- The Oxford Handbook of Perceptual Organization
- Historical and conceptual background: Gestalt theory
- Philosophical background: Phenomenology
- Methodological background: Experimental phenomenology
- Traditional and new principles of perceptual grouping
- Emergent features and feature combination
- Symmetry perception
- The perception of hierarchical structure
- Seeing statistical regularities
- Texture perception
- Contour integration: Psychophysical, neurophysiological, and computational perspectives
- Bridging the dimensional gap: Perceptual organization of contour into two-dimensional shape
- Visual representation of contour and shape
- Low-level and high-level contributions to figure-ground organization
- Figures and holes
- Perceptual completions
- The neural mechanisms of figure-ground segregation
- Neural mechanisms of figure-ground organization: Border-ownership, competition and perceptual switching
- Border inference and border ownership: The challenge of integrating geometry and topology
- Perceptual organization in lightness
- Achromatic transparency
- Perceptual organization of color
- The perceptual representation of transparency, lightness, and gloss
- Apparent motion and reference frames
- Perceptual organization and the aperture problem
- Stereokinetic effect, kinetic depth effect, and structure from motion
- Interactions of form and motion in the perception of moving objects
- Dynamic grouping motion: A method for determining perceptual organization for objects with connected surfaces
- Biological and body motion perception
- Auditory perceptual organization
- Tactile and haptic perceptual organization
- Cross-modal perceptual organization
- Sensory substitution: A new perceptual experience
- Different modes of visual organization for perception and for action
- Development of perceptual organization in infancy
- Individual differences in local and global perceptual organization
- Mutual interplay between perceptual organization and attention: A neuropsychological perspective
- Holistic face perception
- Binocular rivalry and perceptual ambiguity
- Perceptual organization and consciousness
- The temporal organization of perception
- Camouflage and perceptual organization in the animal kingdom
- Design Insights: Gestalt, Bauhaus, and Japanese Gardens
- Perceptual organization in visual art
- Hierarchical organization by and-or tree
- Probabilistic models of perceptual features
- On the dynamic perceptual characteristics of Gestalten: Theory-based methods
- Hierarchical stages or emergence in perceptual integration?
- Cortical dynamics and oscillations: What controls what we see?
- Bayesian models of perceptual organization
- Simplicity in perceptual organization
- Gestalts as ecological templates
- Index of Names
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
When we move, the flat projection of the three-dimensional world onto our retinae changes; these changes alone can induce a powerful sensation of depth. The effectiveness of this process is well illustrated by the stereokinetic effect and the kinetic depth effect (or structure from motion), which refer to illusions of depth induced by moving two-dimensional stimuli. Stereokinesis studies have classically employed flat curvilinear shapes, such as ellipses and nested circles, rotating about the observer’s line of sight. Structure-from-motion studies, instead, have used flat projections of three-dimensional forms rotating in space. In all these cases, the flat stimuli perceptually transform into three-dimensional bodies that move in depth. Here we review the literature on these two phenomena, that have been studied largely independently of each other, with different equipment and within separate paradigms, despite being related so closely.
Stefano Vezzani, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova, Italy.
Peter Kramer, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova, Italy.
Paola Bressan, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova, Italy.
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