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date: 14 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter focuses on three different aspects of human capital as it relates to Africa. Specifically education enrollment, attainment, and returns to education are considered. The main findings from this study are as follows: First, there is a growing gender gap in enrollment at the secondary and tertiary level in sub-Saharan Africa while in other parts of the developing world rapid convergence is the norm. Second, most of the factors that are linked causally to school enrollment and attainment in the recent literature on Africa reflect poverty, income constraints, and missing markets challenges. Third, regardless of method of estimation, returns to education estimates exhibit significant heterogeneity across countries in Africa and time differences exist in estimates within countries. Fourth, what causes heterogeneity in returns to education in African countries is not well understood in the current literature but education quality, government policy, and demand supply mismatch could play a role.

Keywords: human capital, enrollment, attainment, returns to education, Africa, sub-Saharan Africa

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