krahmer, E. 450
Krahmer, E. and M. Theune 428, 429
Krahmer, E., S. van Erk, and A. Verleg 432–4
Krahmer, E. et al. 447
(p. 568) Kratzer, A. 161–2, 185, 197
Krifka, M. et al. 247
Kripke, S. 13, 14, 18, 19, 29, 31, 35–6, 210nn14, 16, 217–31, 232, 233–4, 263, 269, 271, 279, 378–9
Kronfeld, A. 29, 32n21, 37, 111
Kruijff, G.-J. M. et al. 470
Kusumoto, K. 200
Kutas, M. and S. Hillyard 370, 381, 383
Kutlák, R. 482–5, 493
Kwon, N. and P. Sturt 325
labeling 294
Lack of Orientation (lo) 486, 487
Lakoff, R. 109, 248, 249n12
LAN (left anterior negative) effect 370, 372, 387, 393, 396–400, 403–9
Landman, F. 193
language acquisition
argument expression 288–93
determiners 287–8, 293–8
first referring expressions 284–8
influence of dialogue 298–304
paradox of referring expressions 304–7
language grounding algorithms 458
language grounding problem 470
language production model (Levelt) 338
late positive complex (LPC) 389
Lemaignan, S. et al. 470
Lenat, D. 453
Levelt, W. J. M. 338
Levenshtein distance metric 443, 444, 445
Levinson, S. C. 238, 239
Lewis, D. 120, 136, 273, 274, 279
lexical accessibility 339
lexical alignment 450
Lexical Choice 430–1
Li, C. N. and S. A. Thompson 79, 84n19
Lieberman, H. et al. 453
Lillooet language 108
linear order 318–20
linguistic reference 11, 12
vs. speech acts of reference 11–15
linguistic salience 347–8
Lipman, B. 485–6
listeners, referential intentions 36
Löbner, S. 119, 133, 136, 139, 140–1, 143
locally contingent categorization 65
locutionary intentions 27, 28
logical form vs. grammatical form 207–8
logophoric languages 311–12
long term memory (LTM) 462–5, 467
long-distance relations 385
long-distance scope shift theory 159
Love, J. and G. McKoon 333
Lyon, J. 108n12
m-reference 41n38
Machery, E. et al. 379
Machine Learning algorithm 411, 489
MacKay, A. F. 39
Maclaran, R. 108–9, 253, 256
Mandarin Chinese see Chinese
Mann, W. and S. Thompson 326
Maori language, specificity 149
map tasks (referential communication tasks) 52–4, 56n7, 58–60
MapTask corpus 439
Maratsos, M. P. 295
Markov Logic theoretic reference resolution system 471
MASI (Measuring Agreement on Set-valued Items) 442–3, 445
Matthews, D. et al. 291, 299, 307
Matthewson, L. 108
Matuszek, C., N. Fitzgerald, L. Zettlemoyer, L. Bo, and D. Fox 473
Maxim of Quantity (Grice) 416
and Givenness Hierarchy 88–98
Maxim of Relevance (Grice) 469
maximum entropy 489
May, R. 180–1, 188
Mayol, L. and R. Clark 324
McCoy, K. F. and M. Strube 429
McDonald, J. L. et al. 340
Mechanical Turk 484
Meinong, A. 206–7, 213–14
Meinongian population explosion 219, 221–2
memory 331, 347
and accessibility 361
long term (LTM) 462–5, 467
working 462–3
(p. 569) mental representations 58
accessibility 338–40
of coherence relations 328–9
reference to 337–8
robots 458
Meyer, F. 471
Milsark, G. 131, 154, 192–3
mind-to-mind communication 57
minimal references 413
mistaken references 13, 24, 34–5
modal operators 184
modal subordination 267
modals, de re/de dicto distinction 176
Modified Hierarchy (Chai) 461
monotonic approach to reg 481
Montag, J. L. and M. C. MacDonald 350–1
Montague, R. 137, 273
Montague Grammar 365
Morgan, J. L. 270
Moroccan Arabic, bare nominals 116
morphemes
as proper names 31
speaker intentions 26
most as determiner 132
motivational potential of intentions 43
Mount, A. 30
mythical entities 225, 227
N400 effect 370–3, 376, 381–2, 397
naming 16n8
narrative relations vs. result relations 326
narratives, children 289–93, 295–8
narrow scope 140–1
natural dialogue, influence in language acquisition 298–304
natural language, importance in robotics 457–8, 470
natural language discourse, and the Givenness Hierarchy 84–8
Natural Language Generation (NLG) 413, 476n2
natural language generation studies 363
Natural Language Processing 415
naturally occurring dialogue, referring expressions 305–7
children’s referring expressions 289–91, 292, 294, 296–8
Neale, S. 39, 153, 209n12, 211n18, 217n23, 266, 367–8
Nearest-First Search (nfs) 488
negation
ambiguity 231
definite articles 139, 140–1, 209n11
negative existentials
direct reference 217–31
elimination of all genuine singular terms 213–17
Existing Fictional Entities view 225–7
Gappy Proposition view 227–31
Historical Block view 219–22
No Such Proposition view 222–4
problem of 203–6
Pure Metalinguistic Description theory (PMT) 231–4
theory of descriptions 206–13
neuroscience
anaphora 372–5, 385–90
approach to formal semantics 365–6
methodologies 380–3
presupposition accommodation 376–8
proper names 378–80
new information vs. given information 340–1
Nieuwland, M. S. 395–6, 404
Nieuwland, M. S. and J. Van Berkum 393, 395, 396
Nieuwland, M. S. et al. 377, 394, 397n2
NIST metric 443, 445
No Such Proposition view (Kripke) 222–4
non-linguistic factors
effect on choice of referring expressions 338, 345–53
and salience 429–30
non-linguistic reference 14
non-specific de re 182–4
Norwegian
bare nominals 114
definiteness 112–13
notional readings vs. relational readings 147
Noun Phrases (NPs)
de re/de dicto distinction 174–5
vs. Determiner Phrases (DPs) 2n1
Nref (referentially induced frontal negativity) effect 377, 390–8, 400, 401
null cataphors in East Asian languages 406–8
(p. 570) null forms, in first language acquisition 287, 290
null pronouns vs. overt pronouns 323–5
O’Neill, D. K. 306
object domain vs. spatial domain 470–1
object language, intensional variables 184–6
Odawa language, word order 341
Olive Oil scenario 490
open-world algorithm 458
open-world approaches vs. closed-world approaches 469
open world resolution 472
optimality of referring expressions 412–13
Osterhout, L. and P. Holcomb 389n1
Overspecification, Judicious (jove) 488–9
Overstreet, M. and G. Yule 65
overt pronouns vs. null pronouns 323–4
Öztürk, B. 115
P300 effects 372, 388–9
P600 effects 369–70, 376, 381, 388, 389n1
Pablos, L., J. Doetjes, B. Ruijgrok, and L. Cheng 404–6
Paraboni, I. and K. van Deemter 488, 489
Paraboni, I. et al. 489
paradigms of reference 447–8
Partee, B. H. 110, 111, 138–9, 263
Partitive Constraint 142, 143–4
partitive contrasts in specificity 154
partitive specificity 157
partitives 142–4, 164
partitivity, relationship with specificity 147
Passonneau, R. J. 439, 442
pathological utterances 23–4
Pechmann, T. 418, 447
Percus, O. 185, 191–2, 201
Perfect Recall Percentage (PRP) 443, 445
Perry, J. 12–13, 19n1, 22n3, 25n7, 29, 35n25, 39, 215–16, 219n26, 222n31
Persian
bare nominals 115–16
referential objects 107, 111
personal pronouns 310–11
perspective-taking 329–30
Pesetsky, D. 154
Peters, S. and D. Westerståhl 141, 143
piano analogy in joint action 46–8, 50, 57
Pica, T. et al. 60–1
pilotage joint action task (Hutchins) 51–4, 61–3
plan-based approach to reg 449
planning theory 32–3, 35, 42
Plato 203
Poesio, M. and R. Viera 136, 447–8, 452
Pointwise Mutual Information (PMI) 483
Politzer-Ahles, S. et al. 382
Pollack, M. E. 32n22
Portner, P. 155
Portner, P. and K. Yabushita 154–5
Position of Antecedent Hypothesis (PAH) 324
positioning 301–2
Possibility Constraint 39n34
possible world pronouns 185–6
Power, R. 443
pragmatic definites 119, 133
pragmatic reference 1–2
vs. semantic reference 2, 13
pragmatic set (P-set) 117, 127
Prat-Sala, M. and H. P. Branigan 341–2, 358
predication 16
predicative statements 220n29, 221–2
predicative use of demonstratives 249–51
predictability 355–6
Preference Order 447, 483, 485
presupposition 135–6, 277
presupposition accommodation, definite descriptions 375–8
presupposition failure 205
primary intentions 35
Prince, E. 73–5, 118, 157
Prior, A. N. 170
private languages 57n10
private shared knowledge, uses of demonstratives 240–2
pro-drop languages 92n28, 94n30, 323–4
procedural attachments 470
procedural semantics view 470
processing depth 332–4
processing limitations 330–5
pronoun generation 429
effect of cognitive load 332
pronoun interpretation 327–8
(p. 571) and coherence relations 326
in free indirect discourse (FID) 329–30
processing depth 332–4
pronouns 101n1, 448
anterior negativities 400–1
in negative existentials 211
uniqueness 134
proper names 31, 448
cataphoric relationships 403
familiarity presuppositions 262
generic uses of demonstratives 248–9
neuroscience approach 378–80
uniqueness 134
properties, predication 16
propositional attitudes 33–4
propositional functions 207n7
proximal demonstrative forms 108–9
psycholinguistic perspective 309–10
anaphoric forms 314–23
null vs. overt pronouns 323–5
pure indexicals 273
Pure Metalinguistic Description theory (PMT, Katz) 231–4
purposive actions 50, 51
Pylkkänen, L. et al. 380–1
Q1-based implicatures 90–4, 98
Q2-based implicatures 90, 94–8
QR-theory (Quantifier Raising) 158, 159
quantificational operators 266–8
quantificational phrases 1
quantificational status of definiteness 141
quantificational uses of demonstratives 251–7
quantificationally bound definite NPs 264–5
quantifiers 211n18
Quantity Maxim (Grice) 416
queer connections 16n8
questions, in language acquisition 299–300
questions under discussion, or discourse goals 32
Quine, W. v O. 146–7, 171, 213–17, 268, 269
recency, effect on choice of referring expression 343
Reference Failure 205, 206, 221, 225
reference form, effect on retrieval operations 400–1
reference resolution 309–10, 458
cross-linguistic variation 310–12
open-world vs. closed-world approaches 469
in robotics 469–73
topicality 322–3
referential anaphora 398–400
referential anchoring approach to specificity (von Heusinger) 162–3, 166
referential cognitive status 69–70, 77, 83, 102, 459, 465
referential communication tasks 50, 51–5, 58–64
referential communication, models 55–8
Referential Compositionality 204–5, 206, 221–2, 223–4, 228
referential contrasts in specificity 150–1
referential determiners 107–8
referential discourse, model 37
referential expressions 366
referential intentions 19–20, 160
content 36–9
determining reference 41n37
explanatory failure 41–2
form 32–6
function 39–40
hyperintentionalism 42–3
identifying 27–31
motivation for theories 20–5
standard form 28
referential presupposition 205
referential stability 157
referential theories of specificity 166
referential uniqueness vs. semantic uniqueness 133–4
referential use vs. attributive use 30–1, 38, 70n2, 110–13
referentiality
and definiteness 105–6
overt markers 106–9
theories of specificity 160–4
referring expressions (res) 475–6
children 288–92
choice of 338–44
accessibility 342–4
dissociation from choice of referent 353–60
(p. 572) factors influencing 340–4
non-linguistic factors 338, 345–53
complex 465–6
functions of 448–9
hierarchies 312–14
interactive settings 449–51
limitations in the types 479
optimality 412–13
understanding by robots 457–8
without speech acts of reference 17
Referring Expressions Generation (reg) 363, 411, 413–14, 431–2, 453–5
classic reg task 478
Constraint satisfaction 434–5
Content Determination 429–31
context 425–6, 428
evaluation 438–46
Graph search 432–4
Knowledge Representation (KR) 432, 435–7
metrics for 443–4
plan-based approach 449
pre-2000 history 414–21
reference to sets 421–4
relational descriptions 424–5
salience 427–30
vague references 426
variations and extensions 426–7, 428–9
widening the scope 455
Reimer, M. 29, 35
Reiter, E. and R. Dale 413–14 see also Dale, R. and E. Reiter
relational conditions 41
relational descriptions 424–5
relational readings vs. notional readings 147
relative clauses 200–1
Relevance Maxim (Grice) 469
Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson) 104
reminder that 97
Ren, Y., K. van Deemter, and J. Pan 425, 437
repetition, in language acquisition 300–1
requests, fulfillment conditions 17
Restriction vs. Saturation 158
restrictive that 256–7
result relations vs. narrative relations 326
retrieval operations, effect of reference form 400–1
Richard, M. 227n41
Road Gritting scenario 491
Roberts, C. 32, 164, 267, 277, 278, 279
robotics
importance of natural language 457–8
natural language 470
reference resolution 469–73
Romanian, indefinites 156
Rosch, E. 416
Rothschild, D. 119
rouge-2 and rouge-su4 measures 443
Roy, D. 452
Rozendaal, M. and A. Baker 296–7
Runner, J. 324
Runner, J. and A. Ibarra 324
Russian, cognitive statuses 77, 78, 80, 81, 82–3, 86, 88, 97
Sæbø, K. J. 163–4
Sag, I. 181n5
Sag, T. and J. Hankamer 373
Salazar Orvig, A., H. Marcos, et al. 297, 302, 307
salience 339, 427–30
discourse 347, 357
linguistic 347–8
visual 345–53
and word order 353–60
salience weights (sws) 428
salient entities, and starting point of utterances 340–2
Salish languages 107–8
Salmon, N. 219n26, 224, 225–7, 230
Salomo, D. et al. 291–2
satisfaction conditions 12, 15, 16–18
Saturation vs. Restriction 158
Schaeffer, J. and L. Matthewson 296, 306
Schober, M. 53n5
Schumacher, P., L. Roberts, and J. Järvikivi 321
Schwarz, F. 159, 194, 197
Schwarzschild, R. 155, 160
scopal contrasts in specificity 151–2, 157
scope islands 151–2, 158, 159
scope restraint on anaphoric relations 267
(p. 573) scope taking 140–2
scope theory 179–84, 186–7
and the de re/de dicto distinction 171–3
split intensionality theory 188–91, 198–200
Scott, K. J. 104
Searle, J. R. 414
Sechelt language, referential determiners 107–8
second language acquisition, referential communication tasks 55
‘second-order’ referential intentions 30
secondary intentions 35
semantic argument 217–18
semantic compositionality 204
semantic contribution of a name 218
semantic definites 119, 133
Semantic Fields approach 471–2
semantic presupposition 203n2
semantic reference 15n4
vs. pragmatic reference 2, 13
vs. speaker reference 13–15
semantic underdetermination 22
semantic uniqueness vs. referential uniqueness 133–4
Serratrice, L. 300
Set of Activated Entities (ACT) 462–4, 468–9
Set of Familiar Entities (FAM) 462–4, 467
shared cultural narratives 247–8
Sharvy, R. 133
shifted perspective 268–71
SHRDLU system 469–70
Siddharthan, A. and A. Copestake 429, 430–1
Simchen, O. 31, 35n26, 37, 41n38
Simplified English 89, 94
singular negative existentials 203–6
singular propositions 228
singular terms 1
Skarabela, B. et al. 290
Skolem function 161–2
Soames, S. 219n26
Song, H. and C. Fisher 316
Sowa, J. 436
Spanish
bare nominals 115
cognitive statuses 77, 79–80, 81, 82, 83–4, 86–7, 96
null vs. overt pronouns 324
Position of Antecedent Hypothesis (PAH) 324
proximal demonstrative determiners 109
specificity 149
spatial domain vs. object domain 470–1
Speaker Control Principle 22–3, 25, 26
speaker intentions 21–3
identifying 25–7 see also referential intentions
speaker reference 15–16
vs. semantic reference 13–15
specific indefinites in speech reports (Sæbø) 163–4
specific intentions 29, 35–6
specificity 103n4, 106n9, 146–8
contrasts 150–7
of de re 182–4
expressing 148–50
links between notions of 157
theories of 157–67
speech acts of expression 17
speech acts of predication 16
speech acts of reference 15–16
absent from referring expressions 17
vs. linguistic reference 11–15
split intensionality theory 188–91, 194–200
spoken language/discourse
deictic demonstratives 238
pathological utterances 23–4
spontaneity 21
vs. written language 121, 446
Squamish language 108
Stainton, R. 56n8
Stalnaker, R. 118, 165, 273, 274–5, 279n5
starting point of utterances 340–2
Stevenson, R. J. et al. 355
Stewart, A. et al. 332–3
Stoia, L. et al. 450
Stone, M. and B. Webber 434, 449
Stone, M. et al. 431
story completion experiments 345–8, 355, 361–2
strategic conversations 58
Strawson, P. F. 1–2, 45, 117, 138, 208n9, 209, 223n32, 229–30, 267, 477
Streb, J. et al. 372
strength 131–2
(p. 574) string distance metrics 443–4, 445
strong pronouns vs. weak pronouns 325
structural ambiguity 208–9
sub-sentential intentions 28
subjecthood 317–21, 327
subjectivist semantics 23n5
success conditions 16–17
summarization 448
supplementives 22n3, 31n20
Surface Realization 430–1
symbol grounding problem 470
syntactic anaphora 398–400
syntactic positive shifts (SPS) 388–9
Szabo, Z. G. 199–200
target identification 417
Tellex, S. et al. 472
temporal operators 184
tense, de re/de dicto distinction 177–8
than-clauses 200
the vs. a/an 121–2, 136
theoretical modeling 24
theory of descriptions (Russell) 206–13
theory of mind (ToM) 54n6, 306, 469
thinking, reference in 57–8
this-indefinite 147, 155–6, 161, 243–4
Thomasson, A. 222n31
topic-drop languages 324–5
topic shift 331
topical contrasts 154–5
topicality 322–3, 339
topicality-based approach 312, 314–17
topicalization 148n2
topics 72–3
traditional formal semantics see formal semantics
transactional contingent patterns 302
transference 45
true demonstratives 29
true propositions 223
truth-conditional referential intentions 36n27
truth conditions 17–18
in formal semantics 365–6, 368
negative existentials 207–9
truth value, reference as 1
TUNA corpus 441–2, 445–6
Turkish
bare nominals 115–16
referential objects 107, 111
Turner, R. et al. 491
type identifiable cognitive status 69, 77, 78, 83, 89, 95, 101, 103, 165, 459, 465
type-shifting operations 188
Ueno, M. and A. Kehler 325
uncertain properties 471
understanding, of referring expressions by robots 457–8
unexpectedness 493–4
unique satisfaction proposition 117
uniquely identifiable cognitive status 70, 77, 78, 92n27, 101, 102, 106, 110–13, 459, 464–5
uniqueness 132–5
contradiction to 136–7
Universal Grammar 305
unknowing and knowing readers 482–3
Unnamed Company scenario 494
UserKnows function 419
utterance
interpretation 65n16
starting point 340–2
vagueness 426
Van Berkum, J. J. A. 396–7
Van Berkum, J. J. A., C. M. Brown and P. Hagoort 376, 390–1, 400
Van Berkum, J. J. A., C. M. Brown, P. Hagoort, and P. Zwitserlood 392, 400
Van Berkum, J. J. A., A. W. Koornneef, M. Otten, and M. S. Nieuwland 394–5
Van Berkum, J. J. A., P. Zwitserlood, M. C. M. Bastiaansen, C. M. Brown, and P. Hagoort 392–3
van Deemter, K. 422, 476, 479
van Deemter, K. et al. 444
van der Sluis, I. and E. Krahmer 431
van Gompel, R. and S. Liversedge 334–5
van Hout, A. et al. 296
Van Nice, K. Y. and R. Dietrich 349–50
Van Rij, J., H. Van Rijn, and P. Hendriks 331, 361
Van Rooij, R. 30n17
(p. 575) Vendler, Z. 47n1
verbs, de re readings 201
Viethen, J. and R. Dale 425, 441
visual information 451–2
visual perception 411–12
visual salience 345–53
Visual World paradigm 54–5
Vogels, J., E. J. Krahmer, and A. Maes 332, 347–8, 349–50, 352, 357, 358
von Fintel, K. and I. Heim 180, 186
von Heusinger, K. 109n13, 110, 111, 157, 162–3
von Stechow, A. 159, 200
von Wright, G. H. 170
Walton, K. 226n38
Ward, G. and B. J. Birner 241–2
weak pronouns vs. strong pronouns 325
Webber, B. L. 111
Wechsler, S. 279
Wettstein, H. 38
‘Who is?’ scenario 482–6
wide scope 141
Wilder, C. 180n4
Wilson, F. 320
Winograd, T. 415, 469–70
within-structure processes 467
Wittek, A. and M. Tomasello 291
Wittgenstein, L. 14n3, 15n6
Wolter, L. 243n8
Woodbury, R. 374
Wooding, D. et al. 451
word order
and salience 340–2, 353–60
and subjecthood 318–20
words as tools 45
working memory 331, 347, 462–3
and accessibility 361
Wright, S. and T. Givón 157, 165
written language
referential intentions 21
vs. spoken language 121, 446
Yang, C. L. et al. 324
Yule, G. 52, 55
Zender, H. et al. 470–1