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date: 16 October 2019

(p. 905) Subject Index

(p. 905) Subject Index

absorptive capacity 754–5
accountability see transparency
Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAIOFI) 432n, 438
adding-up problem 273–4
Afghanistan 364, 365, 684
Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries 222
Africa Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) 223
Africa Mining Vision 247
Africa Progress Panel 249
Africa Report Panel 250
African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) 327–8, 330
African Development Bank (AfDB) 34, 173, 194, 373n, 669, 781, 806
African Economic Community (EAC) 224
African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) 33
African Institute for Remittances (AIR) project 719
African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 31
African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) 183
African Union (AU) 25–6, 103, 247, 315
African Union Commission (AUC) 373n, 719
African-Asian Business Forum 33
Agadir Agreement 226, 230
age factors 48, 50, 849, 850–4, 870
agency bonds 416
agricultural value chains 260
agriculture 41–4, 46, 50, 58
aid: changing context 698–9, 702, 705–6
arable land to population ratio 876–7
capacity development for transformation 329
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 805, 817
commodity exporters 118
commodity price index 56
development banks 663
education 475n
employment shares 46, 50, 51, 56–7
foreign direct investment (FDI) 737
gender, growth and development 576–7, 584
growth strategies 23
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 282
investment 581–2
markets and prices 362–3
occupational structure 48, 49
productivity 274, 519
South Africa 645, 653, 656
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 837
structural change 49, 258, 268–9
Washington Consensus 28
agriculture, growth and development 307–22
agribusiness development 319
agriculture-led growth (1960s to 1970s) 311–12
agriculture-led growth and poverty reduction (2000s to 2010s) 315–16
challenges and opportunities for agriculture-led growth 316–17
convergence of social and growth policies 320–1
industrialization strategies, renewed 319–20
industry-led growth (1950s to 1970s) 308–11
informal service sector modernization 319
poverty reduction strategies (1990s and 2010s) 314–15
promotion of agricultural productivity growth 320
(p. 906) rural development and basic needs (1970s) 312–13
structural adjustment-led growth (1980s to 1990s) 313–14
structural transformation 318–19
aid 698–707, 780–90
changing aid architecture and implications for growth and development 786–8
commodity aid 781
Country Programmable Aid (CPA) 789
dependency trap 180
and devaluation 140–1
development aid 778, 782
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors 702, 706, 788–9
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Survey on Donors’ Forward Spending Plans 789
Development Assistance Committee (DAC)-European Union members 788–9
development strategy post 2015 704–7
economic aid 782, 796n
effectiveness debate 783–5
emergency relief 781
external aid 34–5
fiscal policy 180
foreign direct investment (FDI) 739
global financial crisis, emerging donors and aid flows 788–9
and growth 699–701
no conditionality approach 786
non-traditional, emerging or non-Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors 789–90
North-South aid 809
and other external flows, management of 76–7
overseas development assistance (ODA) 173n, 410, 698, 702, 707, 712, 781–2, 788–9, 798–9, 804–5
program loan 781
project aid 781
selectivity concept 786
social sector aid 704
strategic issues 701–4
technical assistance 781
tied aid funds 786
trends in aid flows 782
Algeria 161, 180, 405–6, 414, 802
demographic dividend 856, 859, 862, 868
Islamic Salvation Front 688
see also North Africa
Angola 33, 157, 193, 468, 607n, 615, 666
capacity development for transformation 329, 337
China-Africa engagement 764, 765
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
fiscal policy 176n, 180, 182
animal spirits 334–6, 385
Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) 2011 data 66n
Arab countries 381, 480–1, 491, 590, 594, 691
Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) 224, 226
Arab Spring 600–1, 689
Argentina 189, 616n, 655
Arm’s Length Principle 182
ASEAN plus 6 negotiations 806
Asia 3
agriculture, growth and development 311, 317, 319–20, 321–2
debt and debt relief 194n
demographic dividend 860
fiscal policy 182
health, growth and development 498
information technology: economic impacts 354
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274
land tenure and agricultural intensification 293, 295, 298
malaria 511
mobility, human capital and remittances 480
Northeast 510
political economy of aid 681
Southeast 296, 869
(p. 907) structural change 46, 257, 261, 262, 263, 269
West 590, 869
Asian Infrastructural Investment Bank (AIIB) 807
Asian model of development 560–1
Association of African Women for Research and Development (AFARD) 561
attractiveness surveys 742
Australia 755
Bahrain 432
Baker Plan 190
balance of payments (BoP) 123, 142–4, 212–13, 572
Bandung Conference (1955) 25, 763–4
Bangladesh 482
BRAC 840n
Grameen Bank 565, 840n
Banque des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale (BEAC) 116, 148
bargaining model 232
Barro-Gordon inflation bias 99, 103, 111
Belgium 225, 788
Benin 116, 378, 617
Code of Persons and of the Family 568
cotton 314
demographic dividend 855, 860, 863, 869
monetary unions 100, 108–9, 144
Berg Report 27–8, 313, 563
bilateral agencies 8, 565
bilateral donors 249, 781–2
bilateral export intensity 751
bilateral investment treaties 381
bilateral trade 127, 232, 237, 240
birth rates 500–1
Black to Green development 278, 283
Bolivia 193n
bond market 200, 201, 384–5, 416–20, 670, 716
Botswana 13, 33, 47, 161, 329, 607n, 755
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 863, 868
education 473
financial markets development 405–6, 414
fiscal policy 174, 178, 181
health, growth and development 495, 496
monetary unions 101, 110–11
natural resources 247
structural adjustment policies 830, 832
Brady Plan 190, 200, 688
Brazil 178, 189, 519
current growth strategies 32, 33
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 279, 283
trade unions 646, 651–2, 656
Bretton-Woods Agreement 114n
Bretton-Woods institutions 8–9, 24, 28, 30, 832
debt and debt relief 191–2, 197, 201
monetary unions 137, 144
bribe, invest, extract, pollute, and export (BI-EPE) 756
briberization 839, 843n
BRICKs countries (includes Korea) 757–8, 803
BRICS countries 806–7
Brunei 105
Burkina Faso 4, 116, 520, 577
capacity development for transformation 327, 337
cotton 15, 282
demographic dividend 855, 860, 863, 869
education 468, 469
gold mining and economic and social change 340, 342, 344, 345, 347, 349–50
land tenure and agricultural intensification 292, 295, 296, 297, 298
monetary unions 100, 108–9
Burundi 33n, 327, 468, 496
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
monetary unions 92, 104–7
business cycles 118, 172–3, 702
(p. 908) Cambodia 822, 825
Cameroon 6n, 33n, 144n, 187, 327, 503, 607n
CFA franc zone 116, 118, 126
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 863, 868
Kribi Deep-water Port 802
monetary unions 105, 144
Canada 188–9, 651, 766, 776, 781
capacity development for transformation 325–37, 339, 377
building capacity in crisis 330
capability-based theories 326, 331–2
co-evolutionary dynamics 336–7
concept and purpose of capacity 326–7
country size 337
definitions 326–31
dynamic policy capacity 336
empirical analysis 339
geography and capacity 329
human capacity 330
institutional capacity 330
knowledge accumulation and capabilities at individual and organizational level 333–6
legitimacy, flexibility and incentives 332
main considerations 330–1
necessity for capacity 325–6
organizational capacity 330, 332
performance-based definitions 327–9
sequencing capacity 329
weak capacity 336
see also capabilities
Cape Verde 93n, 174, 384, 722
demographic dividend 855, 860, 863, 869
capital:
account 143
account liberalization 217
account openness 64
accumulation 213
cushion 434
expenditure 379
inputs 515
long-term 663–4
market contracts 416
markets and capital mobilization 670
medium-term 663–4
mobility imperfections 206
monopoly capital 619
natural 705
private 4
real 567
social 244, 567
standard 434n
capitalism 404
carbon lock-in 275, 282
cash transfer programs 702n
catch-up strategies 274–5
Center for Global Development 805
Center for Population and Development 557
Central Africa 297, 511
demographic dividend 852, 855, 859, 863, 864, 868
financial inclusion 390–1, 392–3, 395, 400
Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CAEMC) 34, 90–2, 101, 116, 118–19, 124, 126–7, 174, 230n, 233
Central African Federation 763
Central African Republic 101, 116, 118, 181, 468
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
Central America 869
Central Asia 176n, 400, 446, 495, 681, 867, 869
central banking and monetary policy 156–69
approaches to policy implementation 164–5
central banking practices 158–9
fiscal dominance 160–1
independence 165–7
inflation drivers: exogeneity 159–60
inflation and growth dynamics 156–7
inflation levels, optimal 157–8
markets, depth of and monetary policy transmission, weak 161–4
regulatory mandates, overextension of 167–9
CFA franc zone 88–90, 99–101, 103, 107, 114–29, 133–4, 136–9, 141–53
basket pegging 126–7
CFP franc 114n
convertibility into the euro 114–16, 117, 121, 123n, 125, 127–8
crawling pegs 127
exchange rate options 125–8
fixed parity against the euro 116
flexible versus fixed exchange rate 119–21
floating exchange rates 127–8
foreign exchange reserves pooling 116
free capital mobility 116
French franc 114–16
French Ministry of Finance 117, 124
French Treasury (exchequer) 114, 117, 122, 123, 125
guarantee of convertibility by France 116
monetary union 116–17
operating rules 117, 123
optimum currency area (OCA) 117–19, 126, 128–9
West and Central African countries 114
Chad 101, 116, 182, 327, 468
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
media 607n, 614, 616, 617–18
child mortality 856, 858, 859–60, 875, 880–1, 885, 892–3
Chile 13, 254, 846
China 11, 59, 510
agriculture, growth and development 320
aid 706n, 786
commune system 312
current growth strategies 32, 33
debt and debt relief 200
demographic dividend 850
development banks 668–9, 806, 807
Eximbank 798, 806
fiscal policy 178
gender, health, growth and development 495, 584
infrastructure 381
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274, 278, 279, 280
international capital flows 752
media 609n
Shanghai Cooperative Organization Bank (proposed) 807
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 836, 846
structural change 258n, 268n
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 792–809, 815–27
bilateral development 801
bottleneck-releasing infrastructure 792, 801–2
China Africa Economic and Trade Co-operation 807
China’s foreign aid and its composition 798
clusters-based industrial parks/agglomeration 802–4
comparative advantage 820n, 823–4, 826
comparisons with other transition economies 819–23
concessional loans 802
development finance (DF) 804–8
distribution of foreign aid 798
dual-track approach 794–6, 821–2, 826
exploitation of advantage of backwardness 817–18
export structure: China 794
financial resources for foreign aid 798
Five-Year Plans 819
forms of foreign aid 798
global governance, importance of 806–7
government incentives 827
government interventions 819, 820
in-kind assistance 798n
income per capita 816–17, 822, 825
multilateralism 806
new groupings 806–7
One China principle 797
opportunities and finances 796–804, 825–6
other official flows (OOFs) 798, 804–5, 809
outward foreign direct investment (China) 803–4, 825
(p. 910) overseas development aid (ODA) 798–9, 804–5
parallel projects 806
partial reforms 794–6, 800–1
Party Congress (18th) 825
reasons for China’s growth failure before 1979 818–19
reasons for China’s performance in transition 816–18
South-South development cooperation (SSDC) 792, 796, 797–8, 804, 806, 807–8
special economic zones (SEZs) and industrial parks 792, 794–6, 800–1, 802, 808, 821–2, 824, 826–7
State Council Information Office White Paper on ‘China’s Foreign Aid’ 797–8, 807
tied aid 807
trilateralism 806
turnkey projects 798n
China-Africa Development Fund 381
China-Africa engagement 762–79
gold mining in Ghana: Chinese entrepreneurs/industrialists 762, 763, 773–7, 779
South Africa’s garment industry: private investment 762, 763, 768–73, 774–6, 779
TAZARA railway and state-led development (Zambia-Tanzania link) 762, 763–8, 774–6, 779
civil society organizations 349, 561
climate change 33, 161, 317, 374, 380, 873–5
aid: changing context 698, 703, 705
climate factors and malaria 516
cluster-based industrialization (CBI) 319, 321, 384, 706
Code of Personal Status (CPS) 588, 598
Cologne terms 189
Colombia 519
Commission for Africa 379
Commission on Growth and Development 817–18
commodity exports 701–2, 703
commodity prices 6, 51–3, 55, 58, 257
boom 40
commodity tax 151n
common central bank (CCB) 97–8, 107
Common External Tariff (CET) 225, 230
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) 34, 224–5, 227, 230, 234–5, 238, 240, 244
Common Monetary Area (CMA) of Southern Africa 89, 90–2, 94n, 99, 101–3
Comoros 182, 855, 859, 862, 868
comparative advantage 3, 10, 11–12, 13
agriculture, growth and development 320
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 795–7, 799, 807
foreign direct investment (FDI) 730
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 832
structural change 260
Comprehensive Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) 51, 315–16, 320, 321–2
conditionality 193, 198, 836
Condorcet Jury Theorem 608
Congo, Democratic Republic:
aid 781
central banking and monetary policy 157
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 863, 868
development banks 666
Ebola 505
fiscal policy 181–2
health, growth and development 496
infrastructure 380
malaria 514
media 614, 616, 618
Congo, Republic 116, 181–2, 862
connectivity 453–5
construction sector 46, 645
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) 282
consumer price index (CPI) 77–80, 136, 159
contagion and habit formation effects 216–17
convergence 34, 92–3, 118, 236, 240, 320–1, 840
(p. 911) coordination problems 10, 150–1, 265, 268, 269, 474
corporate bond financing 384–5, 417
corporate governance 672–4
corporate income taxes 181–2
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 756
corruption 4, 179, 215, 839–40, 843
aid 786
development banks 665, 675
gold mining and economic and social change 348
infrastructure 379
international capital flows 752, 753, 756
media 615–16, 618, 621, 622
Costa Rica 389
Côte d’Ivoire 6, 258, 327, 830
CFA franc zone 116, 118, 126
cocoa exports 144n
current growth strategies 33n
demographic dividend 855, 860, 863, 869
development banks 666
education 468, 469, 471
financial inclusion 389
financial markets development 405–6, 414
gold mining and economic and social change 342
health, growth and development 502–3
infrastructure 375n
media 607n, 610, 614, 616, 617–18
monetary unions 100–1, 105, 108–9, 143
Cotonou agreement 222
Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) score 173
Cox proportional hazard models 542n, 543–5, 547, 550–1
credibility issues 131, 142, 144–5
credit:
micro-credit 565
private 66, 162, 384
cultural factors 453, 567
see also marriage
currency:
convertibility 217
pegs, ‘hard’ 89
permitted specialization 347
use 88
Customs and Monetary Union 227, 228, 229
customs union 94, 227, 228, 230, 233
de-industrialization 58, 831
debt and debt relief 186–202
DATA (Debt, Aid, Trade, Africa) 194
debt accumulation (1970-2000): initial conditions 187
debt audits 199
debt campaigns 199
debt overhang 190, 197
Debt Sustainability Framework funnels 202
debt sustainability thresholds 192
‘Drop the Debt’ 194
effects of debt relief 196–8
external debt service 196
‘Financing versus Forgiving a Debt Overhang’ 190
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief initiative 186, 191–8, 200
international sovereign bond issuance 201
Live 8 194
Live Aid 194
lost decade 187–8
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) 192, 194–6, 200
odious debts 199, 215
Paris Club 188–9, 190–2, 195, 197–8, 200
timeline 195
debt to GDP ratio 138, 187–8
deficit financing restriction 161
Deloitte and Touche: Tough Choices Facing the South African Mining Industry report (2013) 756n
democracy level 751–2
democratizing tendencies 349–50
demographic dividend 849–71
African advantage in timing 860–5
childhood mortality trends 859–60
counter-intuitive fact of pre-decline increases in fertility 865–6
countries classified according to potential for fertility decline 864
couple protection rates (CPRs) 862–3, 865
economics 850–3
female 867, 869
fertility and contraceptive use trends 862–3
fertility decline preconditions 857–60
(p. 912) high couple protection rates (CPR)/high unmet need for family planning (FP) 863, 864
high couple protection rates (CPR)/low unmet need for family planning (FP) 861, 863, 864
labor force participation 856, 867–8
labor force participation: gender differences 868–9, 870
low couple protection rates (CPR)/high unmet need for family planning (FP) 863–4
low couple protection rates (CPR)/low unmet need for family planning (FP) 864
magnifying demographic dividend: Africa’s relative advantage 866–9
mortality decline as precondition for fertility decline 857–60
natural fertility 865
prospects 854–69
second 852
total fertility rates (TFRs) 862–3, 865–6
trends in emergence 854–7
under five mortality rate 859–60
unmet need for family planning (FP) 862–3
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) 41, 47–9, 55, 350, 852, 865
demographic theory 601
demographic transition and economic prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa 873–93
adverse implications for high fertility rates 876–80
arable land to population ratio 876–7
demographic exceptionalism 880–5
economic progress and continuing risks 874–6
human capital: investment per child 878–9
hypotheses regarding delayed transition 884–5
infrastructure per person 879
policy implications 892–3
population history and projections 883
simulation model of accelerated transition 885–90
simulation results 890–2
total factor productivity (TFP) 879–80
youth-dependency ratio 877–8
Denmark 776
dependency ratios 849–51, 853–4, 856, 858, 867, 875, 877–8
depreciation 70, 737, 780
deregulation 448–9
devaluation 24, 123–4, 125, 140–1, 144–7
Development Aid Program 691
Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) 806
development banks 663–76
capital markets and capital mobilization 670
case in favor of 665–7
corporate governance 672–4
development financial institutions and extent of state ownership 666
direct participation 665
incentives 666
official development assistance (ODA) and real GDP growth in sub-Saharan Africa 669
performance 671–2
political interference 672–4
savings, capital flight and development 210–11
state interventions 664
state ownership 664–7, 671–2, 674–6
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 844–5
sub-Saharan Africa 667–8
transparency 673
universal banking 670–1
Development Dialogue 559
development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 629–40
advocacy: achieving change indirectly 629, 631–4, 639
capacity building 629, 630, 639
collective action 631, 633–4
(p. 913) difference-in-differences (diff-in-diff) approach 630, 633, 635, 638
essential heterogeneity 635n, 636, 639–40
experimental data 634
observational data 633–4, 637–8, 639–40
outcomes, improved 631
qualitative methods 630
randomized control trials (RCTs) 629–30, 632, 633–4, 635–6, 638–9
regression analysis 633–4
service delivery: imperfect control 630, 635–9
total program effect (TPE) 637–8
Diamond paradox 359n
diaspora bonds 670, 716
difference-in-differences (diff-in-diff) approach 630, 633, 635, 638, 652
disease burden 880, 885
diseases 502, 503, 504
Ebola virus 504–5
schistosomiasis 503
see also HIV/AIDS; malaria
disinflation 143
divergence 840
diversification 254–5, 318, 702
negative 14
Djibouti 468, 855, 859, 862, 868
dual economy theories 308–9
Dutch disease:
aid 700, 701, 790
gold mining and economic and social change 348
international capital flows 753–4
monetary unions 140
natural resources 254
remittances 711, 719, 721–2, 723
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 846
structural change 263, 265
dynamic reallocation effect (cross term or interaction term) 45–6
dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models 82–3
Ease of Doing Business Index (World Bank) 13, 32, 242–3, 264n, 445–6, 650n, 690, 742
China’s rise and structural transformation 821n, 822n, 824n
East Africa 70–1, 278
demographic dividend 855, 859, 861, 863, 864–5, 867, 868
education 471
financial inclusion 393, 395, 397, 400
financial markets development 413, 419
infrastructure 374
land tenure and agricultural intensification 290, 297, 298, 314
maize 312
mobility, human capital and remittances 490
monetary transmission mechanism 71
Twaweza NGO 631–4
East African Community (EAC) 34, 69–70, 92–3, 103–7, 112, 228, 230, 235, 236n, 238, 244
East African Cross Border Payment System 93
East African Monetary Institute (EAMI) 92
East African Monetary Union (EAMU) 103–4, 106–7, 112
East Asia 8, 157, 176n, 497, 578, 808, 825–7
aid: changing context 703
demographic dividend 850, 869
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274, 283
savings, capital flight and development 209
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 831, 834n, 844
structural change 42, 267
East Asia and the Pacific (EAP) 400, 446, 495, 682
East Asian financial crisis 815, 836
Eastern Europe 153, 681, 689, 807, 869
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) 682
Priority Program for Economic Recovery (APPER) 29
Economic Community for Central African States (ECCAS) 224
(p. 914) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 34, 93–5, 107, 109–10, 224, 228, 230–1, 234–5, 238–40
Monetary Cooperation Programme 94
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCC) 225, 227
economic policy as strategic selection 14–16
Economist, The 779n
Ecuador 199
education:
aid: changing context 698, 700, 704
capacity development for transformation 333–4, 336
demographic dividend 850, 852, 856
demographic transition and economic prospects 875, 878–9, 885–6, 888–9, 892–3
employment shares 55, 56, 58–9
gender economics in North Africa 589–90
health, growth and development 494, 495–6, 497, 501–2, 504
indicator improvements 4
information technology: economic impacts 361, 364
international capital flows 750
media 614n
mobility, human capital and remittances 483, 484, 487–8
remittances 714, 720, 722, 723
structural change 48, 49
and training for tourism 264–5
women and gender 559n, 560, 561, 563, 567
Egypt 474, 559, 666, 781, 825
demographic dividend 856, 859, 862, 868
financial markets development 405–6, 414
fiscal policy 175, 178, 181
Freedom and Justice party 425n
Islamic finance 425, 427, 429
Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS) 534, 540, 551
Mit Ghamr financial institution 428
El Azhar school 427n
El Salvador 199
embezzlement 213, 215, 219
emerging markets (EMs) 317, 702, 736, 752
employment:
changes 50
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 796n
creation and structural transformation 796n
distribution 43–4
and foreign direct investment (FDI) 741
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274
international capital flows 753
labor force participation 41, 591, 887
status 50
structure 49, 819
Employment Protection Legislation measures (World Bank Doing Business (DB) survey) 647–9
Enda Third World (NGO) 563
endogeneity problems 699, 787n
endogenous policy credibility model 82
endowment structures 11
energy sector 159, 257, 703, 801–2
Enterprise Data Surveys 391n
Equatorial Guinea 103, 157, 193, 468
CFA franc zone 116, 118
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
fiscal policy 180, 182
equilibrium condition 71–2
Equity Bank 415
Eritrea 468, 473, 855, 859, 862, 868
Ethiopia 157, 243, 359, 607n, 781
Addis Ababa Expressway 802
Audience Survey (ERIS) 614
capacity development for transformation 327, 337
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 804, 825
cut flowers 15, 824, 826
data problems 47, 48
debt and debt relief 187–8
(p. 915) demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 863, 865, 868
development banks 670
education 470–1, 473
financial inclusion 395
Huajian Shoe Factory 803, 824, 826
land tenure and agricultural intensification 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 300, 303
leather sector 59
structural change 258, 262n, 830, 832, 836, 843–4
Euro-Med Agreements 222n
Eurobond holders 200
Europe 3, 59, 115, 176n, 510, 767
banks 6
demographic dividend 869
financial inclusion 400
financial markets development 410
health, growth and development 495
media 609n, 612n, 613, 614, 621n
mobility, human capital and remittances 480–1, 490
monetary unions 131, 133
regional integration 224–5
regulatory reform and competitiveness 446
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 838, 844n
structural change 42
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 231
European Development Fund (EDF) 25, 565
European Partnership Agreements 33, 222n
European Union (EU) 118
euro 147, 153
Farmers Income Diversification Program (FIDP) 705n
fiscal policy 173
growth strategies 25
mobility, human capital and remittances 491
monetary unions 92, 153
regional integration 225n, 231, 234, 236–7
Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) 111–12
European Union (EU)-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund 381
Eurozone 111–12, 125, 782
Eurozone crisis 147, 788
Everything but Arms (EBA) 222–3
excess liquidity syndrome 668
exchange rate 5, 74–5, 131
appreciation and structural change 263
CFA franc zone 125–8
classification and monetary policy issues in sub-Saharan Africa 64
devaluation 140
equilibrium 137
fixed 63, 124–5
flexible versus fixed 119–21
floating or managed 68, 92
gender, growth and development 583
interventions as separate instrument of monetary policy 74–5
liberalization 28
misalignment 142
nominal 119
overvalued 63, 136–9
protection and structural change 266
remittances 716–17
savings, capital flight and development 216
stability from monetary policy perspective 74
union 88
Export-Import Bank 845
export-processing zones (EPZs) 267, 737
export-weighted index 127
export(s):
aid 700
bilateral 751
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 793
commodity 701–2, 703
credits 692
debt and debt relief 187
decrease 144n
or government revenue ratios 192
of manufactured goods 560–1
monetary unions 135, 146
non-traditional 262
push 266, 269
(p. 916) regional integration 236, 241
revenue loss 137
structural change 260, 263–4, 265
subsidies 143
window 192
expropriation 217
externality problems 10
extortion 217
extract, pollute, export (EPE) 756
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) 255, 349, 756
extractive sector 736–7, 748, 752, 756, 781
factor endowments 10, 793, 797, 800
family planning/contraception 497, 561, 852, 860–1, 866–7, 884–5, 890, 892–3
Feminist Economics 571n
fertility:
demographic transition and economic prospects 873, 875–87, 893
gender economics 592–5
health, growth and development 497, 498, 499, 500–1
malaria 515–16
preconditions for decline 857–60
women and gender 558, 561, 563
Final Act of Lagos (FAL) 26, 313
finance:
and infrastructure 379–82
medium- and long-term 667, 668–71
private 380
finance-growth nexus models 404
financial inclusion 388–97, 400, 439
account penetration 391
affordability 391n
agricultural insurance purchase 395
asset accumulation 392
bank accounts 389, 390
commitment savings account 394
community savings groups 397
definition 390–2
formal credit 391, 394
formal savings 391, 394
gender factors 394
government interventions 389
income redistribution 393–4
informal channels 392–5, 397
insurance 394–5
kinship networks 393
mobile banking 396, 397
opportunities 395–6
resource sharing 393–4
savings 396
savings clubs 392
savings constraints 389
sources of credit as savings methods 393
under the mattress savings 392
financial institutions 429, 664
financial intermediaries 384, 411, 415
financial liberalization 205, 214, 217, 673, 844
financial markets development 401–20
architectural (infrastructural) adequacy 404–5
bank credit provision 413–14
banking industry indicators of economic relevance 414–15
bridge equity capital 408–9
clearing and settlement system 406–7
competitiveness of banking industry 413
credit to private sector 414
debt capacity 414–15
debt markets 419–20
economic relevance 402, 404–5, 413–14
efficiency (liquidity) 404
equity capital 404
ICT facility 406
improvement of stock markets 407–8
industry competitiveness 414
infrastructure support indicators of stock markets 406–7
interest rate spread 414
international capital flows 755
legal environment 406–7
liquidity enhancement 407–8
liquidity facility 403, 416, 420
listed firms 405
market capitalization 405
price discovery 403
(p. 917) primary market 403
private debt (banking industry) markets 402, 411–16
private equity (venture capital) market 402, 408–11, 419
public debt (bond) market 402, 416–19
public equity markets 402, 403–8
public pension fund 407–8
public stock markets 419
secondary markets for collaterizable assets 416
size 404, 407–8
stock exchanges 408
stock market capitalism 407
stock market indicators of economic relevance 405
traded value 405
trading system 406–7
turnover ratio 405
virtual integration of bourses 408
Financial Programming 71
financial reform index 66n
financial reporting and disclosure 408
financial sector reforms 837–8
financial services 163, 735
financing need 97–8
firm, theory of 741
fiscal austerity measures 210
fiscal deficit 161, 171
fiscal dominance 160–1
fiscal federalism 119
fiscal policy 120, 171–83
during business cycles 172–3
government revenues, sources of 179–83
natural resources 251–3, 255
public finance management 173–5
public spending 175–9
fiscal revenue cuts 24
fiscal rules 174–5
fiscal sustainability 138
fiscal theory of the price level (FTPL) 75n
fiscal window 192
fixed sample search and firm cost heterogeneity model 358n
FLG model of learning 279–82
flying geese model 794
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 297–8, 577, 806
Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) 806
food price crisis (2008) 317
food price shocks 77–81, 82
domestic demand pressures 80
domestic shocks to food production 78
food prices and inflation structure 77–8, 159
international shocks 78–80
month inflation dynamics 79
relative food prices 79
response to increase in food prices 80–1
food sector 561, 701–2, 886
Ford Foundation 281, 598
forecasting and policy analysis systems (FPAS) 83
foreign aid see aid
foreign direct investment (FDI) 727–42, 747–50, 752
agriculture, growth and development 317
anti-foreign investment approaches 733
behavioral theory of the firm 730
benefits and costs 734
business school approach 733
capital theory tradition 728, 729
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 795
China-Africa engagement 777–8
constraints 737
dependence approach 733
determinants/motivating factors 738–40
differential currency areas and effect of exchange rates theory 730
differential rate of return hypothesis 729
dynamic approaches to flows and international production - market imperfections 728, 731–3
eclectic paradigm (OLI framework) 728, 730–1
and economic growth in host countries 754–5
effects on African economies 740–1
fiscal policy 182
five stages model 731–2
foreign aid 739
greenfield 754
human resources development, productivity and cost 740
Hymer-Kindleberger hypothesis/monopolistic advantage theory 728, 730
incentives 737–8
industry technology cycle theory 730
inflows by region 735
infrastructure development 739
innovation 729
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 273, 275
institutional factors 739–40
integration-responsiveness perspective (I-R paradigm) 728, 732–3
internalization theory 728, 730
international trade tradition/factor endowments model 728, 729
intra-African investment 736, 742
investment climate 739–40
investment development path (IDP)/cycle or dynamic approach to OLI paradigm 728, 732
Kojima Macroeconomic Approach 729
macroeconomic factors 738–9
market imperfections and industrial organization theories - assuming imperfect markets 728, 730–1
market power school 730
Marxist (radical) approach 733–4
maturity 729
modernization school 734
Mundell and Hecksher-Ohlin model 729
nationalist approach 733
natural resources 250, 740
neo-traditionalist approach 733
neoclassical theories - assuming perfect markets 728, 729
oligopolistic behavior theory 730
operational flexibility 732
policy implications and outlook/prospects 741–2
political economy of aid 690
portfolio theory 729
pro-foreign investment approaches 733
product cycle model 729
regional integration 224, 243
remittances 712
risk diversification theory 729
savings, capital flight and development 213
Scandinavian/Uppsala School or internationalization theory - network approach or evolutionary approach 728, 731
standardization 729
static theories/models 728, 729–31
stocks 734–7
strategic flexibility 732
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 831, 832
structural change 262, 265, 266–8
taxonomy of approaches 733–4
theoretical perspectives 727–33
three-stage internationalization process model 731
traditional economic approach 733
trends, patterns and characteristics 734–7
foreign-exchange (FX) interventions 74–5
Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) 33
fragile states 330, 380, 384, 704
France 195n, 225n, 344–5, 765, 766, 819n
aid 781
international capital flows 751
monetary unions 134, 152, 153
Presstalis 617
Free Trade Area (FTA) 94, 227–31, 236–7, 241–2, 244, 737
future generation funds 252
G5 countries 122
G7 summit 189, 191
G8 countries 249, 381
G20 countries 249
Gabon 105, 116, 329, 601
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
fiscal policy 180, 182
Gallup 390n
(p. 919) Gambia 610
demographic dividend 855, 860, 863, 869
education 468, 473
monetary unions 93, 94, 108–9
Gates Foundation Family Planning (FP) 20/20 initiative 864, 866
GDP 239
agriculture, growth and development 307, 318–19
aid 689, 693, 700, 784, 788
central banking and monetary policy 161
CFA franc zone 118, 126
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 807, 815, 820
debt and debt relief 187, 188, 193, 196–7, 200
demographic dividend 850, 869
demographic transition and economic prospects 878–9
development banks 663
financial markets development 411, 413
fiscal policy 174n, 178, 179, 181
flexible monetary targeting 72
foreign direct investment (FDI) 734
gender, health, growth and development 505, 578, 579
growth rates 4, 122, 134, 687
infrastructure 373, 376, 379, 380, 381, 383
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274
international capital flows 747, 749
land tenure and agricultural intensification 299
malaria 515
mobility, human capital and remittances 483
monetary policy in sub-Saharan Africa 66
monetary unions 90–1, 99, 103, 105, 107, 151
real 164, 669
regional integration 233, 237, 239, 240
regulatory reform and competitiveness 443
remittances 711, 722
savings, capital flight and development 205, 213
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 830–1, 832, 834
structural change 258, 262, 263
GDP per capita:
demographic transition and economic prospects 877–8, 886–7, 888, 890–1
foreign direct investment (FDI) 732, 738
gold mining and economic and social change 348
health, growth and development 500
Islamic finance 429
malaria 516
measures of annual income 482
structural change 43–4
gender economics in North Africa 588–601
age structure 599
asset ownership 588
birth rates 598–9
demographic transition 589, 600–1
economic empowerment 588, 600
economic inequality 590
education 589–90, 591, 593, 596–8, 600
family planning and family law 588, 590, 598–9, 600
fertility 588, 589, 591, 592–5, 599–600, 601
gender equality 591, 592–8
gender-equality paradox 598, 600
health 590–5, 598, 600
historical trajectories of relevant indicators 592–7
labor force participation 589, 591, 593, 595–6, 597, 600
legal empowerment 598, 600, 601
life expectancy 590, 593
microeconomic theory 588
Millennium Development Goals (MDG 3) 597–8
mortality 588, 594, 600
mortality, adult 593–4
mortality, child 591, 594–5
mortality, infant 590
mortality, maternal 590, 593–4
political empowerment/participation 588–9, 597–8, 600, 601
population growth/policy 588, 590, 593
social inequality 590
social status 599
women, role of in development 589–91
(p. 920) gender factors:
employment shares 55, 56
foreign direct investment (FDI) 741
health, growth and development 499
marriage 534–5, 547–8
remittances 720, 723
structural change 48–50
gender gaps 465–7, 470–1, 475
gender, growth and development in sub-Saharan Africa 571–85
access to inputs 577
assets 573–4, 579
bargaining power 578–9
capabilities 573, 575, 577–8, 579
children’s future productivity 572
children’s well-being 578–9, 581–2
credit, access to 573, 575, 577, 581–2
division of labor 572–3
education 572–4, 578–9, 581
employer bias 574
employment 573
empowerment/agency 573
feminist economics 572, 574
fertility 574, 578–9
fiscal policy 581–2
gender inequality 572, 573–80
gendered macro-models 577–80
health care and nutrition 572–3, 581
human capacity development 572
investments in children 574
labor force participation 578–80
land rights 577
livelihoods 573, 575, 577
macro-level policies 580–5
macroeconomic theories/models 571–4, 577
microeconomic level policies 573, 580, 584
monetary policy 582–3
social norms/pressure 574
stabilization 574–7
time burdens 572
trade and investment policies 583–4
unpaid labor burden 572, 579, 581
wages 573–81
well-being 580, 582
gender parity 723
generalized model of moments (GMM) estimations 590
generalized system of preferences (GSPs) 222
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) 432n
Germany 119, 195n, 764, 766, 819n
aid 781
savings banks 428
trade unions 651
Ghana 5
aid 780, 782
capacity development for transformation 337
central banking and monetary policy 157, 158, 165, 167
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 802
China-Africa engagement 763, 765, 777
country-specific growth strategies 26–7
current growth strategies 33n
debt and debt relief 187, 200
demographic dividend 855, 860, 863, 869
development banks 666, 667, 668, 670
education 471, 473
financial inclusion 394–5
financial markets development 405–6, 408, 414
five-year development plan 24
fruit processing 59
gold mining: Chinese entrepreneurs/industrialists 762, 773–7, 779
gold mining and economic and social change 340, 342, 343–4, 345, 349
health, growth and development 496, 502–3
land tenure and agricultural intensification 292, 293, 295, 297, 298
media 607n, 609
mobility, human capital and remittances 482–3, 484, 488–90
monetary policy 63, 82
monetary unions 93, 108–9
Peace Corps program 483
remittances 716, 719
structural change 258, 260, 262n, 830
ten-year consecutive development plans 24
(p. 921) trade unions 651–2
Washington Consensus 29
women and gender 563
Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 443, 444–5
global financial crisis (2008-9) 1–3, 14, 199
fiscal policy 172–3
savings, capital flight and development 204, 209
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 837, 839, 843–4
Global Financial Inclusion (Findex) database 390n
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATAM) 509–11, 512, 519, 526, 781
global governance, importance of 806–7
Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) 512n
Global Structural Transformation (GST) Fund 807, 809
global value chains 583, 702, 705, 742
globalization 316–17, 453–4, 698
Gold Coast 610, 703
gold mining and economic and social change in West Africa 340–51
1700-1850 (slave trade and New World bullion) 341, 343
Akan region/empire 342–3, 344, 346
AngloGold Asante 342, 345
Asante region 340, 343, 346–7, 348
Bambouk region 342, 344, 346
Birimian greenstone belt 342
Bouré region 342, 344, 346
colonial period proper 341, 344–5
deep shaft mines 342
late 1800s 341, 343–4
lineage groups 346
local social change 349–50
medieval period (1300-1700) 341, 342–3
Obuasi Gold Mine 342
post-independence period 341, 345–6
production techniques 341–2
state formation 346–8
state functioning 348–9
good governance (GG) agenda 839–41, 844, 846
governance 51, 55, 58, 207, 213, 215–16
economic and political 757
global 806–7
government:
accountability and the media 620, 622
activism 276
agriculture, growth and development 310–12, 315
-associated bank financing model 415–16
budget constraint 215
consumption 124
failures 8
intervention 165–6, 310–12, 672–4, 838, 844
and personal services 46
policies and demographic dividend 852–3
revenues, sources of 179–83
spending and human development 177
stability 753
government research institutes (GRIs) 279, 281
GPG model 279–82
Gravity Model 90, 92, 240
Greece 788
‘green growth’ 33, 34, 275, 282, 283, 703, 705
Green Revolution 281, 293, 311, 320, 322, 842n
Groningen Growth and Development Center (GGDC) 43n, 45, 47
gross national income (GNI) 35, 187, 375n, 512, 702, 798–9
aid 780, 782, 789
gross national product (GNP) 225, 784
Growth Report 9
growth strategies 23–35
current strategies 31–3
early post-independence 25–7
outlook and prospects for future strategies 34–5
post-Washington Consensus 29–31
pre-independence 24–5
Washington Consensus 23–4, 28–9
(p. 922) Guinea 327, 468, 607n, 620
demographic dividend 856, 860, 863, 869
gold mining and economic and social change 342, 345, 349
monetary unions 93, 94, 108–9
Guinea-Bissau 103, 116, 559n
demographic dividend 856, 860, 863, 869
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 229, 230
countries 424, 425n, 691
Guyana 193n
hard (physical) infrastructure 232n, 237, 242–3, 382, 445, 455, 663, 668, 817, 823
China-Africa engagement 778
development 35
fiscal policy 177
gender, growth and development 581
Harrod-Domar growth model 747–9, 757, 780, 783
health, growth and development 494–505
activities of daily living (ADL) 499
age-specific survival probabilities 499
analytical concepts 501
birth rate 500–1
body mass index (BMI) 502–3
conceptual issues 499
diseases 502, 503, 504
education 494, 495–6, 497, 501–2, 504
family planning/contraception 497
fertility 497, 498, 499, 500–1
headcount index 495
height 502–3
HIV/AIDS pandemic 495, 500, 504–5
human capital 495, 497–8, 500, 501–2, 504, 505
income effects on health 494, 499–503, 504
life expectancy 495, 496, 499, 500–1, 504
macro-level 501–2
micro-level 501–2
mortality 499, 500–1
mortality, child 497–8, 501
mortality, infant 498, 500–1
mortality, maternal 501
nutritional status 499, 503, 504
poverty levels 495, 499, 504
production function 501
welfare outcomes 494, 495, 498–9
health and healthcare 590–1
aid: changing context 698, 700
children 591
demographic dividend 852
demographic transition and economic prospects 873, 879, 892–3
gender economics 563, 567, 592–5
health indicator improvements 4
international capital flows 750
malaria 516
programs 321
remittances 720–2, 723
spending 178
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief initiative 186, 191–8, 200, 874
Heckscher-Ohlin model 797
heterodox models 578, 579
high-income countries 278, 393, 400
HIV/AIDS 495, 500, 504–5, 704, 856, 858, 866
Hong Kong 770, 774, 826
household consumption smoothing 720, 723
Household Surveys 43n, 645n
human:
capital investments, procyclical 469
human capital 35, 58, 474, 483, 850
accumulation and education 466, 468, 471, 474, 475
accumulation and malaria 516, 517
and aid 704–5
capacity development for transformation 333–4
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 793, 796, 797
demographic dividend 871
demographic transition and economic prospects 886–9
development and aid 781
earning function (Mincer wage equation (MWE)) 462–3, 464n, 486–7
foreign direct investment (FDI) 736
gender economics 590–1
(p. 923) gender, health, growth and development 495, 497–8, 500–2, 504–5, 579, 584
international capital flows 748, 750, 755, 756–7
investment per child 878–9
investments, procyclical 469
model of household decision-making 462
natural resources 252
and remittances 720–1, 723
human development and aid 698, 700, 704
human development index (HDI) 176–7
human development indicators 686
human resources development 572, 740
Hungary 823n
illegal or illicit financial flows see capital flight
Immigration Policy Center of the American Immigration Council 712
import duties 143, 144
import substitution 5, 7, 560, 822–3
import-substituting industrialization (ISI) 23, 27, 309–11, 318, 321, 686
import-weighted index 127
imports:
aid 699
intra-bloc 239
intra-regional 238
monetary unions 135, 145–6
quantitative restrictions 5
regional integration 235, 238, 241
inclusive economic development 428–31
income factors 40
agriculture, growth and development 318–19
aid 692
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 819
education 469–70
foreign direct investment (FDI) 741
international capital flows 751
malaria 516, 519
savings, capital flight and development 216
income per capita:
CFA franc zone 118
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 793–4, 797, 816–17, 822, 825
demographic dividend 850
malaria 515
remittances 714
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 830–1
structural change 44
income poverty rate 131
India 59, 258n, 842n
aid: changing context 705
current growth strategies 32, 33
demographic dividend 850, 853, 869
financial inclusion 389–90
fiscal policy 178, 180
information technology: economic impacts 362–3
infrastructure 381
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274, 279, 282
malaria 513, 519
mobility, human capital and remittances 482, 483, 490, 716
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 836
trade unions 656
Indonesia 255, 258n
induced innovation theory 299
Industrial Development Corporation 210–11
industrial parks see special economic zones (SEZs)
industrial policies 15, 269, 841–5
industrial structure 149, 742
industrialization 257, 265, 319–20, 321, 560
industry-led growth (1950s to 1970s) 308–11
inequality:
aid 686
demographic dividend 852–3
and infrastructure 375–6
inequality adjusted human development index (IHDI) 176–7
inflation 71, 96, 98, 160
aid 784
Barro-Gordon inflation bias 99, 103, 111
(p. 924) central banking and monetary policy 164–5
CFA franc zone 118, 119, 122, 123, 124
drivers: exogeneity 159–60
flexible monetary targeting 72
and food prices 77–8, 80
foreign direct investment (FDI) 738
and growth dynamics 156–7
levels, optimal 157–8
monetary policy 62–3, 65, 82
monetary unions 134
and output 163
reduction 165–6
remittances 716
time-consistent 97
trade unions in South Africa 643
inflation forecast targeting (IFT) 68
inflation targeting (IT) 582
informal sector:
agriculture, growth and development 320
and aid 690
and education 475n
financial services 392–5
fiscal policy 179–80
infrastructure 376
remittances 717, 719
South Africa 641, 659
see also services
information asymmetries 206, 419, 796
information and communications technology (ICT) 260, 274, 410, 419, 425, 706, 874
information technology: economic impacts 354–67
accountability and governance 365
agricultural sector 359, 362–3
challenges to measuring impact 365–6
coverage, adoption and usage (1998-2013) 355–7
data collection 361–2
education 359, 361, 364
emergency response 359
governance 359
information asymmetries and communication 357–60
information, demand uncertainty and coordination 359–60
interpersonal transfers 363
mobile health (m-health) 359
mobile money (m-money) and value-added services 356–7, 360–1, 363–4, 367
mobile phone coverage and adoption 354, 355–6
monetary policy in sub-Saharan Africa 68
monitoring and moral hazard in risk sharing 360
parks 267
payments and salaries 363–4
private information and market efficiency 357–8
quasi-public information 358–9
savings and financial services 361, 364
transfers 360–1
weather 359
infrastructure 4, 372–85, 456
access to infrastructure services, poverty and inequality 375–6
affordability/non-payment rates 376
agriculture and irrigation 374, 384
aid: changing context 698, 700, 701
bonds 418, 420
challenges 373–4, 382–5
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 793, 801, 805, 809
China-Africa engagement 779
competitiveness 445, 453–5
constraints, overcoming 382–5
corporate governance reforms 377–8
demographic transition and economic prospects 875, 879
development 15–16, 444, 669, 739
economic 177
education 372
financial markets development 415
financing 372, 379–82, 668
gender, growth and development 579
geographic and physical challenges 373, 374, 382
governance 377–9
health and health care 372
human 177
industries, services delivered by 452
(p. 925) information and communication technology (ICT) 375, 377, 378, 381, 383, 384, 454–5
institutions 374, 377–9, 383–4
international capital flows 748, 756–7, 758
intraregional connectivity 373
investment needs 372, 379–82, 703, 705–6
natural resources 252
networks 372
output 372
population distribution and size 373–4
ports 454
power/electricity/energy 373–9, 381–4
private utilities 377–8
public utilities 378
quality of regulation 378
rail networks 378, 381, 454
regional integration 374
regulatory reform 374, 377–9, 383–4, 445, 453–5
rehabilitation/preventive maintenance 383
road networks 377, 379, 383, 453–4, 663
rural areas 374–5
sanitation 378, 379, 382, 384
sectoral policy reforms 378
social 177
socioeconomic 755
soft (institutional) 237, 242–3, 378, 420, 445, 455, 663, 817, 823
structural change 264, 269
trade-related 177–8
urbanization 374–5
water utilities 374–9, 381–4
Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA) 381, 668
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 272–83
building innovation capabilities 277–82
capability failure 273, 276–7
economic dimension 272
environmental dimension 272
FLG model of learning 279–82
GPG model 279–82
latecomer advantages 274–5
market failure 276–7
role of innovation 273–4
social dimension 272
stages of learning and capability building 277–9
sustainability path 283
system failure 276–7
technological capabilities 282–3
Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP) 632
integrated rural development (IRD) projects 312
integration see regional integration
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) 195, 806
inter-generational transfers 251–2
interest rate(s) 6, 75–6, 205, 215, 687
channels 163
differentials 716–17
real 205
spreads 66, 162
International Accounting Standards (IAS) 432n
international capital flows 747–58
aid: donors’ self-interests, recipients’ needs or both 750–1
aid effectiveness 753–6
bilateral aid 751, 757
concessional loans 750
determinants: shaping outcomes 750–2
growth and poverty reduction 756–8
international bank lending 750
macroeconomic effects 752–6
multilateral initiatives 756
need for foreign capital 748–50
official development assistance (ODA) 749
official grants 750
portfolio flows 749–50
private capital flows 750
remittances 747–50
sectoral aid 753
(p. 926) international capital markets theory 741
International Decade of the Woman (1975-85) 562
International Development Association (IDA) 191, 193, 195–6, 198, 701n, 781
International Energy Agency 373n
International Finance Corporation (IFC) 268n
International Financial Institutions (IFIs) 563, 680, 684
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 432n
International Growth Centre Enterprise Maps 262n
International Islamic Liquidity Management (IILM) Corporation 437n
International Labor Organization (ILO) 646
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 281
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2–3
Article VIII of Articles of Agreement 66
CFA franc zone 118, 123
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 806, 807
China-Africa engagement 779n
Concessional Trust Funds 781
debt and debt relief 188n, 190, 191–3, 194, 197
exchange rate 74
financial markets development 402
fiscal policy 173
flexible monetary targeting 71–3
food price shocks 78
Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal Model (GIMF) 83
macro-economic stabilization policies 313
mobility, human capital and remittances 485
monetary policy in sub-Saharan Africa 63–4
monetary unions 88n, 138
political economy of aid 680–1, 684–5, 686–8, 690–1
remittances 717
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 831
women and gender 562
International Organization for Migration (IOM) 491
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 281
investment:
account deposits 432
banking 440
bilateral 381
deposits 434
and infrastructure 379–82
international capital flows 753
intra-regional 34
Investing in Investing 252
land tenure and agricultural intensification 292–3, 299
monetary unions 135
portfolio 716
private 381–2
risk reserve 436
social 563
structural change 264–5
Iran 424, 425n, 691
Iraq 365n, 684, 692
Ireland 613, 781, 850, 867
iron triangle (growth/inequality/poverty) 703, 704, 705, 707
Islamic Finance Gateway 424n
Islamic finance in North Africa (Shari’a compliance) 424–40
Amana banking 437, 440
consistency of Islamic finance principles with conventional banking regulation 433–6
demand for services 430
financial development and economic growth 429–30
Holding group 437–8, 440
Ibn Khaldun: economic thought and policy guidance 427–8
inclusive economic development 428–31
integrated financial system development: organizational framework 436–8
leasing-Ijara subsidiarity 437–8, 440
management fee 438
(p. 927) market challenges 430–1
materiality 433, 435, 440
mudaraba contracts 434n, 438, 440
mudarib (asset manager for account of asset) 434n, 438
musharak contracts 438, 440
no exploitation 433
no involvement in sinful activities 433
no Riba 433, 435–6, 440
pioneering modern Islamic finance 428
private banking 437–8
private equity management company 437–8
project financing 437–8
public policy lessons: dual financial systems framework 431–8
public policy’s role 426
Rab El Mal (owner of asset) 434n, 438
religious and cultural connection to finance 426, 427, 439
risk sharing 433, 434, 440
roots and features 426–31
Shari’a Advisory Boards 437
Sukuk certificate holders 431, 437
Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) 432n, 434n, 438
Islamist movements 688–9
Israel 410, 684, 692, 770
Italy 655, 781, 788
Jamaica 199
Japan 765, 766, 802, 825
aid 781
banks 6
debt and debt relief 195n
international capital flows 751
monetary unions 133
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 842
trade unions 651
Jordan 684, 691, 692
Jubilee 2000 194, 199
Kazakhstan 13
Kenya 6
aid 704, 782
capacity development for transformation 337
central banking and monetary policy 158–9, 165–7
current growth strategies 33n
debt and debt relief 187, 195
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
development banks 666, 670
development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 629, 631, 633
education 470, 473
financial inclusion 389, 393–4
financial markets development 405–6, 414, 415
fiscal policy 174
gender, health, growth and development 496, 577
horticulture 278, 824, 826
infrastructure 378, 384
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 273
land tenure and agricultural intensification 293, 295, 296, 297, 299–301
M-Pesa 356, 396, 719
M-Shwari 396
malaria 513, 518
mobility, human capital and remittances 484
monetary policy 68, 82
monetary unions 92, 103–7
Safaricom 396
structural adjustment/change 258, 260, 843
Keynesian/Kaleckian models 578
kinship system 884
knowledge 281, 334, 336
experiential 331, 731
tacit 799
Kuwait 105
Central Bank 432n
labor force participation 41, 591, 887
Labor Force Surveys 43n, 645n
labor productivity 136, 318, 578
Lagos Plan of Action (LPA) 26, 224, 313
land degradation assessment methodology (LADA) 298
(p. 928) land tenure and agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa 289–303
acquisitions of land 317
arable land 295–7
changing land use 294–9
conceptual framework 290–4
cultivated land 295, 297
deforestation 289
fallow periods 298, 300
farm size 294, 296–7, 299, 301
forest area 297
gift land 292
individualized tenure 290, 292–3, 299, 302
intensification of farming 292, 294
land management 291
land markets 291, 294, 299
land registration and certification 293–4
land renting 294, 301
land tenure system 291, 302
land titles or certificates 293, 302, 303
land use rights 291, 292, 302
land value increases 301
new farming systems 301
population pressure 292–300, 302
productivity 294, 299, 301
rural population, growth rate and arable land 295
scarcity of land 296
secure land tenure 292–3, 299
sedentary farming 292
soil degradation 298–9, 302
soil fertility 289, 300
soil management practices 300
state land policies 298
transfer rights 292
tree planting 300
uncultivated land 197–8, 302
landlocked countries 230, 232n, 233, 236, 373–4, 703
Laos 194, 822
Latin America 3, 6, 832n, 844
agriculture, growth and development 311, 320, 322
aid: changing context 702, 705
debt and debt relief 187, 189–90, 202
demographic dividend 850, 860
financial markets development 402
fiscal policy 176n, 182
gender economics 598
health, growth and development 498
information technology: economic impacts 354
infrastructure 378
regulatory reform and competitiveness 454
remittances 719
structural change 257, 263, 267
Latin America and the Caribbean:
(LAC) 25, 400, 446, 495, 497, 682
leapfrogging 274–5, 277–8, 279, 282–3
learning from others model 358n
Lesotho:
apparel 15, 824, 826
capacity development for transformation 329
current growth strategies 33n
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 863, 868
education 467
health, growth and development 496
monetary unions 94n, 101–2, 110–11
remittances 722
structural change 258
Lewis model 27, 308–9
liberalization 8, 30, 316–17, 820
financial 205, 214, 217, 673, 844
price 24
Liberia 93n, 241, 329, 468, 609
demographic dividend 852, 856, 860, 863, 869
land tenure and agricultural intensification 295, 297
Libya 180, 425n, 473
demographic dividend 856, 859, 862, 868
see also North Africa
life expectancy 4, 495–6, 499–501, 504, 704–5, 785n, 885
Lomé agreement 222
London Club 198
lost decade (1980s) 8, 187–8, 402
low-income agricultural economies (LIAEs) 576–7, 580
low-income countries (LICs) 69–70, 703–4
(p. 929) agriculture, growth and development 312–13
food price shocks 81
infrastructure 376, 378–81
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 278
international capital flows 750, 754
structural change 257
Lucas Paradox 753
macroeconomic factors 7, 571–3
and aid 784
and country-specific growth strategies 27
and foreign direct investment (FDI) 738–9
international capital flows 756
and malaria 516–17
and remittances 715–17, 722–3
macroeconomic stabilization 13, 30, 35, 254–5, 313–14
Madagascar 48, 182, 258, 327, 520, 704
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
Maghrebian Collective for Equality 566–7
malaria 502, 508–26, 885
Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm) program 509
Anopheline mosquitoes 511
antimalarial bed net 513
antimalarial drugs (ACTs) 509, 511, 512, 513, 526
asymptomatic 518–19
bed net coverage 514
behavioral model 520–1, 522
childhood malaria 511–12
cognitive impairment 516, 518–19
control strategies 509–14
coping strategies 518–19
cost analysis: direct, indirect and opportunity costs 517–20
cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment 509
demand and supply chain 513–14
demographic effects 515
drug resistance 511, 526
ecology index 520
economic epidemiology 520–7
economic impact 514–20
education 515–16, 517–20
eradication 515–16, 519, 526
exposure index 516
fees 520–1
financial constraints 512–13
Gates Malaria Forum 512
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATAM) 509–11, 512, 519, 526
Global Malaria Action Plan 512
human capital approach 517
implementation of control programs 512
incidence 508n, 511, 515
indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) 09, 511, 513, 526
insecticide resistance 513, 526
insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) 509, 511, 513, 514, 520, 522–6
long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) 509, 511, 513, 520, 522–6
long-term properties: conditions of persistence of malaria trap 524–5
McDonald and Ross malaria transmission model 521
macroeconomic effects: empirical studies 516–17
Malaria Atlas 514
mortality and morbidity 508–12, 516, 518, 520, 526
natural experiments 519–20
neoclassical approach 515–16
Plasmodium falciparum 508, 509, 510, 511, 512n, 516, 517, 519
Plasmodium knowlesi 508n
Plasmodium malariae 508n
Plasmodium ovale 508n
Plasmodium vivax 508, 519
poverty 515–16, 517, 520–2, 526
President’s Malaria Initiative 512
prevalence 508n, 511, 514, 524, 525, 526
prevention and treatment 515
productivity 517–19
recent history of malaria control 509–12
Roll Back Malaria (RMB) Partnership 512, 514
Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) 511
severe (cerebral) malaria (CM) 518
(p. 930) toxicity effect 519
transmission 518, 520, 521
value for money of control programs 512–13
World Bank Booster program 512
World Health Organization (WHO) Malaria Report (2012) 512
Malawi 167, 178, 327, 396, 468, 496, 706
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 868
Farmers Income Diversification Program (FIDP) 705n
financial inclusion 394, 395
land tenure and agricultural intensification 292, 295, 297, 298
monetary unions 110–11
Malaysia 255, 258n, 651–2, 706n, 846
Islamic finance 424, 425n, 432
Mali 116, 187, 327, 567, 804
cotton 314
demographic dividend 856, 860, 863, 864, 869
education 468, 469
gold mining and economic and social change 340, 342–3, 345–50
land tenure and agricultural intensification 295–8
malaria 518
mangoes 15, 824, 826
monetary unions 100–1, 103, 108–9
manufacturing sector 4, 41–2, 46
aid: changing context 706
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 795, 800, 804–5, 817–18, 824–7
demographic transition and economic prospects 886–7, 889
employment share 46
foreign direct investment (FDI) 735
international capital flows 754
South Africa 644–5
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 830–1
structural change 258–60, 261, 262, 263, 264
marketing boards 27, 310, 835, 837
marriage in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia 533–53, 550–1
actual marriage (dukhla) 540
age at marriage 534–6, 540, 542–5, 548, 547–8, 550–1
age difference between spouses 535, 537, 546–52, 551
asymmetric rights 533
bargaining power and ability to pay 533, 539, 540, 542, 546, 548
bride price (mahr) 540
bride’s side share of costs 542, 545, 546–53
consanguinity 534, 538, 541–2, 545–52
cultural variations 542
data 534
economic and social opportunities 534
education (spouses) 535, 538–50, 548, 550–1
employment 544, 546–7
engagement duration 539–40
extended families 539
formal engagement 540
furniture and appliances (cost) 540
gender factors 534–5, 547–8
housing costs 540, 541, 544, 548–9, 546–7
informal engagement 540
jewellery gifts to bride (shabka) 540
legal marriage (katb kitab) 540
migration 544–5, 546–7
natal families 546
nuclear residence 538–40, 542, 545–50, 547–8, 551
outcomes 533, 538–41, 545–9, 547
parents’ education 540, 542–50
parents’ employment/occupation 543–4, 547, 545–6
parents’ wealth 540, 541
patterns 548
place of residence 542
population structure 535, 537
prevalence and timing 534–7, 548
regional differences 538, 542
religion 545, 546
rural/urban areas 535, 538–42, 550
siblings 546
status of woman 542
(p. 931) tradeoffs 533
trousseau and home furnishings cost (gihaz) 540
universality of marriage 535
wedding celebration cost 540
Marshal Plan 781
Mauritania 329, 468, 856, 860, 863, 869
Mauritius 43n, 830, 843
capacity development for transformation 327
central banking and monetary policy 165
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 822–3, 825
demographic dividend 855, 858, 859, 862, 868
financial inclusion 390
financial markets development 405–6, 414
fiscal policy 174, 176n, 178, 182
gender, growth and development 576
infrastructure 373
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 274
regional integration 243
textiles 15
Maxwell Stamp Report 766n
media in sub-Saharan Africa 605–23
access to media 617–18
advertising market 615, 616, 618–20, 622–3
business model of newspapers 615–17
censorship 617
conceptual framework 608
consumer purchasing power, low/prices of newspapers 618, 620
corruption 615–16, 618, 621, 622
current state of media 612–18
Democratic Corporatist Model 613
distribution system/network 617
ethics codes 617n
extortion and coupage 616
extraction 618, 621
government accountability 620, 622
historical development 609–12
indigenous newspapers 610
Internet 619
language diversity/barriers 617, 621
Liberal Model 613
mass circulation press 613–15
media system models 612–13
national and local newspapers, synergies between 621
new model of economics of media 618–22
non-profit media organizations 621–2
operating costs 616
ownership concentration 620–1
paid journalism 616
philanthropy 622
Polarized Pluralist Model 613
Protestant missionaries and printing press technology 609–12
radio 607, 614, 617n, 621
sales levels 616
subsidies 621–2
television 607, 614, 617n, 619
Medium-Term Budget Frameworks (MTBF) 173
Medium-Term Budget Policy Statement (MTBPS) 174
Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) 173–4
Mexico 189, 281, 389, 519
natural resources 247, 254
trade unions 651–2
women and gender 561–2
micro-macro paradox 699, 700, 753
microeconomic approach 517, 588, 712–14, 722
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region 446, 466, 495, 683–92
gender economics 588, 590, 598, 600
Islamic finance 429, 430n
political economy of aid 682, 684–5
middle-class 320, 425, 702
middle-income countries (MICs) 257, 594, 703–4
aid 782, 789
foreign direct investment (FDI) 737, 740
infrastructure 378, 380, 383
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 276, 278
middle-income trap 273–4
(p. 932) migration 349, 544–5, 546–7
intercontinental 853
intraregional 853
rural to urban 851
military spending 178–9
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):
agriculture, growth and development 314–15
aid 698, 704, 788, 789
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 796n
demographic dividend 858
demographic transition and economic prospects 874
development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 635n
education 465
gender economics 589
infrastructure 379
international capital flows 747
malaria 508
Mincer regression equation 462–3, 464n, 486–7
mineral development agreements (MDAs) 250
mining sector 46, 644–5, 653, 658, 758, 825
Ministry of Performance, Monitoring and Evaluation (PME) 174
Mit Ghamr initiative 424, 428, 439
mobile phone banking 356–7, 415, 420
mobility, human capital and remittances 480–92
benefits to individual and to family 483
brain circulation 481, 484, 491
brain drain 481–4, 487–91
capital acquisition 481
Central Planner Problem 485–6
cost-benefit analysis and positive internal rate of retrun to brain drain 484–6
education 483–9
foot drain (football players) 489
home wages 482
human capital formation 483
income 482, 484
individual problem 485–6
internal rates of return (IRRs) 484–6, 490
legislation 481
migration 480, 481, 489–90
policy implications 490–1
population numbers 481, 490
rates of return 483–7
skills acquisition/improvement 481, 484
social security 487–8
tradeoffs 480–1
modernization 83–4, 538, 865–6
monetary policy issues in sub-Saharan Africa 62–84
aid and other external flows, management of 76–7
analytic frameworks 81–3
bank deposits, private credit and interest rate spreads 66
broad money growth and inflation 67
capital account openness 64
de facto policy 66
de jure policy 66–8
exchange rate 64, 74–5
fiscal and monetary policy interactions 75–6
food price shocks 77–81
inflation, growth and international reserves 65, 67
macro-variables for East Africa 70–1
monetary transmission mechanism (MTM) 69–71
money targeting 67, 71–3
pegs 67
recent analytical contributions 81–3
monetary unions 88–112, 130–53, 230
balance of payments deficit 142–4
Common Monetary Area (CMA) of Southern Africa 89, 90–2, 99, 101–3, 110–11
comparative performance 89–92
compatibility issue 139–41
consistency issue 140
coordination, lack of 150–1
(p. 933) correlation with average shock 100, 102, 109, 111
currency unions 88
devaluation 140–1, 144–7
East African Community (EAC) 92–3, 103–7, 112
East African Monetary Union (EAMU) 103–4, 106–7, 112
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 93–4, 95, 107, 109–10
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa 90–2, 101
Eurozone 111–12
existing monetary unions: viability 99–103
expansion of existing unions or creation of new ones 103–11
expectations, high and low 132–4
financing need 100, 102, 109, 111
fiscal asymmetry 100–1, 102, 104, 106
foreign aid 140–1
macroeconomic masochism 141–7
model for evaluation of desirability and feasibility of unions 95–9
calibration 98–9
equations and equilibria 96–8
monetary externality 100–1, 102, 104, 106
net gains/losses 100, 102, 104, 106, 108–9, 110, 111
optimum currency areas 147–50
overvaluation of exchange rates 136–9
public finance argument 150–2
real GDP growth, inflation and general government balance 91
regional GDP share 100, 102, 109, 111
seigniorage issue 151–2
shifting consumer preferences and adjustment 149
shock asymmetry 100–1, 102, 104, 106
situation before CFA devaluation 146
Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 101
Southern African Development Community (SADC) 94–5, 110–11
standards of living and real exchange rate 134–6
status of projects 92–5
symmetric monetary union 102
trade dividends, prevention of 139–41
validity 147–52
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) 90–2, 99–101, 103, 107–10
West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) 93–4
money targeting, flexible 71–3
MoneyGram 356n, 360
Mongolia 247
Monrovia Declaration of Commitments (MDC) 26
Monterrey Consensus 35
moral hazard 192n, 411n
Morocco 178, 429, 474, 782
demographic dividend 856, 859, 862, 868
family code (Muduwana) reform 568, 600n
financial inclusion 391, 394
financial markets development 405–6, 414
Household and Youth Survey (MHYS) 534
Justice and Development Party 425n
Justice and Spirituality Organization 688
mortality 499, 500–1
adult 856, 858, 866
child 497–8, 501
decline as precondition for fertility decline 857–60
demographic dividend 866
demographic transition and economic prospects 873, 875, 876, 881–2, 884, 886–7, 890, 893
gender economics 594
infant 498, 500–1, 700, 705, 751
malaria 508–12, 516, 518, 520, 526
maternal 501
under-5 704, 880, 882–3, 888–91
Mozambique 4, 855, 859
aid 705n, 781
capacity development for transformation 329
cashew nuts 59, 314
central banking and monetary policy 157
China-Africa engagement 765
(p. 934) current growth strategies 33n
debt and debt relief 193
demographic dividend 862, 868
employment shares 54–5
information technology: economic impacts 365
infrastructure 375n
land tenure and agricultural intensification 295, 297
media 616, 617, 620–1
monetary unions 110–11
structural adjustment policies 830
structural change 258, 262n
women and gender 559n, 564
multilateral assistance 565, 739, 756, 781, 806
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) 192, 194–6, 200
multilateral financial institutions 7, 8, 133
multilateral institutions 248–9, 379, 419
debt and debt relief 188, 194, 195, 200, 202
multinational enterprises (MNEs) 729, 730–1, 742, 756
multivariate regression models 533–4
municipal bonds 416–17, 418, 420
Muslim Brotherhood 688, 691
Myanmar 194, 825
Namibia 33n, 48, 327, 384–5
demographic dividend 855, 859, 862, 863, 868
financial markets development 405–6, 414
fiscal policy 174, 176n, 178
monetary unions 94n, 101–2, 110–11
O&L Groups 279
Naples Terms 192, 195n
National Development Strategy 336
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies: RePEAT data 300
nationalization 6
natural disasters 703
natural endowment 797, 800
Natural Resource Charter (NRC) 255
natural resources 247–55
aid 782, 790
assessment of available resources 248
avoidance of bundling deals 250
best deal and prices 248–50
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 793
China-Africa engagement 777
debt and debt relief 200
diversification of production and exports 254–5
domestic investment and domestic assets 252
effective utilization roadmap 248–55
fiscal policies 251–3
foreign direct investment (FDI) 734–6, 740, 741
geographical distribution 253
inter-generational transfers 251–2
international capital flows 752, 754, 755–7, 758
land tenure and agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa 289–90
negotiation of good contracts 249
production patterns 233
public spending efficiency increase 252–3
Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) 251–2
state institutions construction to prevent conflict and cessation movements 253
structural adjustment policies in Sub-Saharan Africa 830
structural change 257, 260, 263–4, 265
tax avoidance and transfer pricing 249–50
transfers or dividends to citizens, allocation of 254
transparent and competitive processes for exploration and extraction 248–9
Natural Resources Charter 247
neoclassical approach 3, 515–16, 574, 577–8, 600, 747
neocolonialism 778, 797
neoliberalism 688–90, 832n, 835n, 838–9, 841–2
Nepal 389
Netherlands 609, 630n, 635n, 781
(p. 935) New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) theory 713
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 31, 33, 224, 315, 747–9, 753
Democracy and Political Governance Initiative 757
Economic Governance Initiative 757
Secretariat 373n
New Social Contract (NSC) 686
New Structural Economics (NSE) 9, 172, 792–3, 800, 809 see also structural transformation; structuralism
new-Keynesian open economy models 82
NGO Forum at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing) 561–2
Niger 116, 347, 375n, 390, 396, 468
demographic dividend 856, 860, 863, 864, 869
information technology: economic impacts 362–3, 364
land tenure and agricultural intensification 289, 295, 296, 297, 298
monetary unions 100, 101, 108–9
Nigeria:
aid 703, 782
Boko Haram 179
Central Bank 432n
central banking and monetary policy 157, 167
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 825
China-Africa engagement 775
country-specific growth strategies 26
current growth strategies 33
debt and debt relief 195
demographic dividend 856, 860, 861, 863, 864, 869
development banks 666, 667, 670
education 468, 473, 474
financial markets development 405–6, 410, 414, 415
fiscal policy 174, 180, 182
health, growth and development 496
information technology: economic impacts 359
infrastructure 376
innovation capabilities for sustainable development 279
land tenure and agricultural intensification 295, 297
Lumina Foundation 614
malaria 518
media 609, 610, 614, 615, 619
mobility, human capital and remittances 483, 490
monetary unions 93, 105, 108–9, 144
remittances 719
Ten-year Plan of Development and Welfare 24
trade unions 656
nominal anchor approach 121, 125
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 249, 562–3, 756n, 807
debt and debt relief 186, 193, 201
non-tariff barriers (NTBs) 92, 142, 237, 244, 690
North Africa 4
aid: changing context 703
central banking and monetary policy 161
demographic dividend 852, 856, 858, 859, 861, 864, 868
financial inclusion 391–3, 395, 400
financial markets development 413, 419
gold mining and economic and social change 342
international capital flows 750
media 605n
terrorist activities of al-Qaeda 179
women and gender 559
North America 42, 609n, 612n, 613, 869
Norway 755, 781
Government Pension Fund (GPF) 805
NorFund 805
nutrition 273, 499, 503, 504, 720, 723, 879
official development assistance (ODA) 209, 213, 381, 669, 698, 707, 739
oil:
aid 105, 118, 777, 782
curse 101
exporting countries 107, 180, 182, 701
importing countries 701
shocks (1970s) 26, 27, 187, 310, 424–5
oil-rich countries 161, 208–9, 213, 219
Open Budget Survey of the International Budget Partnership (IBP) 175
optimum currency area (OCA) 95, 98, 99, 117–19, 126, 147–50
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 29, 224–5, 313
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD):
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 798–9, 809
Competitiveness and Growth: Integration of question of equality of men and women 565
database and remittances 712
debt and debt relief 189, 200
Development Assistance Committee 755
Development Center 567
fiscal policy 180, 181, 182
food price shocks 77
high-income countries and regulatory reform and competitiveness 445–6
international capital flows 756
regional integration 223
structural change 261, 266
trade unions 648
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 704, 706, 797, 805, 807
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel 6, 133
original brand manufacturing (OBM) 278
original design manufacturing (ODM) 278
original equipment manufacturing (OEM) 273, 277–8
output 98
effects 515
gaps 71
growth 780
stabilization and inflation 160
overlapping generations model (OGM) 783, 785
overseas development assistance (ODA) 173n, 410, 698, 702, 707, 712, 781–2, 788–9, 798–9, 804–5
overvaluation 266
Oxfam 193n
Pakistan 482, 684, 842n
Pan-Arab Free Trade Area (PAFTA) 228, 230, 233–8, 240
Paris Club 147, 188–9, 190–2, 195, 197–8, 200
patent laws 842
patriarchal societies 590, 600
Peace Research Institution (Oslo) 188n
Penn World Tables 889
performance index 178
performance-based budgeting (PBB) 173
Permanent Income Hypothesis (PIH) 252
petrodollars 6, 133
Philippines 199, 258n, 281, 482, 490
Phillips curve 78, 96, 97–8
physical capital 474, 700, 783
China-Africa cooperation in structural transformation 793, 796, 797
gender, growth and development 578, 579
remittances 721, 723
Plaza Accord 122
Poland 823n
policy:
harmonization 35
intervention 275
rates 70
reversal 317
Political and Economic Union 229
political economy 809
of high unemployment 656–9
see al