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date: 19 January 2020

Subject Index

Subject Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures. References to footnotes are indicated by the suffix ‘n’, followed by the note number, for example 267n4.

(p. 1077) 3-dimensional object completion298–9
3-dimensional perception, influence on colour perception456
3-dimensional shape
camouflage of855–6
interaction with perceived gloss477–8
Abney effect437
absolute orientation, effect on symmetry detection111
accident, role in design871
achromatic transparency413–15
see also transparency
action and perception dissociation
and size illusions673–7
studies of configural processing of shape678–80
studies of object size resolution680–5
adaptation76
adaptationist approach to perception466–7
adaptive windows400
advancing region motion263, 265
aesthetic experience893
affect, effect on binocular rivalry787–9
affine structure-from-motion theorem533
affinity, and dynamic grouping564
affinity networks, role in object recognition572
affordances872, 972, 1052
after-effects
asynchrony830–2
in body motion perception579
colour and form448–9
of curvature625–6
agnosia743
algorithmic information theory (AIT)1027, 1029, 1031
algorithmic probabilities1033
Fundamental Inequality1037
Alhambra897, 896
allocentric neglect742
allocentric reference frames633–4
alpha activity993–4
pattern dynamics994–5
alternating-motion display820–1, 822–3
ambiguous stimuli
cross-modal interactions649
amodal complements294n2
amodal completion294–6, 812, 1034–5
2D versus 3D298–9
and dynamic grouping method568, 569–70
experimental paradigms299–300
global completions296–8
identity hypothesis310–11
infant research301–2
influence of knowledge311
local completions296
neural correlates300–1
in non-primate animals302
tunnel effect302
AMPA receptor334
role in figure–ground modulation335
analysis-by-synthesis approach to body motion perception587–8
anchoring theory of lightness400, 407–8, 455, 470–1
evaluation of475
And-Or Graph922
And-Or-Tree (AOT)922–4, 923
human figures case study929–30, 931
mathematical formalism924
scene case study926–29
structure learning by parameter estimation924–6
animal awareness1050–1, 1052, 1054–5
animal detection, role of contour shape207–8, 209, 223–4
anti-symmetry119
aperture problem504–5
and figure–ground relationships511–14
and kinesthetic information515–16
and multiple sensory interactions514–15
structure-blind strategies507–9
and terminator classification511
top-down factors516
apparent motion4, 488
emergence89
perceptual grouping72–4
apparent rest phenomenon513–14
APV, effect on figure–ground modulation335–7, 336
arbitrariness of features935, 941–3
Aristotle illusion812–13
art
definition of886–92
see also visual art
aspect ratio, effect on lattice perception978–9
assimilation, and contrast407, 408
association field concept213, 214, 782–3
cellular physiology194–5
association field models197–8
association fields190, 191–2
as integration fields200
linking process, nature and site192–4
associative grouping76
astrocytes, role in neuronal function382–3
asymmetric matching task454
(p. 1078) asynchrony after-effects830–2
asynchrony-tuned neurons831
attention
and auditory perception611
and averaging160–1
and awareness738
and binocular rivalry786–7
and BOWN-sensitive activity348–9
and figure assignment267–8
and figure–ground organization329–31, 330, 351
and perceptual grouping748–9
and perceptual organization736–7
and spatial experience821–2
and transformational apparent motion543
visual737–9
and visual holes290
attention, lack of, and perceptual grouping744–8
attentional blink999
beta activity996
attentional enhancement, infants719
attentional priorities, influence of perceptual grouping739–44
attentional priority map737–8
attentional selection, individual differences721
attention deployment, time course of977–981
attention spreading979
inhibition of994
audition, emergent features104
auditory bistability775
auditory distance, compensation for827–8
auditory event-related brain potentials (AERPs)610–11
auditory perception, sensory substitution656
auditory perceptual objects603–4
neuroscience view of611–12
auditory perceptual organization601
conclusions and future directions612–13
extraction and binding of features604–5
grouping, cross-modal effects643–6
grouping principles602–3
interaction with visual perception640–3
perception as inference603
stimulus specific adaptation and differential suppression609–10
auditory pitch, and object size648–9
auditory scene analysis605
competition/selection stage606–8
grouping stage605–6
perceptual organization608–9
auditory stimuli
binaural rivalry802
influence on binocular rivalry790
McGurk illusion813
auditory streaming paradigm605–7
autism716, 720, 726–8
attentional selection721
enhanced local processing721
and predictive coding722
averaging of dimensions158–60
avoidance-of-coincidences principle1038
awareness738, 1046
bridging hypotheses1048
the human condition1054–6
inner world1053–4
mental world1047
Umwelt1052–3
as a user interface1056–60
see also consciousness
axial-based shape representation245–6, 248–9, 1014–15
comparison of animal and leaf categories250–2, 251
background matching846
Balint’s syndrome68
band patterns894–6
barber-diamond displays511–12
barberpole effect509
edge classification and occlusion511
edge classification beyond disparities511–12
psychophysics of orthogonal and terminator signals509–10
sliding effect512
base grouping974
basic features89
Bauhaus design school869–70
Bayesian inference467, 1009–11, 1021–2
basic calculations1012–14
and binocular rivalry791
competence versus performance1020–1
computation of the posterior1017–19
decision making and loss functions1019–20
and global bias722–3
as a model of perception1011–12
and perceptual organization1014–16
priors1015–17
probabilistic features936, 937
and simplicity principle1032–5, 1036
source of hypotheses1020
Bayesian updating1015
Bayes Occam1018
Bayes’ postulate1016n5
Bayes’ rule (Bayes’ theorem)1009–10
Benary effect404–5
Berkeley Segmentation Dataset (BSD)207
Berlin versus Graz34
Benussi–Koffka dispute31–2
descriptive and genetic inquiries32–3
beta activity995–6, 1000
coupling with slow waves999–1000
evoked activity996–7
beta motion89, 488
Bezold–Brücke effect437
biased competition, in figure–ground perception273
bias–variance tradeoff1018
bilateral symmetry, in human design880
binaral rivalry802
binary (Boolean) features933
binaural rivalry802
binocular rivalry776, 777, 801
adapting reciprocal inhibition model784–5
Bayesian view791
continuous flash suppression studies788–9, 804
dynamics of783–6
effect of noise785, 804
effects of interpretation and affect787–9
(p. 1079)
figure–ground segregation778–9
multisensory interactions790
perceptual grouping779–83
phase durations785–6
predominance786
role of attention786–7
and study of unconscious processing802–5
tipping factors784
underlying cortical networks790–1
biological motion perception589–590
bottom-up versus top-down processing582–3
computational and neural models585–9, 586
historical background575–7
neural mechanisms584–5
perceptual spaces579
phenomenological studies577–9
recognition of body motion580–2
relevance of learning583–4
bistable perception775–7, 776
cross-modal interactions649
of figure–ground organization347, 348, 349, 357, 358, 359
neural processes803
and study of unconscious processing800–5
blackshot152
blindness
congenital, restoration of sight536
blindsight
attention/awareness dissociation745
perceptual grouping66
Block Design task715, 716, 724
and autism727
body functions, awareness of799–800
body image, fashions in901, 910, 912
body motion perception575, 589–590
bottom-up versus top-down processing582–3
computational and neural models585–9, 586
historical background575–7
neural mechanisms584–5
perceptual spaces579
phenomenological studies577–9
recognition of biological motion580–2
relevance of learning583–4
bootstrap model of symmetry119–21
border-ownership (BOWN)248, 249, 328–9, 357–9, 363–4, 366
BOWN-sensitive neurons343, 346–7, 348, 367
brain activity and feedback involvement347–9
competitive signal processing345, 347, 348
computational modelling354–7
extra fast processing mechanism343, 345
hierarchical organization and involvement of top-down feedback349–51, 353
levels of organization365–6
properties of342–3, 344–5
border-ownership models374–5
enclosure fields378–80, 379, 381
feedback effects via LFP380–3
network propagation models375–7
boundaries
and classical model of features935
and probabilistic model of features940–1
boundary detection323, 322, 324
and figure–ground modulation328
latency326
lateral and feedforward inhibition329
rapid detection tasks324–5
boundary inference, from contour geometry367–70
bounding contours207
role in animal detection207–8, 209
Boynton illusion445–6
Braille reading658
Brainport device656
brain time, and time-scales824–5
brain time theory823
breathing illusions513, 514
bridging hypotheses1048
C1 activity, effect of aspect ratio changes979
camouflage843
concealing motion856–7
cryptic coloration and background matching847–52
in cuttlefish845, 850–1
facial make-up899
in flatfish845, 849–50
historical studies843–4
multiple backgrounds problem851–2
obscuring 3D form855–6
obscuring edges852–5
principles of846–7
recent research844
and symmetry851
camouflage patterns848, 850
carryover effects76
categorical perception935
category-specific grouping rules921–2
causal theory of perception1047
Celtic symbols893
central limit theorem1016n6
change blindness paradigms805–6
change detection task studies745–6
chaotic itinerancy994
chopstick illusion513
chronotopy, lack of821
closure284
role in perceptual grouping62, 2201
and sound perception603, 606–7
and visual search378
CNQX, effect on figure–ground modulation335–7, 336
co-dimensions1035
coding theory494
coherence intervals996–7
relationship to stimulus pattern information997–8
coincidence, method of49–52
coincident disruptive coloration854
collateral sulcus441
(p. 1080) collinear contours715
collinearity
as an emergent feature94, 95
as a non-accidental feature937–8
colour
as a feature933
as a Gestalt103–4
role in figure-ground assignment265–6
colour and form
in after-effects448–9
availability of colour-and luminance-defined contours445
combination of colour-defined features447–8
organization imposed by colour446–7
organization imposed by luminance-defined contours445–6
processing of colour- and luminance-defined contours444–5
colouration, camouflage patterns848–9
physiologically controlled849–51
colour averaging160
colour constancy438, 450, 454–5
colour contrast, relationship to colour constancy454–5
colour conversions451–3
coloured after-effects439–40
colour grouping, interaction with symmetry detection111
colourimetry436
colour induction, and perceptual grouping449
colour perception436–7, 455–6, 456–8
asymmetries in organization440–1
configural effects455–6
correlates of material properties453
dichromatic439
dimensionality437–9, 454
later colour processing441–2
opponent-process theory439–40
organization imposed by cultural and linguistic factors443–4
organization imposed by environmental factors442–3
post-receptoral organization440
Colour Wagon Wheel illusion447
common fate principle612, 613
grouping by illumination404
perceptual grouping58, 60, 66–7
and sound events602–3
common motion grouping, demonstration in infants696
common region principle
demonstration in infants701–3
perceptual grouping64–66, 65
communication theory1029
comparison, methods of45
competence theories1021
competition, in figure–ground perception272–5
complete identification paradigm957
complete mergeability principle299
completions294–6
amodal296–302
DISC model311
identity hypothesis310–11
influence of knowledge311
complexity871
complex shapes, BOWN signals356
components, recognition by920
composite face paradigm759–60, 768–9
studies in prosopagnosia762
composition, paintings906
Computer Aided System for Blind People (CASBliP)656, 667
computer vision
and contour grouping208–9
use of texture descriptors179
concavities, information content of238
conceptual art893–4
concurrent grouping, of sound events605
conditional probability1009
cone excitation ratios, invariance of452–3
cones, asymmetries in organization440–1
configural cues266n4
configural inferiority effect90, 91
configural processing955
dissociation between action and perception678–80
face perception766–8
versus featural processing962
working axioms952–3, 957, 959
configural properties260–1, 263
advancing region motion265
articulating motion263, 264–5
direct and indirect methods of experimentation261–2
edge-region grouping264
extremal edges and gradient cuts263–4
lower region264
part salience262–3
top–bottom polarity264
configural superiority effect90–1, 141, 143, 284
demonstration in infants693–4, 695
establishment and quantification of emergent features97–113
connectedness principle, demonstration in infants701
connectivity991–3
as an emergent feature94, 95
consciousness
access to799–806
of bodily functions799–800
change blindness paradigms805–6
masking procedures800
and multistable perception800–5
neural correlates806, 808–9
phenomenological contents of811–13
unconscious perceptual organization806–11
see also awareness
constancy
of colour438, 450, 454–5
of lightness450
in shadows and layers426
constancy hypothesis391
constructivism903
context sensitivity, probabilistic features942, 943
contextual constraints, features935
contextual modulation975–6
long-range976
(p. 1081)
time course of976–7
continuous flash suppression (CFS)788–9, 804
contour extrapolation239–41, 240
contour fragmentation208–9, 210
contour grouping207
computational framework209–10
computational models226
computer vision problems208–9
generative models of shape226–8, 229
global contour extraction216–18
global shape cues220–2, 229
local orientation coding210–11
pairwise association211–16
role in object perception207–8, 209
role of feedback222–6, 228–9
timing of events223–6
contour integration62, 63, 200–201
association field concept191–2
Bayesian inference1013–14
cellular physiology194–5
and crowding200
functional imaging195–6
linking process, nature and site192–4
and psychophysical flanker facilitation199–200
quantification189–191
snake, ladder, and rope configurations191
spatial extent199
contour integration models
Association Field models197–8
filter-overlap models198–9
contour interpolation241–2
contours
generative model of237–8
information content of236–8, 252
interactions with region geometry246–52
part-based representations242–6
contrast polarity, role in contour grouping215
contrast suppression810, 811
convergence970
converging operations99–100
convexity
as a grouping cue221–2
and holes289–290
information content of238
role in figure-ground assignment265–6, 355–6, 357
coordination871
coplanarity, and lightness perception394, 401–2
core systems1054–5
corpus callosum, role in perceptual grouping782–3
correspondence problem72
cortical hierarchy, individual differences720–1
cortical rhythms, role in perceptual bias719–20
cortical size, role in perceptual bias719, 725
countershading, role in camouflage855–6
craftsmanship864
crime-solving methods1049
criterion shifts831
croquis908
cross-modal correspondences, as intersensory Gestalten648–9
cross-modal dynamic capture task643–4
cross-modal perceptual organization639, 650
interactions between modalities640–3
intersensory Gestalten646–9
and intramodal perceptual grouping643–6
and rate of stimuli presentation645–6
sensory substitution657–8
crowding
and contour integration200
definition of177n2
cryptic camouflage843, 846, 847–52
Cubism912
cue combination, in contour grouping216
cueing paradigm, studies of holes290
cultural differences, and local versus global bias722
culture, interaction with colour perception444
curvature
force-induced perception of626
haptic after-effects of625–6
haptic illusions of625
haptic perception of622–5
role in contour extrapolation239–41
role in perceptual grouping68–9
curvature maxima
information content of236–8, 252
minima rule243–5
positive and negative243
cutaneous rabbit illusion, modulation by visual stimuli645
cuttlefish, camouflage844, 845, 850–1
Dadaism912
Dalmatian dog picture913
Daseinsform902
dazzle coloration856–7
decaying curvature behaviour, contour extrapolation240
decisional separability (DS)956, 961–2
decisional stopping rules950–1
decision criteria, and temporal experience831
decomposition models of lightness399, 407
delta activity998–9
depth, as an emergent feature94, 95–6
depth averaging160
depth cues267n4
in perception of holes286
depth estimation, pictorial shapes49
depth order perception
computational modelling356
functional imaging351–2
depth perception
relationship to lightness394
and sensory substitution662, 663
and transparency418–19
depth proximity, effect on lightness403
depth segregation, interaction with symmetry detection111
description length (surprisal)1018
descriptive minimum principle142–3, 1028
descriptive psychology27–8
(p. 1082) design863–4
future study directions875–6
Gestalt principles869–72
Japanese864–9
natural images873–5, 874
designed structure, measures of
bilateral symmetry and self-symmetry880
isovist theory879
natural mappings880–1
structured empty space and medial axis representation877–8
stylistic visual signature876–7
deuteranomalous colour vision439
development of perceptual organization708–9
demonstrations of organizational phenomena in infants693–6
flexibility of grouping principles706–8
Gestalt accounts691–2
of hierarchical structure perception135–8
initial eye movement evidence693
learning accounts692–3
perceptual grouping via classical organizational principles696–700
perceptual grouping via modern organizational principles700–3
relations among grouping principles703–6
dichromatic colour vision439
differential latency problems824
compensation failures825–6
differential suppression, in auditory perception609–10
dimensions, separable versus integral953–4
directed tension871
direction, judgement of156–7
direction-selective neurons506–7
direct magnitude estimation45
DISC (Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion) model311, 355
modelling of bistability357, 358
Discobolus890n13
discrete hypotheses, Bayesian inference1013–14
disjoint allocation principle, sound components603
disorder871
disruptive camouflage846–7
obscuring edges853–5
distributed systems989
connectivity issues991–3
dorsal attention network738
dorsal stream672, 972, 989, 1032
unilateral lesions of677
dot lattices
studies of apparent motion72–3
studies of perceptual grouping59–60, 68, 76, 715, 978–9, 997–8
dots, modification of illusory shapes302–3
double-anchoring theory400
double-belongingness415
figural conditions416–19
topological condition416, 417, 418
see also transparency
‘double blind’ experiments44
double flash illusion657
double-intentionality890n14
double-pointing model of grasping683
dual-task experiments, perceptual grouping744–5
duck-rabbit illusion913
dungeon illusion406
duo organization294
duplex perception, sound components603
dynamical interactive models, of figure–ground perception275–6
dynamic causal modelling studies, in blind individuals664–5
dynamic grouping560, 561, 562–3, 563
affinity and the surface correspondence problem564
and amodal completion568, 569–70
compositional structure565
direction of motion563–4
identifying new grouping variables567, 569
implications for object recognition570–2
state-dependence and super-additivity564–5
dynamic grouping motion, versus transformational apparent motion565–7, 566
dynamic occlusions496
dynamic systems theory (DST)1028, 1039
dyslexia, and magnocellular neurons724
eating-hand illusion971
ébauche908
Ebbinghaus illusion715, 716, 810, 811, 812
dissociation between action and perception674–7
eccentricity, effect on symmetry detection112
edge-assignment computation353
edge classification396, 505–6, 511
edge-region grouping69–70, 263, 264
edge relatability242
edges189
camouflage of852–5
egocentric neglect742
egocentric reference frames633–4
electric field theory, Köhler7, 13
electroencephalography (EEG), studies of translational apparent motion perception545
element connectedness67–8
embedded figures test (EFT)715–16, 729
and autism727
emergence88–9
emergent features (EFs)88
candidates in human vision91–97, 93–4
conclusions104–5
constraints91
establishment and quantification via configural superiority97–113
and Gestalts90–1
hierarchy of102–3
in modalities other than vision104
unresolved issues and challenges105
emotional content, effect on binocular rivalry787–9
empathy theory872
empty space, use in design877–8
enclosure fields378–80, 379, 381
end-stopped cells, as T-junction detectors358–9
environmental influences, role in perceptual bias718, 725
episcotister model of transparency421–3, 424, 468–9
(p. 1083) equivalent illumination models (EIMs)450, 470
evaluation of475
equivalent noise paradigms159–60, 161–2
esquisse908
‘Etch a Sketch’ toy51
ethological, core systems1054–5
ethology1050–1
Euclidean metric963
event-related desynchronization (ERD)994
event-related potentials, studies in blind and deaf individuals658
event time reconstruction827
compensation for auditory distance827–8
compensation for the length of tactile nerves828–9
intersensory adaptation829–32
event time theory824
and simultaneity constancy824
evoked activity996–7
expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm925
experimental phenomenology23–4, 34, 41–3, 46–7, 52–3
methodologies47–52
external local sign1058–9
extinction, studies of perceptual grouping740–2
extrastriate human body area (EBA)585
extremal edges (EE)263–4
eye make-up899
eye movement studies, infants693
face perception758–9, 768–9
as an automatized attentional strategy765–6
binocular rivalry788, 789
configural versus featural962
evidence for holistic nature759–63
holistic account763–5
interactivity between features and configuration766–8
in prosopagnosia761–3
systems factorial technology studies959–60
unconscious processing807
faces
as an emergent feature94, 96
holistic primacy141
symmetry of897
facial make-up –899, 899–900
familiarity
influence on figure assignment268–70
influence on figure–ground perception350, 351
fashion897–902, 910, 912
featural processing, face perception766–8
feature attribution, role of reference frames496–7
feature extraction1036
features933–4
classical versus probabilistic models934–5
feature-tracking (FT) strategy507–9
feedback connections
region growing327
reverse hierarchy theory973
feedback effects, border-ownership349, 376, 377
role of LFP380–3
feedback effects, region growing326, 329
feature specificity333–4
gating by feedforward activity334–5
feedforward processing963
boundary detection325, 326, 329
figural goodness1029
figural parsing, and transformational apparent motion543
figure–ground assignment248, 249, 259–60, 989
and the aperture problem511–14
and binocular rivalry778–9
competition272–5
computational modelling353–7, 358
configural properties263–5
direct and indirect methods of experimentation261–2
dynamical interactive models275–6
high-level influences267–76
and holes283, 284–5, 289–290
image-based ground properties265–6
influence of attention351
influence of familiarity350, 351
traditional view260–6
figure–ground modulation (FGM)323, 322
and border-ownership328–9
and boundary detection328
effect of attention329–31, 330
feature-specific feedback signals333–4
gating of feedback effects by feedforward activity334–5
laminar circuitry331–3, 332
latency326
pharmacology of335–7
and region growing325–7
figure–ground organization experiments66
filling-in806
models of lightness471
film grain913n84
filter models of lightness471
filter-overlap models198–9, 200–201
filter-rectify-filter mechanism, contour integration200
FINST theory495n2
fixation, influence on figure assignment267
fixed action patterns (FAPs)1051
flanker facilitation, and contour integration199–200
flank transparency428
flash-beep illusion813
flash suppression788–9, 804
flatfish, camouflage845, 849–50
flat organization922
flavour perception648n7
flicker, as an emergent feature94, 96
flowers, symmetries118
font design869–70
forensic science1049
form-based grouping
development of699–700
in infants698–9
form-based information, body motion perception580
formlets227
form–motion interactions491, 492–3, 541, 553
perceived rotation speed, size and shape effects546
perceptually grouped objects550–3, 551
transformational apparent motion542–6
(p. 1084) form pathway588
Fourier spectra, natural images875
fractal patterns875, 922
frameworks400
creation of illusions407
versus layers407–8
as perceptual groups401–3
frequentism1010–11
frieze groups894
functional imaging
of amodal completion300–1
in autism721
of body motion perception582, 585
of connectivity992–3
of contour integration195–6
of depth order perception351–2
of face perception768
of figure–ground perception349
of modal completion309
of multistable perception790–1, 803
of perceptual grouping747–8, 974
of rotation perception549
of sensory substitution663–5
of transformational apparent motion perception544–6
of unconscious perceptual organization808–9
functional networks993
functional tone1053
fundamental inequality1037
fusiform body area (FBA)585
gamma activity996, 1000
coupling with slow waves999–1000
event-related998
evoked activity996–7
gamma distribution, bistable perception776–7
gap transfer illusion605
garden design, Japanese864–5
Garner Interference (GI)99–100, 766–7, 769, 962, 963, 980–1
Garner speeded classification task, dissociation between action and perception678
gauge figures50–2
Gaussian prior distribution1016
Gelb effect397–8
generalized common fate66–7
general recognition theory (GRT)955–7, 964
analysis of Thatcher illusion957–9, 958
experimental evidence960–1
general viewpoint assumption1034
generative models of shape226–7, 377
evaluation227–8, 229, 229
generic grouping rules921
genetic approach, Meinong33
geometry963
geons110
Gestalt processing
decisional separability956, 961–2
Garnerian approach953–5
general recognition theory955–7, 982–3
perceptual independence949, 955, 961
perceptual separability953, 956, 957, 961
systems factorial technology949–51, 959–60
working axioms for configural perception952–3, 957, 959
Gestalt psychology3, 488, 714–15, 972
adoption of phenomenological methods24
and anatomical constraints718–19
and design869–72
on development of perceptual organization691–2
early history of3–6
and figure–ground assignment260–1
grouping principles57–64, 79–80, 92, 602, 921
historical evaluation15–16
internal laws of perceptual organization871
Köhler’s ‘physical Gestalten’ and somorphism6–7
Prägnanz, law of494
rise and fall of9–15
role of likelihood717–18
theory of lightness398–401
on transparency415, 417
and visual awareness1048
Wertheimer’s ‘Gestalt laws’8–9
wholes and parts28–30, 129, 139
Gestalt qualities30–1
Gestalts
colour as103–4
and emergent features90–1
intersensory646–9
memes900
as templates1058–60
in visual art898
Glass patterns114–15
representation models of detection115–16
spatial filtering119
glia, role in neuronal function382–3
global advantage130
boundary conditions130–1
brain localization131–2
source of131
global broadcasting998
global completions296–8
global contour extraction216–18
global features938
global motion thresholds, in autism727
global precedence effect129–32
demonstration in infants694–5
global properties
global–local paradigm138–9
versus holistic properties141–3
Global Workspace Theory999–1000
gloss perception153, 476–9, 480
glutamate receptors334–5
role in figure–ground modulation335
‘God’s Eye View’1047–8
good continuation principle58, 61–2, 63, 213–14, 297, 366–7, 632
in 3-D371–2
contour extrapolation239–41
and contour geometry370
demonstration in infants697–8
development in infants696
(p. 1085)
shading analysis372–3, 374
and sound events602
Gothic style876
graphlets921
grasping
adjustment to object size683–4
double-pointing model of683
and illusions of size674–7
and visual form agnosia684
and Weber’s law681–3
grey-level patterns, kinetic transparency428
grey levels, sensitivity to152–3
ground properties, role in figure-ground assignment265–6
ground regions, holes as284–5
Ground-Up Constant Signal Method101–3
grouping cells356
Haldane prior1016
hand, anisotropy of625
haptic perception621–2
of curvature622–6
and design863
emergent features104
of length627–8
of line drawings630–1
of shape626–7
of spatial patterns631–2
of spatial relations632–4
of volume628–9
of weight629–30
hard boundaries, and classical model of features935
Hebbian learning, and sensory substitution663
hemispatial neglect738, 741
perceptual grouping without attention745–7
hermeneutics890n15
Hess effect825–6
hierarchical letters130
hierarchical organization969–71, 981–2, 1038–9, 1040
background review922
human figures case study929–30, 931
opposing approaches972–4
And-Or-Tree framework922–4
scene case study926–29
structure learning by parameter estimation in AOT924–6
tiling method919–920
unresolved problems971–2
hierarchical structure129, 129–32, 143
development of perception of135–8
global versus holistic properties141–3
levels of structure and holistic properties138
microgenesis of perception132–4
primacy of holistic properties139–41
simplest stimulus organizations1030–1
hierarchy, in design871
hMT+
role in motion parsing546
transformational apparent motion perception544
holes281, 291–2
and attention290
and convexity coding289–290
as ground regions284–5
memory of287–8
ontology281–3
perception of, influencing factors285–6
perception of underlying surfaces286–7
topology282, 283–4
and visual search288
holism, intrinsic975–7
holistic dominance143
holistic processing, face perception763–5, 768–9
holistic properties
versus global properties141–3
primacy of139–41
holographic approach to symmetry115–17, 118
holographic bootstrap approach to symmetry121, 122
homogeneity871
Hongatte865
hue naming46
human body, hierarchical organization920, 929–30, 931
hybrid image templates (HITs)929
hypercolumn model of object representation964
hyper-emergent features104
hyperstrings1040–1
hypothesis space, Bayesian inference1012
hysteresis76
identity hypothesis of completions310
identity impositionsee orientation stability
ifenprodil, effect on figure–ground modulation335–7, 336
illumination, grouping by401, 402–5, 402
illumination edges394–6, 397
illumination field467
illusory contours222, 295, 302–3, 812
effect of TMS224–5
influence of region-based geometry249–50
kinetic308–9
and stereokinetic effect527–8, 529
and unconscious processing809–11
illusory flash657
illusory line motion542, 543
illusory volumes303, 304
image-based models of perception921
image processing, models of texture segmentation172–3
Impressionism912
inattention paradigm744–5
incongruence effects980
incremental grouping974
incremental rigidity scheme532–3
individual differences in global–local paradigms714
in autism726–8
construct validity723–5
future research areas728–9
in schizophrenia725–6
underlying principles717–23
induced grouping71
(p. 1086) infant research
accounts of development of perceptual organization692–3
on amodal completion301–2
demonstrations of organizational phenomena693–6
eye movement studies693
flexibility of grouping principles706–8
on modal completion310
perceptual grouping, relations among the principles703–6
perceptual grouping via classical organizational principles696–700
perceptual grouping via modern organizational principles700–3
inference1008
Bayes’ rule1009–10
information-integration theory629
information theory, application to perceptual grouping80–1
innate knowledge1017, 1050
inner world1053–4
insufficient reason (indifference), principle of1016
integral dimensions953–4, 980
integral properties973
integral superiority effect973
integration fields200
integration process150–1
integration ratio (IR)112
intention, influence on figure assignment267
intentionality, in definition of art886n3, 890
interior design, Japanese865–7, 866
intermodal comparison method45
internal laws of perceptual organization870–1
interpolation models62
interposition cue to depth295n3
interpretation, effect on binocular rivalry787–9
intersection, as an emergent feature94, 95
intersection of constraints (IOC) strategy507–8
intersensory adaptation829–32
timing-selective neurons versus criterion shifts and expectations830–2
intersensory Gestalten646–8
cross-modal correspondences as648–9
intrinsic holistic representation975–7
invariance876
inverse optics399, 1008
inverse probability1009–10
inverse problem602
inverted faces
processing of764–5, 769, 789, 962
Thatcher illusion579
isomorphism7, 13
iso-orientation excitation, region growing325
iso-orientation inhibition, boundary detection324
isovist theory879
iterative learning, hierarchical organization by AOT925–6
Japanese design, influence on Bauhaus869–70
Japanese garden design864–5
medial axes877, 878
symmetry880
visual organization867–9
Japanese interior design865–7, 866
Jeffreys’ prior1016
Jesus, images of889
jitter, effect on symmetry detection112
Jordan Curve Theorem207
Julesz conjecture171
just-noticeable difference (JND)
dissociation between action and perception681–3
Weber’s law680–1
Kanizsa figures472–3
as emergent features94, 96
Kanizsa triangle294, 295
and unconscious processing809–11
Kanizsa-type modal completions306–7
katagami869
kinesthetic information, role in solution of aperture problem515–16
kinesthetic sense621
kinetic depth effect10
Metzger’s work528–30, 529
Wallach’s work530–1
kinetic transparency428
knowledge, influence on completion311
Koffka cross302, 303
Kolmogorov complexity1018, 1028, 1029
Korte’s laws488
ladder contours191
language, interaction with colour perception443–4
lateral endpoint offset, as an emergent feature94, 95
lateral geniculate nucleus, chromatic tuning440
lateral inhibition393
lateral occipital complex (LOC)441, 971
role in amodal completion301
role in contour integration195
role in depth order perception351–2
role in symmetry detection110
and sensory substitution658
transformational apparent motion perception544
lateral parietal sulcus (LIP)972
lattice method of grouping560–1
layer decomposition421
layers (scission) models of lightness470
evaluation of472–4
L-cones440, 441
learning, impact on perceptual grouping75–76
length
haptic perception of627–8
illusions of627–8
levels of perceptual organization364–6, 365
‘life detection’, body motion perception580–2
lightness408–9, 450, 469–70, 480–1
and 3-D structure393–4
ambiguity of luminance391–2
anchoring theory400, 407–8, 455, 470–1
(p. 1087)
definition of391
equivalent illumination models470
evaluation of theories471–5
filtering and filling-in models471
frameworks as perceptual groups401–3
frameworks that create illusions407
frameworks versus layers407–8
Gestalt theory398–401
grouping principles403–5
limitations of ratio theory393–8
local versus remote ratios396–8
in models of transparency424
perceived relationship to transmittance468–9
reflectance versus illuminance edges394–6, 397
relative luminance392
reverse contrast illusions405–6
scission models470
structure-blind approach391
Wallach experiment392–3
lightness-illumination invariance hypothesis399
lightness perception, benefits of466
lightness similarity grouping, demonstration in infants696–7
likelihood function, Bayesian inference1010, 1012n4
likelihood principle1029, 1033–4
Bayesian inference1017–18
statistical1017n7
veridicality1036–8
and view dependencies1031–2
linearity, as an emergent feature93, 98, 102
linear-nonlinear-linear (LNL) models, texture segmentation172, 173
linear perspective, pictorial box spaces1059
line bisection tasks, studies in hemispatial neglect746–7
line drawings, haptic perception of630–1
L-junctions, in modal completions306
local and global biases713–14
in autism726–8
construct validity723–5
future research areas728–9
historical background714–17
in schizophrenia725–6
underlying principles717–23
local completions296
local features938
local field potential (LFP), role in border-ownership380–2
local orientation coding210–11
local sign concept1058
location-and-gradient mapping239
long range connectivity, visual cortex194, 222, 334, 368, 369, 376, 783, 976
loss functions, Bayesian inference1019–20
lower regions, configural properties of264
luminance
ambiguity of391–2
effect on direction judgements157
in models of transparency424, 425
non-local nature938
relative392
Wallach experiment392–3
luminance ratios392–3, 470–1, 475, 480
limitations393–8
luminance statistics152–3
and texture segmentation170
magnitude of experience42–3
magnocellular neurons, and dyslexia724
make-up facial –899, 899
Markhov Random Field (MRF) frameworks922
Markov assumption217
limitations218
masking procedures800
masquerade843, 846
material properties
perceptual correlates453
perceptual representation of479–81
material–weight illusion629
maximum a posterior (MAP) hypothesis1012, 1018
and shape representation1014–15
maximum entropy prior1016
maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs)157
and cross-modal interactions657
McGurk illusion813
M-cones440, 441
meanings1046–7
computation of1050
medial axis representation8778
medial-axis-transform (MAT)245–6, 248–9
Meissner corpuscles621
memes900
memory, of holes287–8
mental world1047
mereological essentialism34
mereology28–9
Merkel nerve endings621
metacontrast497–8
metacontrast masking800
metamerism438
metamodal theory of brain657–8
method of adjustment681
Michigan Visual Sonification System (MVSS)656, 667
micropattern textures168
mid-level theories of lightness400–1
mimicry843
minimal mapping564
minima rule243–4
limitations244–5
minimum description length (MDL) principle1018–19, 1027–8, 1035
minimum-relative-motion principle525–7, 526
mirror neurons872
role in body motion perception585
mirror stereoscope776, 777
mirror symmetry61
see also symmetry
mismatch negativity (MMN)610
mistuned partial phenomenon605
Mitate865
mixture distributions941
(p. 1088) modal completion294–6, 302–4
in animals310
identity hypothesis310–11
incompleteness as a local cue304–6
in infants310
Kanizsa-type versus Petter-type306–8
kinetic illusory contours308–9
neural correlates309
in stereopsis308
modalities of existence25
modes, and probabilistic structure941–2
modular small-world structure991–2
monocular rivalry802
MOSAIC model586, 587
motion
barberpole effect509–12
Bayesian inference1013
as an emergent feature94, 96
form–motion interactions492–3
interaction with transparency428
non-local nature938
non-retinotopic feature attribution497–9
phenomenal identity problem491
reference frames493–7
terminology488
Zeno’s paradox487
motion after-effect, chromatic selectivity448
motion ambiguity504
aperture problem504
edge classification problem505–6
motion blur problem496, 497
motion camouflage856–7
motion coherence tasks157
motion correspondence problem491
motion detection
as a fundamental perceptual dimension489–490
as orientation detection in space-time489, 490
motion fading
effect of trackable features548–9
effects of grouping550
motion features, body motion perception580
motion–form interactions541, 542–6, 553
perceived rotation speed, size and shape effects546
perceptually grouped objects550–3, 551
transformational apparent motion542–6
motion-induced blindness806
motion neurons584
motion parallax535
motion pathway588
motion perception
Gestalt psychology10
phi motion3–4
motion perspective535
motion processing
structure-blind strategies for overcoming the aperture problem507–9
two stages of506–7
motion statistics156–8
motor signals, influence on binocular rivalry790
moving ghosts problem496
Müller-Lyer illusion627, 810, 811
dual-task experiments745
multidimensional affinity spaces, role in object recognition571
multidimensional scaling, investigation of colour perception437
multimodal neurons830
multiple objects tracking, studies of holes290
multiple symmetry, representation models of detection117–18
multisensory interactions514–15
and binocular rivalry790
multistable perception
neural processes803
of sound events606–7
and study of unconscious processing800–5
musical metre, intermodal perception647
naïve Bayesian models1016
natural images
in design873–5, 874
edges189
unconscious processing807–8
natural mapping880–1
natural tasks, identification of466, 467, 479
natural textures168
Navon letters715, 716
and autism727
limitations728–9
and schizophrenia726
validity in demonstration of global bias723
Nazi regime, impact on Gestalt psychology11
Necker cube775, 776, 777, 800, 801
neglect738, 741
egocentric versus allocentric742
perceptual grouping without attention745–7
network propagation models, of border-ownership375–7
‘Neural Centre of Consciousness’ hypothesis1048
neuronal synchronization1039, 1041
neurophysiological studies, of contour integration194–5
neurophysiology, relationship to phenomenology34
NMDA receptor335
role in figure–ground modulation335
noise, role in rivalry dynamics785, 804
non-accidental features936–8, 1034
non-accidentalness, perceptual grouping68–9
non-retinotopic feature attribution
sequential metacontrast497–8
Ternus–Pikler displays498–9
normalization110
Nōtan864
notion-sensitive neurons489–490
null hypothesis significance testing (NHST)1011n3
object file theory495
objective reality1048
objectivity41–2, 47
shared46
object localization, studies of sensory substitution661, 662
(p. 1089) object recognition
implications of dynamic grouping570–1
studies of sensory substitution660–2
objects
auditory603–4, 611–12
haptic properties622–30
object segmentation, role of colour447
object size resolution, dissociation between action and perception680–5
objet trouvés886n2, 889, 892
oblique effect634
Occam’s razor1027–8
occluded figure interpretation266, 989–91
amodal completion296–302, 569–70
contour extrapolation239–41
contour interpolation241–2
and edge classification511–12
good continuation62, 632
infants695–6
and local convexity250
modal completion302–10
occluding layers, in Japanese interior design866–7
odd quadrant task97–8
odours
binaral rivalry802
influence on binocular rivalry790
open environments913
opponent colour processing439–40
optic flow, and structure from motion533–5
optimal codes1018, 1030–1
order871
orientation
as an emergent feature92, 93, 98, 102
illusions of634
representation in visual cortex367–9, 368
orientation-dependent coloured after-effects448
orientation-linking190
linking process, nature and site192–4
orientation stability5234
orientation statistics153–6
discrimination and detection experiments155
orthographic projection529–30
oscillatory activity993, 1000
alpha activity993–5
beta and gamma activity995–7
coherence intervals996–8
coupling of slow and fast waves999–1000
event-related gamma activity998
slow wave modulations998–9
outline patterns, transparency419–20
Pacinian corpuscles621
pain perception1048
painting
definition of903, 906
gist908
iconic images908
microgenesis913–6
paradigm shifts911
preliminary depictions908
scales of structure910
‘space of images’ ,911
and visual awareness903
pairwise association
cue combination216
good continuation principle213–14
proximity principle211–2
similarity grouping214–15
palm boards52n16
parallelism
as an emergent feature94, 95, 98
haptic perception of632–3
problems with contour-based representations247, 248
role in contour grouping222
role in perceptual grouping58, 62, 69
parallel processing821, 949–50, 953, 955, 962, 990–1, 1039
parameter estimation, Bayesian inference1012, 1013
pareidolia897n44
parietal extinction811
parse trees923
mathematical formalism924
partial movement488
part salience262–3
part segmentation242–3
Medial-Axis-Transform (MAT)245–6
minima rule243–5
part-whole effects, face perception759
in prosopagnosia761–2
part–whole paradigm959
past experience1017, 1050
influence on figure assignment268–72
past experience, role in perception536
patterns, ornamental893–7
payoff matrix (loss function), Bayesian inference1019–20
perception-action modelling872
perceptual grouping57–8
and binocular rivalry779–83
ceteris paribus rules62, 64
changes in schizophrenia725–6
and colour induction449
common fate principle60
common region principle64–66
cross-modal interactions643–6
edge-region grouping69–70
element connectedness67–8
frameworks401–3
generalized common fate66–7
generic versus category-specific rules921–2
Gestalt qualities30–1
good continuation principle61–2
grouping by illumination402–5
grouping in dynamic patterns72–4
haptic perception of spatial patterns631–2
induced grouping71
in infants696–708
influence on attentional priorities739–44
interaction with attention736–7, 748–9
lattice method560–1
learning, associative grouping, and carryover effects75–76
motion correspondence problem491
(p. 1090)
non-accidentalness and regularity68–9
operation without selection by attention744–8
proximity principle59–60
role of probability74–5
similarity grouping60–1
of sounds602–3, 605–6
symmetry grouping61, 110–11
synchrony grouping67
and temporal experience832–3
theoretical issues76–81
time course of977–979
uniform connectedness72, 73
wholes and parts28–30
perceptual independence (PI)949, 955
violation of957, 959, 961
perceptually grouped objects, perceived motion550–3, 551
perceptual scaffolding703–5
perceptual separability (PS)953
violation of956, 957, 961
perceptual switching
functional imaging349
oscillatory activity996
perfect symmetry, representation models of detection115–16
peripheral vision, texture processing177, 179–90
perirhinal cortex, role in figure-ground assignment275–6
personality traits, and local versus global bias722
perturbed symmetry, representation models of detection116–17
Petter-type modal completions307–8
phase-of-firing code382
phenomenal identity problem491
object file theory495
phenomenal reality25
phenomenology
first-person accounts27–8
information content of presentation24–5
origins of21
physical versus psychic phenomena26–7
presentations22–3
relationship to neurophysiology34
phi motion3–4, 89, 488
photometer metaphor391
physical Gestalten6–7
physical phenomena26
physical world1047
physics41–2
physiognomical perception872
pictorial box spaces, linear perspective1059
pictorial reliefs49
pictorial shapes, experimental phenomenology51–5
pictorial surfaces49
pictures
definition of889–90
piecemeal perception of objects994
piecemeal rivalry781, 802
pixel count, as an emergent feature94, 95
pixel statistics, and texture segmentation170–4
planarity, grouping by401–2
plasticity, role in sensory substitution657–8
point-light studies of body motion577–9, 578
poking1055
polarized gamma motion542, 543
Ponzo illusion715, 716, 810, 811
dissociation between action and perception676–7
dual-task experiments745
and sensory substitution662, 663
position averaging160
posterior distribution1012
posterior probabilities1010
computation of1017–19
power spectrum, and texture perception174, 175
Prägnanz principle8, 9, 79–81, 494, 972, 1008, 1028
predictive coding722–3, 974
predominance, binocular rivalry786
presentations22–3
information content of24–5
prototypical durations30–1, 33
primed matching paradigm132
studies of amodal completion299–300
prior probabilities1010, 1015–17, 1021
probabilistic features936
local versus global938–40
non-accidental936–8
shape features938–40, 939, 941
and the statistical structure of the environment940–43
probability
role in perceptual grouping74–5
probability matching behaviour1020
process models of symmetry detection118–19
bootstrapping119–21
proportionality876–7
prosopagnosia761–3
and Garner interference766–7
Prosthesis Substituting Vision by Audition (PSVA) device656, 660
proto-objects
and auditory perception612, 613
and sound perception607–9
proximity
effect on symmetry detection112–13
as an emergent feature92, 93, 96–7, 98, 102
proximity dot lattice715
proximity grouping57, 58, 59–60, 972
demonstration in infants697
grouping by illumination403
and haptic perception631–2
learning of692
in pairwise association211–12
time course of977–979
pruning criterion, skeletal shape representation246
psychic phenomena26–7
psychophysical flanker facilitation, and contour integration199–200
psychophysics42–3
measurement in43–5
(p. 1091) pure distance law60
qualities1047
quantum computing1039–40
qubits1039
radial-tangential illusion627
random dot kinematograms (RDK), motion transparency428
random-dot stereogram, colour effects447
rapid detection tasks, boundary detection324–5
ratio theory of luminance392–3
limitations393–8
receptive fields363, 383, 938, 969
surround regions975
reciprocal inhibition, in binocular rivalry784
recognition-by-components theory568, 570, 920, 937
recognition from partial information (RPI)311
redundancy150
redundancy facilitation effect954
redundancy gains and losses100, 101
reference frames493–5
classification of497n3
and haptic perception633–4
importance of495–7
reflectance391
grouping by401, 402
in models of transparency424
reflectance edges396, 397
region geometry, interactions with contour geometry246–52
region growing323, 322, 325
computational modelling325–7
feature-specific feedback signals333–4
feedback connections329
region segmentation207
regularity
influence on amodal completion298
role in perceptual grouping69
relatability62, 296, 298
relational systems, Metzger’s work12
relative motion576–7
relative size, and hierarchical structure138–9
releasers, ethological1051
repetition discrimination task (RDT)65–66, 74
representation models of symmetry detection115–18
retinal ganglion cells323, 440
retinex algorithms450
retinotopic maps, intrinsic constraints719
retinotopy, and temporal experience822
reverse contrast illusions405–6
and assimilation407
reverse hierarchy theory143, 973–4
reversible figures363, 364
rhythm, intermodal perception647
rigidity assumption531–2
rocks, Japanese garden design865, 867–9
rolling wheel illusion493, 494
rope contours191
Rorschach inkblot figures898, 896
rotating snakes illusion812
rotation, perceived speed of, effects of size and shape546–9
Rotoreliefs, Duchamp523
Rubin’s face/vase776
functional imaging studies992–3
Ruffini nerve endings621
Ryonaji garden867, 868
medial axes877, 878
saddle shapes, disregard of1059–60
Sakuteiki867
salience970, 971–2
salience hierarchy, grouping principles705–6
saliency map737
sampled motion488n1
Sansui manual867
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis444
Saturn illusion527–8
savannah landscape, visual appeal of875
scale invariance, functional networks993
scarification895
scene recognition, role of texture processing178, 179
schizophrenia716, 725–6
comparison with autism727
and connectivity991–2
Schrödinger’s principle1048, 1060
Schroeder’s stairs776
scission models of lightness470
evaluation of472–4
S-cones440–1, 445
sculpture902–3, 912, 914
segmentation450
segmentation405, 468
segmentation problems
gloss perception4476–9
lightness perception469–75
transparency perception468–9
selective grouping, scission induction473–4
self-organization of brain structure991
self-splitting figures307–8
self-symmetry, in human design880
sematic information, unconscious processing807
senses41
sensory substitution655, 667–8
and aesthetics665–7
as a cross-modal interaction657–8
and depth perception662, 663
functional imaging studies663–5
future research areas663
historical background656
network possibilities665, 666
object localization studies661, 662
object recognition studies660–2
subjective perceptual experiences658–60
technical overview656–7
separable dimensions953, 980
sequential grouping, of sound events605–6
sequential metacontrast497, 498
serial processing949–50
shading information
and good continuation372–3, 374
in perception of holes286
shape-from-shading48, 456, 457, 1059–60
shadows, distinction from transparency426
(p. 1092) shape
effect on perceived speed of rotation546–9
haptic perception of626–7
interaction with volume perception628–9
part-based representations242–6
shape averaging160
shape completion238
contour extrapolation239–41
contour interpolation241–2
shape features938–40, 939, 941
shape-from-shading48, 456, 457, 1059–60
shape interference290–1
shape neurons585
shape processing
Bayesian model1014–15
dissociation between action and perception678–80
shared objectivity46
Shepard Tables810, 811–12
Sherlock’s principle1049–50, 1060
Shin-Gyō-Sō865, 876
signal detection theory955
similarity, as an emergent feature96
similarity grouping58, 60–1, 214–15
development in infants696
grouping by illumination403–4
and haptic perception632
of sounds602
time course of977–979
simple pooling model of texture perception180
simplicity (minimum) principle81, 720, 1029–30
Bayesian inference1017–19, 1032–5
classical versus modern information-theoretic simplicity1030–1
historical background1027–9
neural realization of1038–41
veridicality of1035–8
view-dependencies1031–2
simultanagnosia68, 736, 739
perceptual grouping without attention746–7
simultaneity820, 823
simultaneity constancy824, 827
compensation for auditory distance827–8
compensation for the length of tactile nerves828–9
intersensory adaptation829–32
simultaneous lightness constancy393
simultaneous lightness contrast404–5, 810, 811
unconscious perception809
simultaneous matching task, studies of amodal completion299, 300
size, effect on perceived speed of rotation547, 548
size averaging158–60
size illusions
dissociation between action and perception673–7
relationship to visual cortex activity812
size–weight illusion629
skeletal shape representation245–6, 248–9
comparison of animal and leaf categories250–2, 251
sleep deprivation, and connectivity992
sliding effect512
small-world structure991–2
smell
binaral rivalry802
emergent features104
influence on binocular rivalry790
snake contours191
soft boundaries, probabilistic model of features940–1
somatosensory perception, Aristotle illusion812–13
sound events, definition of604
sound organization608–9
space–time coupling73–4
space-times1053
space–time trade-off73–4
spatial attitude estimation, pictorial shapes49–52
spatial filtering models of symmetry detection118–19
spatial patterns, haptic perception of631–2
spatial pyramid matching (SPM) model928
spatial relations, haptic perception of632–4
spatial relationships perception, serial processing821–2
spatiotemporal boundary formation308
spatiotemporal models of motion489, 490
specular reflection, in gloss perception476–7
speech recognition, motor theory of587
speed, judgement of158
spiral patterns893–4
spot-shadow experiment396
staircase Gelb effect397–8
state-dependence, dynamic grouping564–5
stationarity assumption535
statistics151–2
and attention160–1
commonalities of averaging161
locus of computation162
luminance statistics152–3
motion statistics156–8
orientation statistics153–6
size averaging158–60
stereo correspondence, good continuation371–2
stereokinetic effect535–6
Benussi’s work522–3
height of the stereokinetic cone524–5
and illusory contours527–8, 529
Mach’s work521–2
minimum-relative-motion principle525–7, 526
Musatti’s work523–5
orientation stability523–4
Renvall’s explanation of525
stereokinesis on inadequate basis524
stereoscopic noise patterns, scission induction473
stick insects846
stimulus intensity, Weber’s law680–1
stimulus specific adaptation (SSA), in auditory perception609
stopping rules950–1
stream/bounce illusion, cross-modal effects643
stroboscopic motion488n1
Benussi–Koffka dispute31–2
strong Gestalten6
Stroop Interference (SI)99–100
Stroop task980
structural classes1031
structural information theory (SIT)297, 1029, 1031
precisals1033, 1040
Structuralism129, 260
(p. 1093) structure from motion (SfM)
Euclidean versus affine space533
incremental rigidity scheme532–3
integration with other cues535
optic-flow components and projection types533–5
rigidity assumption531–2
style spaces, body motion579
stylistic visual signature876–7
subjective contours14
perception by infants695
subjective experience27–8
descriptive psychology27–8
subjective figures, as emergent features94, 96
subjectivism1011
super-additivity, dynamic grouping564–5
super-capacity processing951, 953, 962
superior temporal sulcus, role in body motion perception584–5
superposition method97–8
supra-threshold phenomena45
surface correspondence problem564, 565
surface disruption854
surface properties
perceptual representation of479–81
surprisal (description length)237, 238, 1018
Surrealism912
surroundedness, as an emergent feature93, 103
symmetry108–9
and 3D object completion298
and camouflage851
as an emergent feature93, 97, 102–3
in human design880
local249n9
in nature873
in patterns894, 897, 906f
problems with contour-based representations248
role in contour grouping222
role in perceptual organization109–111
symmetry detection
formal models113–15
modulating factors111–13
process models118–21
representation models115–18
symmetry grouping58, 61
synaesthesia649n9
and sensory substitution666
synchrony, temporal correlation hypothesis79
synchrony grouping67
systems factorial technology (SFT)949–51, 964
experimental evidence959–60
tactile nerve length, compensation for828–9
tactile perception621–2
ambiguity775
Aristotle illusion812–13
of curvature622–6
interaction with visual perception645
of length627–8
of line drawings630–1
sensory substitution656, 659
of shape626–7
of spatial patterns631–2
of spatial relations632–4
of volume628–9
of weight629–30
tactile stimuli, influence on binocular rivalry790
Tactile Visual Substitution System (TVSS)656
tangent bundles198
Tangrams919, 920
taste, emergent features104
templates, Gestalts as1058–60
temporal coherence602, 612, 613
temporal correlation hypothesis79
temporal experience
brain time824–5
brain time theory versus event time theory823–4
chronotopy, lack of821
differential latency problems824, 825–6
event time reconstruction827–9
event time theory and simultaneity constancy824
intersensory adaptation829–32
ordered timeline view820
and perceptual grouping832–3
and retinotopy822
time-stamping822
undefined temporal relationships820–1, 822–3
temporal induction603
temporal ventriloquism effect643
terminator count, as an emergent feature94, 95
Ternus–Pikler displays491, 498–9
tesselations897
tetrachromatic colour vision439
texton theories171, 847
textural crowding865
texture, nature of167
texture analysis/synthesis techniques175
texture descriptors
comparison of information encoding174, 175–6
use in computer vision179
texture-orientation statistics154
texture perception175–6, 177, 179
high-dimensional models180–1
non-local nature938
in peripheral vision177, 179–80
and visual crowding177, 180
textures
micropatterns168–9
natural168
nature of169
texture segmentation150, 168–7
combined statistical and image processing-based models173–4
image processing-based models172–3
phenomena169–70
role of glutamate receptors335
statistics of pixels170–1
statistics of textons171
terminology170n1
texture-segmentation tasks321–2, 322
texture statistics150
order of150–1
(p. 1094) texture tiling model179–180
Thatcher illusion579
GRT analysis957–9, 958
theatrical make-up900
theory of visual attention (TVA)737, 749
theta activity998
coupling with fast waves999, 999–1000
thirds, rule of867
threshold mean orientation offset154
thresholds, measurement of43–5
tiling method of organization919–920
tilt illusion811
timescale of visual perception1055–6
time-stamping822
tipping factors, binocular rivalry784
T-junctions1034–5
as cue for occlusion296, 356
detection in visual cortex358–9
in Japanese interior design866
role in perceptual grouping405
tone combinations, emergent features104
top–bottom polarity263, 264
topological consistency375–6
topological equivalence282
topology283–4, 366
condition for transparency416, 417, 418
as an emergent feature94, 95
and Gestalt perception963
trackable features hypothesis546–7, 548–9
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
studies of Braille reading658
studies of contour grouping224–5
studies of multistable perception791, 803
studies of sensory substitution659, 664, 665
transfer of organization across grouping principles703
transformational apparent motion (TAM)542–4
and dynamic grouping562, 563
and dynamic grouping motion565–7, 566
model of545–6
neural correlates544–5
transformational approach to symmetry113–15, 114
translational apparent motion542, 543–4
transmittance413
perceived relationship to lightness468–9
transparallel mind hypothesis1040–1
transparallel processing1039
transparency413, 468–9, 479–80
achromatic413–15
chromatic452–3, 456
contrast attenuation theory423
distinction from shadows426
effects426–7
effects on motion428
figural conditions416–19
and invariance of cone excitation ratios452–3
Metelli’s model421–3
in outline patterns419–20
photometric conditions420–6
topological condition416, 417, 418
X-junctions and four regions, indispensability425–6
transversality principle243–4
travelling waves, rivalry dominance782, 783
triadic rock groupings, Japanese gardens868, 869
trichromacy436–7
anomalous439
asymmetries in organization440–1
tunnel effect, amodal completion302
“Twenty Questions” game1049, 1055
two-point-threshold621
two-thirds power law, arm and finger movements582
typography design869–70
Umwelt1052–3
unconscious perceptual organization806–7
face perception807
of natural images807–8
neural representation808–9
of semantic information807
uniform connectedness72, 73
uninformative priors1016
unique hues439
encoding of441–2
unitization, infants719
user interfaces
awareness as1056–60
templates1057–60
utility functions (loss functions), Bayesian inference1019–20
vector analysis493, 494, 576–7
vector average (VA) strategy507–9
vector field combination296
veiling luminance423n13
ventral stream672, 969, 972, 989, 1032
ventral stream damage742–3
visual form agnosia684
verbal transformation effect642
veridicality1057
and simplicity principle1035–8
vertical–horizontal illusion, and sensory substitution662
view-dependencies1031–2
viewpoint generalization110
visible persistence496
vision-for-action672
comparison with vision-for-perception673
visual art
definition of886–892
fashion897–902, 910, 912
ornamental patterns893–7
painting903, 908–16
sculpture902–3, 909, 914
stratified structure of892–3, 898
visual attention
attentional priority map737–8
and awareness738
neuropsychological deficits738–9
visual cortex
chromatic tuning441
detection of local boundary signals367–9, 368
hierarchical organization969–71
and intrinsic holism975–6
(p. 1095)
motion processing506–7
rotation perception549
transformational apparent motion perception544–6
visual crowding154
and texture perception177, 180
visual extinction739
visual field1058–9
visual form agnosia684–5
visual Gestalten7
visual literacy890–891
visually-evoked potentials, studies of translational apparent motion perception545
visual perception, Gestalt psychology9
visual processing, timing of perceptual grouping77–9
visual proofs46–7, 1054
visual regularities109
visual search
and holes288
power of closure378
role of texture processing178, 179
voice device656, 657
object recognition studies660, 662
subjective perceptual experiences658–9
volume, haptic perception of628–9
volumetric sculpture902, 912
von Uexküll’s principle1053–4, 1060
Wabi-Sabi865
wallpaper patterns896, 897
weak Gestalten7
Weber–Fechner law117
Weber’s law680–1
dissociation between action and perception681–3
weight
awareness of41–2
illusions of629–30
perception of629
White’s illusion404, 405, 407
wholes and parts, theory of28–30
Wirkungsform902
within-object illusions679
dissociation between action and perception678–9
workload capacity951, 955
X-junctions, and transparency418, 420, 425–6, 456
yardsticks49–50
zebra stripes, function of857
Zeno’s paradox487
zero-bounded response distributions (ZBRs)198
zero–one loss, Bayesian inference1019, 1020
zombie nature1046, 1050