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date: 18 October 2019

(p. xv) List of Figures

(p. xv) List of Figures

  1. 2.1 Employment shares of three broad economic sectors 44

  2. 2.2 Sub-Saharan Africa: Average annual labor productivity growth 45

  3. 2.3 Change in occupational structure using DHS data 49

  4. 2.4 Occupational changes among rural youth 2000 to 2010 50

  5. 2.5 (A) Commodity price indices by country. (B) Average commodity price index 52

  6. 2.6 Average Polity 2 score for sub-Saharan Africa 54

  7. 3.1 Capital account openness (Chinn–Ito) index 64

  8. 3.2 Exchange rate classification (sub-Saharan Africa) 64

  9. 3.3 Broad money growth and inflation: SSA 67

  10. 3.4 East Africa: selected macro-variables, Jan. 2010–Dec. 2013 70

  11. 3.5 East Africa: selected macro-variables, Jan. 2010–Dec. 2013 71

  12. 6.1 Equilibrium through devaluation 140

  13. 6.2 Compatibility maintained by foreign aid 141

  14. 6.3 Combining devaluation and foreign aid 141

  15. 6.4 Situation before the CFA devaluation 146

  16. 6.5 Expected results after the devaluation 146

  17. 6.6 Shifting consumer preferences and adjustment 149

  18. 8.1 The relationship between the ratio of public expenditure to GDP and per capita incomes in Africa Data for 2012 176

  19. 8.2 Relationship between levels of government spending and levels of inequality-adjusted human development 177

  20. 8.3 Tax efforts and aid in African countries 181

  21. 9.1 Africa’s debt relief timeline (USD, billion) 195

  22. 9.2 International sovereign bond issuance by sub-Saharan countries (excluding South Africa) 201

  23. 10.1 Trend in saving rates in South Africa, 1960–2012 210

  24. 11.1 Regional arrangements in Africa 223

  25. 11.2 Fuel, ores, and metals exports per capita by RTA groups (2012 US$) 234

  26. 11.3 Evolution of the share of intraregional imports to total regional imports 238

  27. 11.4 ADR (simple averages), two years before and ten years after implementation 241

  28. (p. xvi) 15.1 Conceptual framework of the evolution of land tenure, land management, and land markets 291

  29. 15.2 Changes in arable land per person in rural areas in Southeast and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa 296

  30. 16.1 Evolution of development theory and practice in Africa 309

  31. 17.1 Sectoral and general capacity 327

  32. 17.2 Geography and capacity 329

  33. 17.3 Legitimacy, flexibility, and incentives in determining organizational capacity 332

  34. 17.4 Country size and capacity 337

  35. 21.1 Sources of credit and savings methods 393

  36. 21.2 Purchases of agricultural insurance 395

  37. 24.1 Reforms reducing regulatory complexity and cost in 2012/13 446

  38. 24.2 Ease of doing business, around the world (2013) 446

  39. 25.1 Adjusted net enrollment rates (1970–2011) 466

  40. 25.2 Trends in secondary gross enrollment rates (1970–2011) 467

  41. 28.1 Schematic overview of malaria control from 1900 to 2010 510

  42. 29.1 Proportion married by selected ages and year of birth 536

  43. 29.2 Population pyramid and ratio of females to males (five years older) by age group, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia (urban) 537

  44. 32.1 Fertility rates: Total (births per woman) and adolescent fertility (births per 1000 women ages 15–19, right scale) 592

  45. 32.2 Mortality rates. (A) Mortality rate, adult (per 1000 female/male adults). (B) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate per 100,000 live births). (C) Child mortality 594

  46. 32.3 Labor force participation. (A) Labor force participation rates, female. (B) Ratio of female to male labor participation rate, 15+(%) 595

  47. 32.4 Secondary enrolment rates 596

  48. 33.1 Distance to the printing press and cumulated number of newspapers (1800–2000) 611

  49. 33.2 Distance to the printing press and publication date of the first newspaper 612

  50. 35.1 2005 Union Density Estimates for OECD Countries and South Africa 646

  51. 35.2 South Africa’s labor market efficiency 649

  52. 35.3 Average Annual Strikes Intensity (Number of Strikers per 1000 workers) 654

  53. 36.1 Official development assistance and real GDP growth in sub-Saharan Africa 669

  54. (p. xvii) 37.1 Total ODA received by developing regions, 1960–2012 681

  55. 37.2 ODA distribution in NA 682

  56. 39.1 Average annual remittances and migrant stock (1980–2011) 715

  57. 40.1 FDI inflows by region (US$ million) 735

  58. 40.2 FDI inflows (percentage of total world), by region 735

  59. 41.1 Capital flows to sub-Saharan Africa vs. NEPAD’s reported annual financing gap (1980–2010) 749

  60. 44.1 China’s export structure: from raw material in the 1980s to labor intensive manufacturing product in the middle 1990s 794

  61. 44.2 China’s ODA: comparison with OECD countries on two dimensions, 2013 799

  62. 44.3 China and Africa: Partners in climbing the same mountain of structural transformation. Learning and building on the comparative advantage determined by a country’s endowment 801

  63. 44.4 Outward FDI from China and other BRICKS countries, 2000–2013 (unit: $billions) 803

  64. 44.5 Proposal for an expansion of the definition of development financing 806

  65. 45.1 Per capita income in China and Africa (in 1990 international dollars) 816

  66. 45.2 Per capita income in Africa, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (in 1990 international dollars) 822

  67. 48.1 Africa’s population trajectory under alternative fertility assumptions 875

  68. 48.2 Declining arable land per capita in Africa, hectares per person 877

  69. 48.3 Youth dependency ratio (population 0–20 relative to population 20–65) 878

  70. 48.4 (A) Total fertility rates by region, 1950–2010. (B) Total fertility rates by region to 2050, medium-fertility variant 881

  71. 48.5 Under-5 mortality rates by region, 1950–2010 882

  72. 48.6 Under-5 mortality rate and total fertility rate, 2010 882

  73. 48.7 Population history and projections, medium-fertility scenario, 1950–2100 883

  74. 48.8 The BAU and rapid mortality-decline scenarios 890

  75. 48.9 Comparison of business as usual (black) and rapid mortality decline (grey) 891

(p. xviii)