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date: 16 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the weak inclusion character of Africa’s economic growth and its implications for employment, income distribution, demographics, and the middle class. After outlining Africa’s impressive growth in the last decade which has not created jobs and not reduced poverty fast enough, it discusses various approaches to inclusive growth in relation to gross domestic product per capita, sub-groups, and pro-poor growth, well-being, and opportunities as opposed to outcomes. It also considers four categories of inclusive growth indicators, namely economic inclusion, social inclusion, spatial inclusion, and political/institutional inclusion. Under economic inclusion, an approach for dealing with inequality is presented. Finally, the article describes an inclusive growth index for African countries for the period 2006–2010, adjusted for inequality.

Keywords: Africa, economic growth, employment, income distribution, demographics, middle class, inclusive growth, economic inclusion, inequality, inclusive growth index

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