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date: 03 June 2020

(p. 659) Chronology

(p. 659) Chronology

Given the vast intellectual resources ploughed into biblical scholarship, and the reach of religion into every quarter of political and cultural life, the following is a necessarily partial account of key events. (p. 660) (p. 661) (p. 662) (p. 663) (p. 664) (p. 665) (p. 666) (p. 667) (p. 668) (p. 669) (p. 670) (p. 671) (p. 672) (p. 673) (p. 674) (p. 675) (p. 676) (p. 677) (p. 678) (p. 679) (p. 680) (p. 681) (p. 682) (p. 683) (p. 684) (p. 685) (p. 686)


Political and Ecclesiastical Context

The Bible and its Translations

Scholarship and Commentary

Cultural developments


Henry VIII joins the Holy League

Desiderius Erasmus, Praise of Folly


Fifth Council of Lateran begins

Erasmus, De copia (first edn)


  • James IV of Scotland defeated at the Battle of Flodden Field

  • James V succeeds James IV of Scotland

  • Machiavelli, II Principe

  • Thomas More, History of Richard III


  • Wolsey made Archbishop of York

  • Peace with France


Wolsey made Cardinal


Erasmus, humanist scholar, makes last visit to England, at the invitation of Henry VIII

Erasmus translates New Testament into Latin with Greek Parallels

Targum (and translation), plus Hebrew-Chaldee lexicon, with Complutensian Polyglot

  • Thomas More, Utopia

  • Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando furioso


Fifth Council of Lateran ends Luther’s Ninety Five Theses circulated in Wittenberg; Protestant Reformation begins in Germany

1517 Bomberg Rabbinic Bible

Erasmus, Vetus Testamentum multiplici lingua nu[n]c primo impressum (1514–17)


  • Melanchthon teaching at Wittenberg

  • Treaty of Universal Peace

Aldine Bible (1518–19)

Johannes Reuchlin, De accentibus et orthographia linguae hebraicae

Luther, Heidelberg Disputation


  • Leipzig Disputation between Luther and Eck

  • Charles V of Hapsburg crowned Holy Roman Emperor

Martin Luther, Operationes in Psalmos (1519–21)

Magellan begins his voyage around the world


Complutensian Polyglot, 1513–17 (including Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek OT, and Latin), publ. 1520

  • Apologia Edouardi Leei contra quorundam Calumnias and Annotationes Edouardi Leei in Annotationes noui testamenti Desiderii Erasmi (Paris: Egidii Gourmont)

  • Cyprian, Opera (Basel), ed. Erasmus

Thomas Wyatt’s poems circulate in MS


  • Luther is excommunicated. Diet of Worms condemns his teaching

  • Henry Vlll is given title of Defender of the Faith by Pope Leo X for opposing Luther

  • Zwingli active in Zurich

  • Philip Melanchthon, Loci communes rerum theologicarum


Luther’s translation of the Bible into German (Wittenberg)

Ignatius begins to write his Spiritual Exercises


Thomas More becomes Speaker of the House of Commons


Tyndale settles on continent, refused support by Tunstall, Bishop of London

  • Zürich Bible (1524–9)

  • Greek Septuagint, ed. Johannes Lonicerus (Strasburg, 1524–6)


  • Jerome, Opera (Basel), ed. Erasmus

  • Jacopo Sannazaro, De partu Virginis (Naples)

Hans Holbein the Younger active in England


  • Treaty of Westminster forms an alliance between France and England

  • Archbishop William Warham secretly holds an inquiry into the legality of Henry VIII’s marriage to Katherine of Aragon


The blocking of Henry VIII’s divorce from Katherine of Aragon by a papacy influenced by her nephew, Charles V

  • Thomas More, Supplication of Souls

  • William Tyndale, That Faith the Mother of all Good Works Justifieth Us (Antwerp)

  • William Tyndale, The Obedience of a Christian Man

  • Thomas More, A Dialogue of Heresies

  • Castiglione, II cortegiano


  • Zwingli and Luther debate at Marburg Colloquy

  • Fall of Cardinal Wolsey

  • Thomas More made Lord Chancellor

  • Guillaume Budé’s Commentarii linguae Graecae (Paris)

  • Augustine, Opera omnia (Basel, 1528–9), ed. Erasmus


Augsburg Confession, of Lutheran Faith

Tyndale translates the Pentateuch

  • Agrippa, The Vanity and Uncertainty of the Arts and Sciences

  • Martin Luther, Eine predigt, das man Kinder zur Schulen halten solle


  • Tyndale completes his translation of the first fourteen books of the Old Testament

  • Zwingli’s Zürcher Bible

  • Robert Barnes, A Supplication

  • Tyndale, Answer to More

Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the Governour


More is imprisoned; Thomas Cromwell is made Lord Chancellor

Thomas More, The Confutation of Tyndale’s Answer (1532–3)

Leonard Cox, The Arte or Crafte of Rhetoryke


  • Henry VIII marries Ann Boleyn and by Act of Parliament becomes Supreme Head of the Church of England

  • Pope Paul III elected

Martin Luther, Prefaces to the Apocrypha (1533–4)

Rabelais, Gargantua et Pantagruel (1532–4)


Luther’s German Bible, Biblia, das ist, die gantze Heilige Schrifft

More, Dialogue of Comfort


  • Execution of More and Fisher

  • John Calvin arrives in Geneva

  • Coverdale Bible

  • La Bible (Neuchâtel) Huguenot translation, by Pierre-Robert Olivétan

  • Coverdale’s Concordance of the New Testament, first English concordance

  • Eugubinus, Cosmopoeia, vel de mundano opificio

  • Miles Coverdale, Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes


  • Dissolution of the smaller monasteries leads to the northern rebellion (Pilgrimage of Grace)

  • Ten Articles of Religion

  • William Tyndale burned

  • Origen, Opera omnia (Basel), ed. Erasmus

  • John Calvin, Institutio Christianæ religionis


  • The Matthew Bible, derived from Tyndale, Vulgate, Luther, and Coverdale’s OT

  • Calvin’s theocracy is established in Geneva


Cromwell authorizes Bible in English, leading to Great Bible, available in every parish

The Newe Testament both in Latine and Englyshe Eche Correspondente to the Other After the Vulgare Texte, Communely Called S. Jeromes. Faythfullye Translated by Johan Hollybushe [sic] (Southwark)

John Bale, Kynge JohanThomas Elyot, Dictionary


1539 Dissolution of greater monasteries

  • The Great Bible, based upon the Coverdale Bible

  • Taverner’s Bible, a revised edition of Matthew’s

  • Calvin’s Commentary on Romans

  • Tommaso de Vio, Cardinal Carjetan, Opera omnia

  • A Paraphrasis upon all the Psalmes of David, Made by Johannes Campensis, Reader of the Hebrue Lecture in the Universite of Louvane, and Translated out of Latine into Englisshe (London)


  • Jesuits founded by Ignatius of Loyola

  • Fall and execution of Thomas Cromwell

The Great Bible is reissued with a preface by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer

Thomas Elyot, Defence of GoodWomen


Henry VIII assumes the title of King of Ireland and makes himself supreme head of the Church in Ireland

John Calvin, Institutio Christianæ Religionis translated into French


  • Roman Inquisition founded

  • James V of Scotland dies and is succeeded to the throne by Mary who is six days old

Paulus Fagius, Exegesis sive expositio dictionum Hebraicorum literalis


Act for the Advancement of True Religion restricts Bible reading

John Bale, Yet a Course at the Romyshe Foxe (Antwerp)

Copernicus, De revolutionibus, with preface by Andreas Osiander


Epiphanius, Contra octoaginta haereses opus (Paris), tr. Cornarius

Sebastian Münster, Cosmographia


  • Council of Trent. Start of the Counter-Reformation

  • 1545 King’s primer regularizes liturgical material in English

John Bale, The Image of Both Churches


Death of Luther

Stephanus Bible (Paris 1546), Textus Receptus

Peter Becker, De prima rerum origine

Bale, Acts of English Votaries; First Examination of Anne Askew


  • Dissolution of Chantre

  • Edward VI, king of England (1547–53)

Cranmer, Certain Sermons or Homilies


Trent declares the Deutero-Canonical OT Books, formerly regarded as Apocrypha, to be fully scriptural. Catholic Bible in English an eventual by-product

  • Certayne Psalmes Chosen out of the Psalter of David, and Drawen Into Englishe Metre by Thomas Sternhold Grome of ye Kynges Maiesties Roobes (London)

  • Nicholas Udall, The Paraphrase of Erasmus upon the New Testament


Anti-enclosure riotsKett’s Rebellion

Coverdale’s biblical translations are used in the first Book of Common Prayer and later editions


Pope Julius III elected

Martin Bucer, De regno Christi libri duo

Vasari, Lives of the Painters


Anti-enclosure riots end


  • Forty-Two Articles

  • Revised Prayer Book

  • Württemberg Confession of Faith


Mary Tudor Queen of England (1553–8). Marries Philip II of Spain to cement Catholic Ascendancy

Mary’s burning of Protestants sends many of their leaders into exile on the continent


Lady Jane Grey executed (1537–54)Peace of Augsburg


  • Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley burned

  • 1555 Peace of Augsburg and Calvinist prosecutions

La Bible nouvellement translatée (1555), by Sébastien Châteillon

Myrroure for Magistrates (first ed.)


  • Thomas Cranmer burned

  • Reginald Pole appointed Archbishop of Canterbury


Benedictine monks return to Westminster Abbey

Whittingham publishes NT at Geneva in 1557

Giulio Cesare Paschali translates Calvin, Institutio Christianæ religionis into Italian

Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of Witte


  • 1558 The French recapture Calais from the English

  • Mary dies. Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1558–1603). New Act of Settlement makes her Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

John Knox, First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women


  • Pope Pius IV elected

  • Act of Supremacy

  • Matthew Parker Archbishop of Canterbury


  • Scottish Reformation Parliament

  • Proclamation prohibiting the Destruction of Church Monuments

Geneva Bible published, also known as Breeches Bible, so named from itstranslation of Genesis 3: 7


Mary Queen of Scots returns home. Her Masses at court lead to tension with, and lectures from, the Presbyterian divine, John Knox.

Thomas Norton translates Calvin’s Institutes of Christian Religion into English

Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville, Gorboduc


French Wars of Religion start

  • Marot-Beza Psalter

  • Sternhold and Hopkins, Whole Book of Psalms

Codex Bezae discovered at Lyons by Theodore Beza

Latimer, 27 Sermons


  • Thirty-Nine Articles

  • Act requires Welsh services in three years

  • Council of Trent closes

Foxe’s Acts and Monuments (Book of Martyrs) published. Placed in many Protestant churches alongside the Bible.


Theodore Beza succeeds Calvin in Geneva.


Beza’s Greek NT with Vulgate and own Latin translation


Sixtus of Siena, Bibliotheca sancta ex præcipuis Catholicæ Ecclesiæ auctoribus collecta


Mary Queen of Scots forced to abdicate. Her baby son succeeds to the Scottish throne as James VI.

  • William Salesbury works on NT in Welsh, with archaic Latinate English orthography for English clergy. It is unacceptable to Welsh speakers who prefer their own properly phonetic Welsh spelling.

  • The Whole Psalter, translated by Matthew Parker

  • Matthias Flacius Illyricus, Clavis Scripturae

  • Immanuel Temellius, trans. of Targum of Jonathan


Mary Queen of Scots escapes imprisonment, flees to England after military defeat.

The Bishops’ Bible published with the initials of each translator at the end of every chapter for which he was responsible.


Revolt of Northern Earls

  • 1569–79: New Latin translation of Bible, N.T. by Theodore Beza

  • Antwerp Polyglot, Biblia sacra Hebraice, Chaldaice, Graece, Latine (1569–73), reproduced as Biblia Regia including Peshito, Syriac lexicon and grammar.

  • Immanuel Tremellius, Grammatica Chaldaea et Syra

  • Peter Martyr (Vermigli), In primumlibrum Mosis


Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth I

Irenaeus, Adversus portentosas haereses (Geneva)

  • John Dee, Euclid’s Elements

  • Homily against Disobedience

  • Foxe, Ecclesiastical History


Treason Act

The Psalms of David and Others, as Rendered into English by Arthur Golding, his Translation of Calvin’s Latin Version Extracted from Commentaries on the Psalms (London)


  • St Bartholomew's Day massacre of Huguenots

  • Admonition to the Parliament

Edward Coke, Reports (circulated in ms)


Thomas Cooper, A Brief Exposition of Such Chapters of the Olde Testament as Usually are Redde in the Church at Common Praier on the Sondayes

George Gascoigne, A Hundreth Sundrie Flowres


Guillaume de Salluste Du Bartas, ‘L’Uranie’, La Muse Chrestiene (Bordeaux); Judit


  • Edmund Grindal appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

Tremellius and Junius, OT Latin (1575–9)


  • Priests from Douai arrive in England

Revision of Geneva NT by Laurence Tomson based on Theodore Beza’s work of 1565

Augustine, Opera d. Aurelii Augustini (Antwerp, 1576–7), Louvain divines.

  • El Greco at Toledo. Titian’s Pieta.

  • William Byrd and Thomas Tallis granted monopoly to print music paper and musical notation by Elizabeth I

  • The Theatre opens; it is the first purpose-built playhouse in London

  • Bodin, Les six livres de la République


Lutheran confession regularized in Germany

Eusebius of Caesarea, The Auncient Ecclesiasticall Histories (London), tr. Meredith Hanmer

Holinshed, Chronicles


Guillaume de Salluste Du Bartas, La sepmaine, ou création du monde

John Lyly, Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit


  • The Union of Utrecht unites Protestant Dutch

  • English Jesuit College at Rome founded

  • Edmund Spenser, The Shepheardes Calendar

  • Buchanan, De jure regni


Jesuit mission in England begins

Franciscus Junius and Immauael Tremellius translate the Bible into Latin, Testament veteris Biblia Sacra

  • Michel de Montaigne, Essais

  • John Stow, Chronicle


  • Execution of Edmund Campion

  • ‘Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience’, enforcing attendance at Anglican church worship, fining recusants and making it treasonable to convert subjects to Catholicism

Tasso, Gerusalemme Liberata


  • Douai-Rheims Bible

  • [Roman Catholic version of NT in English]

Gregory Martin. A Discoverie of the Manifold Corruptions of the Scriptures

University of Edinburgh founded


  • John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury.

  • Irish rebellion suppressed

  • William Rainolds, A Refutation of Sundry Reprehensions, Cavils, and False Sleightes, by which M. Whitaker Laboureth to Deface the Late English Translation, and Catholike Annotations of the New Testament (Paris)

  • William Fulke, A Defence of the Translations of the Holy Scriptures

Joseph Justus Scaliger, Opus de emendatione temporum


William of Orange assassinated

  • Jacobus Brocardus, Mystica et prophetica libri Genesis interpretatio

  • Tertullian, Opera (Paris), ed. Jacques de Pamèle

Walter Ralegh attempts (and fails) to colonize Virginia


Treaty of Nonsuch commits England to support the Spanish Netherlands in a revolt against the Habsburgs

Robert Greene, Planetomachia


Biblia Polyglotta Vatabli or Polyglotta Sanctandreana (Heidelberg, 1586–99)


  • Mary Queen of Scots’ involvement in plots against Elizabeth culminates in the Babington Plot, for which she is executed.

  • Cardinal William Allen founds three Catholic Colleges for Mission to England.

Rome Septuagint (Greek), based on Codex Vaticanus, under Pope Sixtus V.

Christopher Marlowe, Tamburlaine


  • Philip II of Spain sends an Armada against England

  • Marprelate controversy begins

  • Y Beibl Cymraeg

  • [Welsh Bible] translated and seen through the printers at Westminster by William Morgan

  • William Whitaker, Disputatio de Sacra Scriptura

  • George Wither, A View of the Marginal Notes of the Popish Testament, Translated into English by the English Fugitive Papists Resident at Rhemes in France

  • Faustus Socinus, De Sacrae Scripturae auctoritate

William Byrd, Psalms, Sonnets and Songs


  • William Fulke, The Text of the New Testament of Jesus Christ, Translated out of the Vulgar Latine by the Papists

  • Benedictus Pererius, Commentariorum et disputationum in Genesim (1589–98)

George Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie


Death of Francis Walsingham

Sixtine Bible, under Pope Sixtus V

  • Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, Books I–III

  • Philip Sidney, Arcadia printed


Recusancy laws become more severe

Hieronymus Zanchius, De operibus Dei

Philip Sidney, Astrophel and Stella printed


Clementine Bible, under Clement VIII

  • William Perkins, Prophetica, sive, de sacra et unica ratione concionandi tractatus, trans. Arte of Prophecying

  • Andrew Willet, Synopsis Papismi


  • 1593 Henry IV accepts Catholicism in France

  • Series of poor harvests (1593–7)

Richard Hooker, Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie, books I–IV

Thomas Nashe, Christ’s Tears Over Jerusalem


Andrew Maunsell, The First Part of the Catalogue of English Printed Bookes: Which Concerneth Such Matters of Divinitie, as Have Bin Either Written in our Owne Tongue, or Translated out of Anie Other Language

  • Walter Ralegh, voyage to Guiana

  • Sidney’s Defence of Poesie appears in print


  • Poor harvests lead to riots

  • Lambeth Articles stating English Calvinist orthodoxy

  • Essex attacks Cadiz

Hamburg Polyglot

  • Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, books IV–VI

  • Johannes Kepler, Mysterium Cosmographicum


Campaign in Low Countries

Richard Hooker, Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie, book V

Francis Bacon Essayes or Counsels (1597, enlarged, 1612, 1625)


Edicts of Nantes offers toleration of Huguenots, marking an end of the French Wars of Religion

Antonio Brucioli, A Commentary upon the Canticle of Canticles.

  • James VI of Scotland (later James I of England), The Trew Law of Free Monarchies

  • Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus


Nürnburg Polyglot (1599–1602)

Johannes Drusius, Quaestionum Ebraicarum

  • Richard Hakluyt, Principall Navigations (1598–1600)

  • Globe Theatre opens

  • James VI and I, Basilikon Doron


East India Company granted royal charter

  • William Gilbert, De Magnete

  • Mary Sidney completes the Sidney psalter


Essex rebellion

William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night (c.1601–2)


Gaelic Bible published in Dublin

  • Bodleian Library founded

  • William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida


  • Elizabeth I dies. Succeeded by James VI of Scotland, becoming James I of England (1603–25)

  • Millenary Petition to James

  • London plague

William Shakespeare, Hamlet


  • James calls the Hampton Court Conference and accepts the wish of the Puritans for a new translation of the Bible

  • Richard Bancroft – Archbishop of Canterbury.

  • Anglo-Spanish peace treaty

  • William Barlow, The Sum of the Conference at Hampton Court

  • Richard Bancroft, The Rules to be Observed in Translating the Bible

William Shakespeare, All’s Well that Ends Well; Measure for Measure; Othello


Guy Fawkes conspiracy–attempt to blow up King & Parliament on 5 November fails

  • Johannes Buxtorf, Praeceptiones grammaticae de lingua Hebraea

  • Andrew Willet, Hexapla in Genesin

  • Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning

  • William Shakespeare, King Lear


Oath of Allegiance controversy begins

Gregory of Nyssa, Opera omnia(Paris)

  • William Shakespeare, Macbeth

  • Ben Jonson, Volpone


Johannes Buxtorf, Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum


Union with Scotland rejected by Parliament

  • Andrew Willet, Hexapla in exodum

  • Martin del Rio, Pharus Sacrae sapientiae

William Perkins, Works


James persuades the Church of Scotland to accept episcopacy.

  • Douai-Rheims Bible’s

  • OT (1609–10)

  • published

David Pareus, In Genesin Mosis commentarius


John Donne, Pseudo Martyr

Augustine, Of the Citie Of God, tr. Vives.


  • George Abbott, Archbishop of Canterbury

  • Ulster is colonised

King James Bible [Authorized Version] published

  • John Rainolds, Censura librorum Apocryphorum veteris Testamenti (Oppenheim)

  • Hugh Broughton, A Censure of the Late Translation for our Churches

Aemilia Lanyer, Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum


Henry Ainsworth, Annotations on the Pentateuch, the Psalms of David, and the Song of Solomon, The Book of Psalmes


  • Marriage of Princess Elizabeth Stuart and Frederick, Elector of Palatine.

  • Prince Henry dies.

John Chrysostom, Opera Graecè, 8 vols (Eton), ed. Henry Savile


Addled Parliament

John Taylor the Water Poet’s Thumb Bible

Cornelius a Lapide, Commentaria in omnes divi Pauli Epistolas

Walter Ralegh, History of the World


Justin Martyr, Opera (Paris)

Joseph Swetnam, Arraignment ofLewd Idle and Froward Women


Ejection of Christian missionaries from Japan

  • Johannes Drusius, Ad voces EbraeasNT commentarius duplex

  • Cornelius a Lapide, Commentaria in vetus et Novum Testamentum


  • William Fulke, A Defense of the Sincere and True Translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue

  • Johannes Drusius, Ad loca difficiliora Pentateuchi

Rachel Speght, A Mouzell for Melastomus


  • Thirty Years War begins

  • Synod of Dort opens

  • Johann Buxtorf, Biblia sacra Hebraica (1618–19)

  • Benedictus Fernandez, Commentariorum atque observationes moralium in Genesim (1618–27)

Declaration of Sports


Synod of Dort closes

George Wither, A Preparation to the Psalter


  • 1620 English Parliament agitates to intervene in Thirty Years War

  • Pilgrim Fathers land at Plymouth, Mass.

Definitive version of William Morgan’s Welsh Bible

Juan de Mariana, Scholia in vetus et Novum Testamentum

Francis Bacon, Novum organum


John Donne is made Dean of St Paul’s, a position he holds until 1629.

Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy


Directions for Preachers


Charles pursues Spanish match, sailing secretly to Madrid.

  • William Ames, Medulla theologica

  • Marin Mersenne, Questiones celeberrimae in Genesim

  • Salomon Glassius, Philologia Sacra


Renewed war between Britain and Spain

Louis Cappel, Arcanum punctationisrevelatum

Herbert of Cherbury, De veritate


  • Death of James 1

  • Charles I (1625–49)

  • Three parliaments in conflict with Charles over financial and foreign policy disputes

Hugo Grotius, De jure belli ac pacis


Andreas Rivetus, Isagoge, seu introductio generalis ad Scripturam sacram veteris et Novi Testamenti

  • Hugo Grotius, De veritate

  • Lucan, Pharsalia, tr Thomas May


The Duke of Buckingham bans the teaching of predestination at Cambridge

Edition of Septuagint, Vetus Testamentum, secundum LXX (Paris), ed. Jean Morin (1591–1659)

  • Coke’s Institutes–first volume of foundational law writings

  • William Harvey publishes work on circulation of the heart

  • Rubens and Van Dyck are employed by the King and the royal collection is built up


Personal rule of Charles I begins

  • Paris Polyglot (1629–1645), including Samaritan Pentateuch and Arabic OT

  • First Cambridge edition of KJB


Project for Gaelic Old testament


‘Wicked Bible’ (re Exodus 20: 14)

John Brinsley, The Preachers Charge, and Peoples Duty about Preaching and Hearing of the Word (London)


Galileo Galilei, Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo


William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, intensifies Caroline anti-Calvinism.

First Scottish KJB (Edinburgh)

George Herbert, The Temple


  • Laudian bishops’ visitations

  • Ship money levied, in the face of stiff opposition

John Milton, Comus


Book of Canons imposed on Scotland


Charles I faces crisis over unpopular imposition of a new liturgy (Book of Common Prayer) on Scotland

Dutch Bible (Amsterdam)

John Milton, Lycidas


William Chillingworth, The Religion of Protestants


First Bishops’ War against Scots

Johannes Buxtorf, Lexicon Chaldaicum Talmudicum et Rabbinicum


  • 11 Years of Personal Government by Charles ends with Short, then Long Parliament

  • Second Bishops’ War

  • The Root and Branch Petition (against episcopacy)

Bay Psalm Book (Massachusetts)


  • The Grand Remonstrance

  • Thomas Wentworth found guilty of treason and executed

  • Censorship breaks down

  • Hugo Grotius, Annotationes in libros evangeliorum (Amsterdam)

  • John Milton, Of Reformation Touching Church Discipline in England

  • Richard Baker, An Apologie for Lay-Mens Writing in Divinity


  • Outbreak of Civil War in England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales

  • Suspension of episcopacy

  • Thomas Browne, Religio medici

  • John Milton, Apology for Smectymnuus

  • Playhouses are closed at the outbreak of Civil War


  • Solemn League and Covenant

  • Westminster Assembly of Divines

  • Licensing order attempts to impose press censorship

The Souldiers Pocket Bible

Jean Diodati, Pious and Learned Annotations


Trial of Archbishop Laud begins

  • Hugo Grotius,

  • Annotata ad vetus Testamentum

John Milton, Areopagitica


  • Laud found guilty of treason and executed

  • New Model Army formed

  • Ordinance of Worship and Presbyterian Church Government

Westminster Annotations


  • First Civil War ends

  • Episcopacy abolished

  • Edward Leigh, A Treatise of Divinity

  • John Gregory, Notes and Observations Upon Some Passages of Scripture

  • Richard Baxter, A Plea for Congregational Government

  • Thomas Edwards, Gangraena

  • Thomas Browne, Pseudodoxia epidemica


  • An Agreement of the People, series of tracts, printed between 1647 and 1649

  • Putney Debates

John Lightfoot, The Harmony, Chronicle, and Order of the Old Testament


  • Second Civil War begins

  • Articles of Christian Religion

  • Pride’s Purge, leaving Rump Parliament

Gerrard Winstanley, The Mysterie of God Concerning the Whole Creation

Robert Herrick, Hesperides and Noble Numbers


  • Trial and execution of Charles I; England declared a commonwealth

  • Leveller mutinies and suppression

  • Cromwell’s Siege of Drogheda leads to massacre of Irish

  • Peace of Westphalia, ending Thirty Years War

  • Charles I (attrib.), Eikon Basilike

  • John Milton, Eikonoklastes

  • Gerrard Winstanley, The New Law of Righteousnes Budding Forth


  • Anglican Book of Common Prayer abolished

  • Diggers suppressed

  • Brutal campaign in Ireland culminates in the Battle of Dunbar, and crushes Irish resistance

Louis Cappel, Critica Sacra


  • Navigation Act: war between England and the Netherlands

  • Prince Charles acknowledged as King of Scotland

  • Royalist defeat at Battle of Worcester

  • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

  • William Davenant, Gondibert


Engagement Controversy ends

James Ussher, De textus hebraici veteris Testamenti variantibus lectionibus ad Ludovicum Cappellum Epistola


  • Rump Parliament dissolved

  • Barebones Parliament

  • Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

‘Quakers’ Bible’, printed by Giles Calvert

James Shirley’s masque Cupid and Death performed before the Ambassador of Portugal.


War against Dutch ends

Edward Leigh, A System or Body of Divinity


England takes Jamaica from Spain

  • John Lightfoot, Harmony, Chronicall and Order of the NT

  • Thomas Fuller, The Church History of Britain

Isaac de La Peyrère, Praeadamitae


John Bunyan, Some Gospel-Truths Opened

Abraham Cowley, Davideis, Or, A Sacred Poem of the Troubles of David


Oliver Cromwell refuses the crown and establishes the second Protectorate

  • Biblia Sacra London Polyglotta, ed. Brian Walton, including Codex Alexandrinus, Peshitto, Ethiopic psalms and NT, Persian Pentateuch and Gospels, targums. Also textual-critical collations and annotations.

  • Theodore Haak’s Bible with Dutch Annotations

Edward Sexby, Killing Noe Murder


  • Cromwell dies. His son, Richard becomes Lord Protector.

  • Savoy Declaration of Independent Churches


Richard Cromwell abdicates; the Rump Parliament and the republic are restored

New Testament in shorthand (Jeremiah Rich)

Robert Gell, An Essay toward the Amendment of the last English Translation of the Bible

John Bunyan, The Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded


  • Colonel George Monck marches on London; Rump Parliament dissolved.

  • Charles II succeeds to the throne of England (r. 1660–85)

  • Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion

  • Cromwell, and other regicides, exhumed, posthumously hanged and decapitated

Critici Sacri, ed. John Pearson

  • Samuel Pepys begins his diary

  • Theatres reopen; William Davenant and Thomas Killigrew appointed managers of the two theatre companies.

  • Royal Society founded


  • Election of Cavalier Parliament

  • Fifth Monarchist uprising in London

  • The Corporation Act limits the holding of public office to Anglicans

  • John Owen, Theologoumena Pantodapa

  • Robert Boyle, Considerations Touching the Style of the Holy Scriptures

John Bunyan, Profitable Meditations


  • Act of Uniformity.

  • Ejection of Puritans from Anglican livings

  • Licensing of the Press Act

Royal Society granted its first charter


Massachusetts Bible, tr. into Wampanoag Native American

John Bunyan, Prison Meditations


Conventicle Act restricts nonconformist meetings


  • Anglo-Dutch War begins

  • The Five Mile Act prohibits dissenters from coming within five miles of municipal areas

  • Great Plague of London


Great Fire of London.

  • John Bunyan, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners

  • Margaret Cavendish, The Blazing World


Anglo-Dutch War ends in defeat and humiliation after Dutch ships set fire to the English fleet in the Medway

John Milton, Paradise Lost


John Dryden, Essay of Dramatick Poesie


Matthew Poole, Synopsis criticorum (1669–74)


  • Secret Treaty of Dover, where Louis XIV of France gives Charles financial aid upon condition that he converts to Catholicism

  • Second Conventicle Act against nonconformists

Baruch Spinoza, Tractatus theologico-politicus


John Milton, Samson Agonistes; Paradise Regained


Declaration of Indulgence

KJB printed with Geneva Notes


Parliament forces the repeal of the Declaration of Indulgence and introduces the Test Act

Thomas Traherne, Roman Forgeries

Christiaan Huygens, Horologium Oscillatorium


John Milton, Paradise Lost, 2nd edn, which redivides the narrative from ten books into twelve


Proclamation for the suppression of Coffee Houses

First Oxford Edition of KJV

Thomas Traherne, Christian Ethics


  • Joseph Glanville, Essays On Several Important Subjects in Philosophy and Religion

  • George Etherege, Man of Mode


William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury


Titus Oates’s sensational allegations lead to Popish Plot fever

Richard Simon, Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1678–85)

John Bunyan, Pilgrim’s Progress


  • New Parliament elected and prorogued by Charles

  • Exclusion Crisis begins; attempting to exclude James from succeeding the throne.

Lucy Hutchinson, first five books of Order and Disorder printed


Gaelic New Testament published in London

John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, reportedly converts to Catholicism on his deathbed


  • Exclusion Crisis ends when Charles dissolves Parliament

  • Charles rules without Parliament until his death in 1685

John Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel


Anthony Ashley Cooper, first Earl of Shaftesbury, escapes treason charges by fleeing England

  • Bideford Witch Trial leads to the last known hangings for witchcraft in England

  • Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Acta eruditorum


  • Rye House Plot

  • Algernon Sidney executed

Matthew Poole, Annotations


  • Charles II dies

  • James II succeeds to the crown (r. 1685–8)

  • Monmouth Rebellion

Gaelic Old Testament published in London


James’s First Declaration of Indulgence

Isaac Newton, Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica


William of Orange lands at Torbay; James abdicates and flees England

Aphra Behn, Oroonoko


  • William III and Mary II proclaimed joint constitutional monarchs

  • Bill of Rights and Toleration Act

  • Start of the Nine Years War/War of Grand Alliance

John Locke, Two Treatises of Government


John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding


John Tillotson made Archbishop of Canterbury

John Dryden and Henry Purcell, King Arthur


  • Triennial Act

  • Death of Mary II; William III reigns in his own right until his death in 1702. Succeeded by Mary’s sister, Anne.

  • Bank of England established by royal charter

  • Mary Astell, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, for the Advancement of Their True and Greatest Interest


Unsuccessful Jacobite plot to assassinate William III

Richard Baxter, Reliquiae Baxterianae


Treaty of Ryswick ends Nine Year’s War/War of Grand Alliance

John Locke, A Common-place Book to the Holy Bible


  • Whitehall Palace destroyed by fire

  • Royal African Company monopoly abolished, effectively permitting anyone to enter the slave trade.

Jeremy Collier, A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage


Standing army limited to 7,000 ‘native born’ men by Parliament

John Blow appointed composer to the Chapel Royal.


  • William Congreve, The Way of The World

  • Mary Astell, Some Reflections Upon Marriage