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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 865) Index

(p. 865) Index

Abacha, Sanni 630
Abdoh, Djalal 173, 175
Abidjan Peace Agreement 598
Abkhazia 448–9, 450
ceasefire 445
conflict in 443–4
declaration of independence 447
deteriorating security position in 447–8
Human Rights Office in Abkhazia, Georgia (HROAG) 447
status negotiations 447, 448
Abu Nidal Organization 252
Abubakar, Abdusalam 631
abuses, and access to justice 55–6
Abyei 743, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 752
Agreement on Temporary Arrangements for the Administration and Security of the Abyei Area 820
conflict over 818–19
Abyei Boundary Commission 745
accountability 55
Acheson, Dean 200
Aden 180, 184, 185
Adeniji, Oluyemi 592, 631, 636, 637, 639
Adoula, Cyrille 166
Afghanistan
civil war 272, 273
Geneva Accords (1988) 270
mujahidin 269, 271–2
NATO/United Nations cooperation 66
Soviet invasion of 269
Soviet withdrawal from 270, 271
Taliban 273
tensions with Pakistan 269–70, 271–2
Africa
types of peace operations 23, 26, 29
wars and peace operations in 16–17
African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) 732
African National Congress 296
African Standby Force 64, 65
African Union (AU) 5, 60, 61, 595
Burundi 732
cooperation with United Nations 64–6, 68, 70
High-level Implementation Panel 747, 830
Mali 854, 857, 858, 859, 860
Regional Economic Communities 66
UN-AU Joint Task-Force on Peace and Security (JTF) 65
United Nations Security Council 65, 70
African Union Commission 65
African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) 47
African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) 745, 780, 781–2
African Union Peace and Security Council (AUPSC) 65, 70, 781
Mali 857
African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) 65, 610
achievements of 783–5
assessment of 787–8
attacks on 787
background to 779–82
casualties 785
civilian protection 784–5, 786–7
contributing countries 781
Darfur Protection Strategy 784, 785
Darfuri criticism of 787
(p. 866) delays in deployment 783
economic and social programmes 784
establishment of 782
factors contributing to shortcomings of 788
future of 788
humanitarian assistance 783–4
inadequate equipment 785
lack of conflict resolution framework 786
limitations of 785–7
mandate 781
promotion of peace process 784
safety of internally displaced persons (IDP) camps 783
Status of Forces Agreement 783
strength of 783
Sudanese obstruction 783, 786, 787
volatile security situation 785
African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA) 65, 68, 854, 858, 859, 861
Agwai, Martin 637
Ahtisaari, Martti 295, 298, 299, 300, 301, 623
Aidid, Mohammed Farah 409, 410–11, 412, 429–30, 434, 435, 437
Ajello, Aldo 418, 419, 421, 423, 424–5
Akashi, Yasushi 366, 389, 396, 397
Al Sahaf, Muhammad Sa’id 318
Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) 501
Albright, Madeleine 476, 523–4
Alexis, Jacques-Edouard 583, 721
Algiers Peace Agreement (2000) 672
Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (ARENA) 351–2
Alkatiri, Mari 689, 690, 757, 759
Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL) 657
Alvim, Hugo Panasco 215
Amin, Hafizullah 269
Amnesty International 780, 792, 834, 838
Amorim, Celso 726
Amum, Pagan 838
Angle, Harry H 136
Angola 261
agreement for withdrawal of Cuban troops 286
Angolan Armed Forces 339
arrival of Cuban troops 285
Bicesse Accords 283, 289, 338–9, 345, 563
civil war 284–5, 289, 291, 339, 341, 342, 563, 567
Government of Unity and Reconciliation (GURN) 343, 344, 347, 563
inter/intra-state conflict 291
Luena Memorandum of Understanding (2002) 563, 569
Lusaka Protocol (1994) 338, 339, 341, 343, 563
presidential elections (1992) 342
war of independence 283
withdrawal of Cuban troops 287, 288
withdrawal of UN peacekeeping forces 563, 564–5
Annabi, Hedi 402, 467
Annan, Kofi 814
Angola 344, 565
Bosnia 392
Central African Republic 590, 593
Côte d’Ivoire 709
Croatia 527, 528, 536
Cyprus 205
Darfur 782
Democratic Republic of the Congo 661
East Timor 645, 763
Guatemala 559, 560
humanitarian interventions 84–5
Kosovo 623
Lebanon 768, 769–70
Mozambique 423
non-combatant status of peacekeepers 52
Rwanda 467
Sierra Leone 630, 631, 638, 639
Syria 843–4, 847, 849
(p. 867) Tajikistan 497
Timor-Leste 686, 690, 756–8, 760–1
Western Sahara 331
Ansar Dine 857
Anstee, Margaret 341, 342, 343, 346
Anyidoho, Henry 476
Arab deterrent Force in Lebanon 46–7
Arab League 89
Syria 843
Arab Movement for Azawad (MAA) 862
Arab nationalism 179, 180
Arab Revolt 121
Arab-Israeli War (1948) 114, 121, 122, 144
General Armistice Agreements (1949) 122, 123, 127, 145
Arab-Israeli War (1967) 128
Arab-Israeli War (1973) 128
Arbour, Louise 809
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand 540, 541, 542, 543, 549, 572, 574, 580, 720
armed conflicts
growth in use of peacekeeping operations 14–15
international humanitarian law 52–3
non-combatant status of peacekeepers 52–3
regional variations in utilization of peace operations 16–19
war onsets and peace operations 15
wars and peace operations (1946-2013) 36–41
Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) 454, 455, 695
Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) 663, 666, 806, 807, 810, 812
Arnault, Jean 556, 558
Artemis, Operation (EU) 63, 64
Arusha Peace Accords (1993) 465–6
Arusha Peace and Reconciliation agreement for Burundi (2000) 731
Arzu, Alvaro 558, 559
Asia
types of peace operations 23–4, 29
wars and peace operations in 17–18
al-Assad, Bashar 88, 843
al-Assad, Hafez 88
Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN) 364
Atto, Osman 435
Austin, Reginald 400
Australia
East Timor 647–8
Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands 24
Timor-Leste 759
al-Badr, Mohammed 179
Bahamuddin, Mazlan 487
Baker, James A, III 331
Balaguer, Joaquín 219
Ballard, John 545
Ban Ki-moon 64–5, 623
Côte d’Ivoire 714
Cyprus 205
Darfur 784
Democratic Republic of the Congo 663
responsibility to protect (RtoP) 87, 89
restructuring of UN Secretariat 610–11
Sudan 747
Syria 843, 845, 846, 847, 848–9, 851
Bangladesh 137
Bangui Accords (1997) 589
Baril, J Maurice 467
Barre, Mohammed Siad 409, 410
Barrera, Antonio Imbert 217
Barroso, José Manuel 338
al-Bashir, Omar 742, 746, 747, 784, 786
Belgium
independence of the Congo 160
Rwanda 462, 468
Belo, Carlos 645
Bennike, Vagn 126
Bernadotte, Count Folke 122
Betancourt, Rómulo 216
Beye, Alioune Blondin 341, 343, 566, 568
Biato, Marcel 726
Bicesse Accords 283, 289, 338–9, 345, 563
Bio, Maada 598
Bir, Ҫvik 432
Boden, Dieter 448
Bokassa, Jean-Bédel 588
Boothby, Derek 522
Bosch, Juan 214, 216, 219
(p. 868) Bosnia 82, 261, 372
ceasefire (1995) 511
conflict in 383–4
human rights violations 384, 385
international response to war in 385–6
Bota, Liviu 447
Botha, P W 290, 296
Botha, Roelof Frederik ‘Pik’ 302
Bouteflika, Abdelaziz 79, 80
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 6, 342
An Agenda for Peace 82, 263, 264, 265, 391, 408, 507–8
Bosnia 387
Chad/Libya border dispute 485, 486–7
Croatia 379, 522
Cyprus 205
El Salvador 356
factors affecting success of peacekeeping operations 266
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of 502, 503, 508
Mozambique 417, 422, 424
Rwanda 469, 475
Sierra Leone 598
Somalia 410, 411, 412, 413, 432, 433
state sovereignty 80
Supplement to An Agenda for Peace 82, 265, 266, 390–1
Bowden, Mark 430
Brahimi, Lakhdar 82, 608, 629
Syria 849
Brahimi Report (2000) 89, 265, 266, 380, 392, 608–10, 629, 701
civilian protection 82
consent 49
defense of mission mandate 52
impartiality 609–10
need for effectiveness of UN forces on the ground 609
need for robust military component in operations 609
reassertion of peacekeeping principles 609
recommendations of 608–9
Brazil 89
Haiti 726
Brioni Agreement (1991) 373
Brosio, Manlio 201
Brunner, Edouard 445
Bulatović, Momir 535
Bunche, Ralph 122, 123, 163, 181
Bundu dia Congo 662
Bunker, Ellsworth 173, 181
burden-sharing 62
Burns, E L M 126, 127
Burundi
African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) 732
Arusha Peace and Reconciliation agreement for Burundi (2000) 731
ceasefire (2002) 732
civil war 731
Dar-es-Salaam peace agreement (2006) 736
elections (2005) 735
elections (2010) 738
Transitional Government 732
Bush, George H W 411, 437
Caamaño, Francisco 218
Cabral, Alfredo Lopes 582
Calderón Sol, Armando 358
Callaghan, James 202
Cambodia
conflict in 363–4
elections (1993) 400
new constitution 400
Paris Agreements (1991) 363, 395, 396, 399
political stalemate 395–6
Supreme National Council (SNC) 364–5, 396
Cammaert, Patrick 673, 674, 677
Camp David Accords 149, 232, 233, 235, 236
Canada
Darfur 781
Rwanda 480
(p. 869) Capstone Doctrine (United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines) 49–50, 265, 611, 751
Carney, Tim 403
Carrington, Lord 375
Carter, Jimmy 235, 387
Carver, Michael 200
Cédras, Raoul 540
Central African Republic
African Union/United Nations cooperation 65
Bangui Accords (1997) 589
coup attempt (2001) 593
external military engagement in 594
French withdrawal 590
Inter-African Mission to Monitor the Implementation of the Bangui Agreements (MISAB) 589, 590
mutinies and protests 588
Central America
Cold War rivalries 306–7
Contadora peace process 307
Esquipulas II Agreement 306, 307
San Isidro Declaration (1989) 309
Chad
border dispute with Libya 484–5
crisis in 791–2
European Force (EUFOR) 792
improved relations with Sudan 798
proxy war with Sudan 792
refugees in 792
Chagla, Mahomedali Currim 137
Chamoun, Camille 153
Chand, Prem 300
Chapultepec Peace Accord (1992) 351, 352, 353, 354, 356, 358
Charter of the United Nations
absence of peacekeeping from 2
Chapter IV 44
Chapter VI 2, 44
Chapter VII 2, 44, 68, 78, 115, 117
Chapter VIII 5, 68
international peace and security 1
lack of legal basis for peacekeeping 43
limitations on sovereignty 79–80
peace operations 44
Chehab, Fouad 157
Chesterman, Simon 87
child soldiers 598
China 192–3
Cambodia 363, 364
Central African Republic 591–2
Darfur 782
India/Pakistan conflict 223, 225, 227
Lebanon 770
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of 504–5
Mali 862
Syria 843, 849
Chirac, Jacques 590, 771
Chissano, Joaquim 421, 422
Chivukuvuku, Abel 568
Chopra, Jarat 651
Christofias, Dimitris 205
Churchill, Winston 61
Churkin, Vitaly 846
civilian protection mandates 43, 45, 613
humanitarian interventions 82–3
Clerides, Glafkos 201, 203
Clinton, Bill 542, 591
Cold War
crisis of legitimacy for peacekeeping 118
détente peacekeeping 190–1, 192, 193, 195
impact of end of 261
peacekeeping operations 15–16
role of UN peacekeeping operations 6, 115
UN peacekeeping operations 189–96
collective security, and United Nations 114, 115
Community of Sahel-Saharan States 594
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 445, 501, 502
confidence-building, and UN peacekeeping operations 6
(p. 870) conflict containment, and UN peacekeeping operations 189
conflict management, and UN peacekeeping operations 15, 262–3
Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD) 657
Congress for Democratic Change (CDC) (Liberia) 699, 700
Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie - Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie
(CNDD-FDD) (Burundi) 731, 732, 734, 735, 736
consent
Brahimi Report (2000) 49
coercive inducement 83
Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs) 48, 49
UN peacekeeping operations 2, 48–50, 147, 151, 264, 266, 611
Contadora peace process 307
Contras 306–7
Convention on the Criminal Accountability of United Nations Officials and Experts on Mission 56
Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations (1946) 55
Cordier, Andrew 163
Cordovez, Diego 270, 271
Côte d’Ivoire 82–3
arms embargo 711
ceasefire 708
civil war 707–8
context of civil war 707
ECOWAS Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (ECOMICI) 708
Forces nouvelles 707, 710
French involvement in 708, 709, 716
human rights abuses 711
Linas-Marcoussis Agreement (2003) 709
November 2004 crisis 710–11
Ouagadougou Peace Agreement (2007) 712
peace agreement (2003) 708
Peace Force for Côte d’Ivoire (ECOFORCE) 708
post-election crisis 713–14
presidential elections (2010) 713
Pretoria Agreement (2005) 711
targeted sanctions against 711
Cox, Katherine 52
Crocker, Chester 285, 296
Cruz, Viriato da 284
Cuba, and Angola 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290
Cyprus 191
Annan Plan 197, 205
civil war (1963-64) 199
divisions within Greek Cypriot community 201–2
failure of Greek/Turkish negotiations (1974) 203–4
Greek-inspired coup d’etat (1974) 202
Greek/Turkish Cypriot conflict 200, 201
lack of progress towards solution 205
Turkish invasion of (1974) 202–3, 204
United Nations’ attempts to find solution 204–5, 209
Dallaire, Roméo 82, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 475, 476, 477
Daniel, Don 26
(p. 871) Dar-es-Salaam peace agreement (2006) (Burundi) 736
Darfur 610, 745, 779
African Union High-level Implementation Panel 747
African Union Mission 745
African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) 781–2
conflict in 779
Doha Document for Peace in Darfur 786
fatality numbers 779–80
international activism over 745
international neglect of 780
Darfur Peace Agreement (2006) 782
Dayton Accords (1995) 82, 372, 383, 388, 503, 511, 517
marginalization of United Nations 511–12
De Gaulle, Charles 4
De Hoop Scheffer, Jaap 66
decolonization 160
UN peacekeeping operations 6, 114–15, 189
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) 662, 664, 806
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Belgian troops in 161
First Congo War 657
Goma agreement (2008) 663, 666
independence 160–1
Intervention Brigade 614
Kivu crisis 657, 661, 662–3, 666–7
Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement (1999) 657
Nairobi communiqué (2007) 663
Operation Sovereign Legitimacy 14
Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework (PSC, 2013) 813
post-election violence 662
post-independence conflict 160, 161
presidential elections (2006) 662
presidential elections (2011) 808–9
Pretoria Agreement (2002) 660
requests assistance form United Nations 161
Second Congo War 657
Stabilization and Reconstruction Plan for War Affected Areas (STAREC) 805
Sun City Agreement (2001) 660
violence against civilians 660
withdrawal of foreign forces 660
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) 302, 303
Denktaş, Rauf 201, 205
Desert Fox, Operation 318
Desert Storm, Operation 81, 279, 314
détente, and UN peacekeeping operations 190–1, 192, 193, 195
Dhlakama, Afonso 421, 422, 425
Diallo, Issa 566
Dinka, Berhanu 598
Djukanović, Milo 535
Doe, Samuel 454, 694
Doha Document for Peace in Darfur 786
Dokmanović, Slavko 524
Dominican Republic
American intervention in 191–2, 214–15, 216–17
coup d’etat against Bosch (1963) 216
economic problems 218
human rights abuses 218
Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF) 214, 215, 216, 217, 219
isolation of 216
Organization of American States (OAS) 214, 215, 216, 217, 218–19
political divisions 217–18
political settlement 218–19
Trujillo’s rule 216
Donald, Dominick 50
Dos Santos, Eduardo 284, 342, 563
Doss, Alan 638, 702
Dostum, Abdul Rashid 273
Doswald-Beck, louise 54
Duvalier, Baby Doc 540
Dziedzic, Michael 624
(p. 872) East Timor 83, 607
agreement on referendum on future of 645
becomes independent 652
campaign for full independence 645
guerrilla war 644
International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) 647–8, 653
invaded by Indonesia 644
liberation movement 643–4
multilateral missions in (1999-2002) 646
post-referendum violence 647
referendum (1999) 646–7
Santa Cruz massacre 645
United Nations supports self-determination 644
Economic and Monetary Community of Central africa 594
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 65, 594
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 5, 23, 61, 65
Côte d’Ivoire peace negotiations 708
Liberia 454–5
Mali 854, 857, 858, 860–1
Peace Force for Côte d’Ivoire (ECOFORCE) 708
Sierra Leone 597
ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring and Observation Group (ECOMOG)
Liberia 454–5, 456–8, 459, 694
Sierra Leone 599, 600–1, 631–2, 636–7
ECOWAS Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (ECOMICI) 708
ECOWAS Mission in Liberia (ECOMIL) 695
Egeland, Jan 791
Egypt
Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement 232–3
Suez crisis (1956) 145
Yemen 180–1, 182, 183, 184
Yom Kippur War (1973) 193, 229–30, 238
El Salvador 261, 310
Chapultepec Peace Accord (1992) 351, 352, 353, 354, 356, 358
civil war 351–2
requests assistance form United Nations 352
San José Agreement 352, 353
Ennifar, Azouz 679
EOKA-B 201, 207
Erdut Agreement 521, 522, 524, 525, 526
Eritrea 671
Algiers Peace Agreement (2000) 672
demarcation of border with Ethiopia 677–8
isolation of 678
war with Ethiopia 671–2
Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) 677–8
Eroĝluin, Derviş 205
Espiel, Hector Gross 330
Esquipulas II Agreement 306, 307
Ethiopia 671
Algiers Peace Agreement (2000) 672
demarcation of border with Eritrea 677–8
war with Eritrea 671–2
ethnic cleansing 392
Croatia 373, 378
EUFOR (Chad) (EU) 63, 792, 793–4, 799
EUFOR RD Congo (EU) 63
EULEX Kosovo (EU) 63
Europe
types of peace operations 22–3, 29
wars and peace operations in 16
European Community Conference on Yugoslavia 375
(p. 873) European Convention on Human Rights, and use of lethal force 54
European Parliament, and Darfur 745
European Union (EU) 5, 14, 60, 594
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) 63
cooperation with United Nations 63–4, 68–9
Darfur 745, 781
Democratic Republic of the Congo 658, 662
European Security and Defense Policy 514
European Union Police Mission (Bosnia) 514
Kosovo 619, 622–3, 626
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of 501
Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) 618
evaluation of peace operations
analytical concerns 94–5
baseline for assessment 98–9
benchmarking 99
challenges of 93, 106–7, 265
changes in missions 97
characteristics of indicators of success 104
comparing conditions before and after 99
conflict containment 102
conflict settlement 103
counter-factual analysis 98–9
criteria for success 102–4
defining success of 93–4, 106
different goals of multiple stakeholders 95–6, 107
formative evaluations 98
inaction basis 98
interactions among success dimensions 104–6
limited literature on 93
long-term perspective 97
mandate of mission as standard for 100
mission goals 100, 101, 102
multidimensional peacekeeping 103
offsetting and reinforcing effects of factors 105
opportunity cost basis 98
organizational context 93
peacebuilding missions 103–4
reduction of violence 102
short-term perspective 96–7
standards of success 94
steps in 100–1, 107
summative evaluations 98
timing of operation deployment 99
trumping effects of factors 105
types of peace operations 99–100
Evans, Gareth 90, 364, 402
Executive Outcomes 598, 600
Faés, Géraldine 593
Falintil (Armed Forces for the National Liberation of East Timor) 644
Fanning, Steven 301
Farabundo Martí Front for National Liberation (FMLN) 307, 351, 352, 355, 356, 358
Farer, Tom 435
financing of peacekeeping operations 4
Forças Armados de Timor-Leste (FDTL) 755, 757
force, use of 2, 3, 191, 264, 266, 611
civilian protection mandates 43, 45, 613
defense of mission mandate 3, 52
defensive use of 51–2
international human rights law 53–4
Fowler Report 569
France
Central African Republic 588, 590, 591, 592, 593
Chad 792
Côte d’Ivoire 708, 709, 716
financing of UN peacekeeping operations 4, 45
Georgia 446
Haiti 542
Lebanon 769, 770, 771, 774, 775
Mali 854, 858–9
Rwanda 475–6
Suez crisis (1956) 145, 146–7, 148
Syria 843, 846
West New Guinea 177
Fretilin (Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor) 644, 652, 757, 759, 762
Front pour la Démocratie au Burundi (FRODEBU) 731
(p. 874) Gaddafi, Muammar 88, 485, 856–7
Gambari, Ibrahim 786
Garang, John 742, 745, 750
Garrison, William 435
Gaye, Babacar 849
Gaza Strip 129, 144
Gbagbo, Laurent 51, 82, 83, 707, 708, 709, 710, 712, 713, 714
General Armistice Agreements (1949) 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 145
Arab infiltration into Israel 125–6
Mixed Armistice Commissions 123–4, 125, 127, 128
Geneva Accords (1988) 270
United Nations’ monitoring of 271–3
Genocide Convention (1948) 84
Georgia
ceasefire 445
conflict in 443–4
Group of Friends of Georgia 446
status negotiations 446–7, 448
tensions with Russia 448
Georhadjis, Polykarpos 209n
Germany, and Lebanon 771
Gersony, Robert 477
Gligorov, Kiro 502, 508
global financial crisis 608
Goa 643
Godoy, Héctor Garcia 218
Goma agreement (2008) 663, 666
Gomes, Pericles Ferreira 287
Gómez, Agustín Quesada 309
Gorbachev, Mikhail 290
Goudé Charles Blé 707
Goulding, Marrack 278, 368, 423–4
Gowan, Richard 777
Gray, Christine 49
Greece, and Cyprus 199–200, 201, 202, 203–4
Greenstock, Jeremy 638
Gromov, Boris 271
Guatemala
ceasefire 558
Commission for Historical Clarification 556
Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights (1994) 556
conflict in 556
National reconciliation Commission 556
Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union (URNG) 556, 558–9
Guéhenno, Jean-Marie 770, 774, 782
Gusmão, Xanana 652, 686, 688, 757, 759, 762
Gyani, Prem Singh 200
Habibie, B J 645, 647
Habré, Hissène 485
Habyarimana, Juvenal 463
Haddad, Saad 251
Haekkerup, Hans 622
Haidar, Animatou 333
Haiti
cholera crisis 725–6
divisive impact of UN presence 725
formation of government of technocrats 720
Governors Island Agreement (GIA) 541
Haitian National Police (HNP) 541–2, 544, 547, 549–52, 572, 574, 575–6, 577, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584–5
joint UN-OAS mission 540
Multinational Force (MNF) 540–1, 543, 545
natural disasters 721
Operation Restore Democracy 540–1
paramilitary groups 723–4
political crisis 574, 581, 583, 585
riots over food prices 720–1
United Nations missions to 572–3
Hammarskjöld, Dag 3, 51, 81, 113, 116, 147
Arab-Israeli conflict 144–5
death of 165
legal basis of UN peacekeeping 48
Summary Study (1958) 117
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) 147, 148
United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) 154, 155
United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) 161, 163, 167
Hannay, David 470
Harding Plan 215
Harston, Julian 582
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative 784
Hassan II, King of Morocco 326
Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin 273
Helminem, Rauli 271
Hezbollah 129, 253, 767, 768, 772, 773
High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA) 862
Hillen, John 250
Holbrooke, Richard 511
Holden, Roberto 283
Horn, Carl C von 128, 163, 181–2, 183
Horst, Henrique ter 547, 576
Houngbo, Gilbert 737
Houphouët-Boigny, Félix 707
Howe, Jonathan 435
Howen, Nicholas 346–7
Human Rights Council 89
human rights law, and peacekeeping operations 53–4
Human Rights Office in Abkhazia, Georgia (HROAG) 447
Human Rights Watch 479, 551, 792, 834
humanitarian interventions 14
absence of consent 83
abuse of 88
coercive nature of 78
coercive protection 86
compelling compliance 85–6
contested nature of 78, 79
controversial nature of 84–5
definition of 78
distinction from peace operations 81–3, 85, 89
ethical justification 84
history of 81–3
lack of definition of humanitarian 83
motives for 84
need for reform of peacekeeping 89–90
operational implications 85–6
responsibility to protect (RtoP) 78, 79, 84, 86–9, 90
state sovereignty 79–81, 87
terms for 85
triggers for 84, 87
United Nations’ incapability for 89
humanitarian law, international 52–3
Hun Sen 367, 395, 400
Hussein, Saddam 81, 281, 321
Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) 276
Ibrahim, Khalil 798
impartiality 152n
Brahimi Report (2000) 609–10
UN peacekeeping operations 2–3, 50–1, 264, 266, 611
Implementation Force (IFOR) 512, 513, 523
Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL) 454, 694
Indian Independence Act (1947) 133
India-Pakistan War (1965) 136–7
India-Pakistan War (1971) 137
Indonesia
agrees to international force in East Timor 647
behavior in East Timor 645
concessions to East Timor 645
creation of 171, 643
impact of end of Cold War 645
(p. 876) invasion of East Timor 644
relations with Timor-Leste 688
United Nations Good Offices Commission 28
West New Guinea 171–3, 175–6
Inönü, Izmet 200
integrated operations 613, 701
Inter-African Mission to Monitor the Implementation of the Bangui Agreements (MISAB) 589, 590, 594
Inter-American Human Rights Commission 218
Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF) 214, 215, 216, 217, 219
Interim Emergency Multinational Force (EU) 658
International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH) 540, 551, 573, 580
International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH) 581, 583, 586
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 81
responsibility to protect (RtoP) 84, 86, 87, 88
International Committee of the Red Cross 232, 319
Rwanda 473
International Conference of the Great Lakes (ICGL) 663
International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (ICFY) 376, 377, 385, 389, 502, 511
International Contact Group on Liberia (ICGL) 695
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 537
Chad/Libya border dispute 484, 485
financing of UN peacekeeping operations 4, 45
Nicaragua vs the United States (1986) 83
Western Sahara 326
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 53
International Criminal Court 83, 761
Darfur 745
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 473
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTFY) 53, 524
International Crisis Group 780
International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) 647–8, 653
international law, and peacekeeping 43, 56–7
access to justice 55–6
accountability 55
functions of 43
international human rights law 53–4
international humanitarian law 52–3
regional organizations 46–7
responsibility to protect (RtoP) 88
United Nations’ competence 45–6, 47
International Law Commission (ILC), Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International
Organizations 53, 55
International Security and Stabilisation Support Strategy (ISSSS) 805
inter-organizational relations in peacekeeping, see United Nations-regional organization (UN-RO)
partnerships
Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) 275–6
Iraq
invasion of Kuwait 279, 314
Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) 275–6
Israel
declaration of independence 122
Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement 232–3
invasion of Lebanon (1978) 129, 248
invasion of Lebanon (1982) 252
Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace 129
Mixed Armistice Commissions 123–4, 125, 128
occupation of southern Lebanon 253
Operation Change of Direction (2006) 767
Oslo Accords (1993) 129
Six-Day War (1967) 149, 150
Suez crisis (1956) 145
(p. 877) Yom Kippur War (1973) 193, 229–30, 238
Israeli Defense Force (IDF) 126, 767
Israel-Lebanon Mixed Armistice Commission (ILMAC) 124, 252
Italy
Lebanon 771
Mozambique 417, 425, 426
Izetbegovic, Alija 383, 511
Jackson, Michael 619
James, Alan 183, 208, 250, 255
Jammu 133, 222, 223
Janjaweed 779, 791
Janvier, Bernard 387
Jensen, Erik 330
Jessen-Petersen, Søren 623
Jetley, Vijay 635, 636–7, 638
Johnson, Hilde 832, 834
Johnson, Lyndon B 200
Johnson, Prince Y 454, 694
Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen 697, 698, 699, 700–1, 703
Jonah, James 410, 600
Jordan 150
Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace 129
Jospin, Lionel 590
justice, access to 55
Justice and Equality Movement 746, 784–5, 792, 798, 821
Kabbah, Tejan 598, 599, 600, 602, 630, 636, 637
Kabila, Joseph 612, 660, 662, 663, 664–5, 668, 807, 808, 809, 810
Kabila, Laurent 48, 567, 608, 657, 659, 660
Kadijevic, Veljko 375
Kagame, Paul 477, 656, 657, 663
Kapila, Mukesh 780
Karachi Agreement (1949) 134, 136
Karadzic, Radovan 383
Karim, Ataul 366
Karmal, Babrak 269
Kasavubu, Joseph 161, 163
Kashmir 133, 222, 223
ceasefire line 134, 136
India/Pakistan conflict over 133, 138
India/Pakistan mobilisation over (2001) 138
India-Pakistan War (1965) 136–7
issue brought before UN Security Council 133–4, 135
Katanga 161, 163, 164–6
Keating, Colin 470, 476
Keita, Boubacar 861
Kennedy, John F 173
Khan, Said Uddin 174
Khare, Atul 758, 759
Khiary, Mahmood 165
Khmer Rouge 363, 364, 367, 395, 397, 400, 402, 403, 404
Kiir, Salva 747, 831, 837
Kinzer, Joseph 543, 544
Kissinger, Henry 231, 232, 234, 235, 644
Kitona Declaration (1961) 166
Kittani, Ismat 412
Klein, Jacques Paul 522, 523, 526, 527, 528, 529
Koevoet 298, 301
Konaré, Alpha Oumar 782
Korean War 115
Koroma, Johnny Paul 599, 630
Kosovo 22, 69, 504, 536, 607
ethnic divide 620
ethnic violence (2004) 623
European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) 618
Kosovo Force (KFOR) 617, 618–20
unilateral declaration of independence 623
Kouchner, Bernard 619, 624
Krajina 372, 375, 376
Kumar, Siva 480
Kyprianou, Spyros 205
(p. 878) Lafourcade, Jean-Claude 476
Lajara, Horacio Vásquez 215
Lara, Lúcio 284
Latifi, Otokhon 495, 496
Latin America
types of peace operations 25, 29
wars and peace operations in 18, 19
Latortue, Gérard 720
Lauterpacht, Elihu 677
Lawrence, Roger 403
League of Arab States 153
League of Nations 2, 47–8, 114, 119, 173
universal/regional tensions 60
Lebanon
American forces in 156
Israeli invasion of (1978) 129, 248
Israeli invasion of (1982) 252
Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon 253
Israel’s Operation Change of Direction (2006) 767
Lebanese Crisis of 1958 153
Multinational Force (MNF) 236–7, 252–3
outbreak of civil war (1975) 129
Taief Agreement (1989) 253
withdrawal of Israeli troops (1978) 251
withdrawal of Israeli troops (2000) 253–4
Legwaila, Legwaila Joseph 674, 677
Lesotho, Operation Boleas 14
‘Liberal Peace’ theory 264
Liberia
civil war 454–5, 694–5
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2003) 695
Cotonou agreement (1993) 455, 456
ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring and Observation Group (ECOMOG) 454–5, 456–8, 459, 694
ECOWAS Mission in Liberia (ECOMIL) 695
elections 699, 700–1
ethnic politics 694
Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU) 455
multiparty elections 695
National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL) 695
Liberian National Police (LNP) 695, 698
Liberian Peace Council (LPC) 455
Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) 695
Libya
border dispute with Chad 484–5
humanitarian intervention 88, 90
Linas-Marcoussis Agreement (2003) 709
Lomé Peace agreement (1999) 602, 603, 629, 630
Lon Nol 364
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) 662, 746, 806
Loridon, Jean-Michel 366, 367
Luena Memorandum of Understanding (2002) 563, 569
Lumumba, Patrice 161, 163, 164
Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement (1999) 657
Lusaka Protocol (1994) 338, 339, 341, 343, 563
McAskie, Carolyn 733, 736, 738
Macdonald, B F 225
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
conflict in 501
declaration of independence 500
elections 504
ethnic composition of 501
inter-ethnic tensions 503
internal instability 503
Ohrid Agreement (2001) 501, 508
political instability 500–1
Machar, Riek 831, 837
Mackenzie, Robert 598
Madrid Accords (1975) 327
Mahdi, Ali 409–10, 411
(p. 879) al-Mahdi, Sadiq 742
Makarios, Archbishop 199, 201–2, 209n
Mali 854–5
African Union/United Nations cooperation 65, 70
African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA) 65, 68, 854, 858, 859, 861
agreement between government and armed groups (2013) 860–1
background to conflict 856–7
conflict in 854
coup d’etat (2012) 854, 856, 857
elections (2013) 861
French intervention 854, 858–9
government of National Unity 858
Islamist offensive 858
options for UN engagement in 859–60
regional responses to conflict 857–8
Roadmap for the Transition (2013) 859
Malone, David 542, 544
Malu, Victor 637
Mandela, Nelson 296, 731, 732
Marambio, Tulio 225, 226
Massoud, Ahmed Shah 273
Mauritania 327
Mayobre, José Antonio 215, 217
Mazari, Abdul Ali 273
Mbeki, Thabo 711, 747, 830
Mbemba, Jean-Pierre 593
Meir, Golda 150
Menkerios, Haile 747
Mesic, Stjepan 536
Mgwebi, Derrick 733
Middle East
types of peace operations 24–5, 29
wars and peace operations in 18–19
Military Professional Resources Inc 379
Milosevic, Slobodan 372, 375, 386, 511, 535, 536–7
Minawi, Minni 782
Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP) 192, 214
assessment of 219–20
background to 214–16
contributing countries 215
course and conduct of operation 216–19
establishment of 217
mandate 215
political settlement 218–19
relations with Organization of American States (OAS) 218, 219–20
success of 220
Mkapa, Benjamin 663, 664, 806
Mladic, Ratko 383
Mobutu Sese Soko 166, 567, 656–7
Moldova Joint Force 22, 27
Momoh, Joseph 598
Montgomery, Thomas 432
Mood, Robert 845, 846, 847, 848, 849, 850, 851
Morocco
Syria 843
Western Sahara 325, 326, 327, 328, 333–4
Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) 695
Movement for the National Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) 857, 862
Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa 857
Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) 416, 417, 421, 422, 424, 425
Mozambique 261
civil war 426
conflict in 416–17
elections 417, 422
General Peace Agreement (1992) 416, 417
Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 416–17, 422
Muggah, Robert 724
mujahidin 269, 271–2
Mullet, Edmond 723, 724
multidimensional peacekeeping 103, 264, 266, 294, 613
(p. 880) Multinational Force (MNF)
Haiti 540–1, 543, 545
Lebanon 236–7, 252–3
Murphy, Ray 438
Museveni, Yoweri 657
Nairobi communiqué (2007) 663
Nambiar, Satish 375
Namibia 261, 285, 286
adoption of constitution 303
civil war 295, 296
Contact Group’s Settlement Proposal 295, 297
elections 302–3
history 294–5
peace negotiations 296
Nasser, Gamal Abdel 145, 150, 184
National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP) 658, 662, 663–4, 806, 807
National Congress Party (NCP) (Sudan) 742, 747
National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT) 652
National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) 283, 284, 285
National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) 454, 597, 694
National Patriotic Party (Liberia) 455, 695
National Resistance Army (NRA, Uganda) 464
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 283–4, 285, 288, 289, 290, 338, 339, 341, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 563, 565, 566–7, 568, 569
Ndadaye, Melchior 731
Ndayizeye, Domitien 736
Nepalese Ghurka Security Group 598
Netherlands, and West New Guinea 171–3, 176
Neto, Agostinho 284, 285
neutrality, and UN peacekeeping operations 2–3, 50–1, 147, 151
New Horizon process 608, 611–12
New York Agreement (1962) 171, 173, 174, 176
Nigeria
Liberia 455
Sierra Leone 599, 630–1, 632, 637
Nimmo, R H 136, 137, 222, 225
Nixon, Richard M 363
Nkunda, Laurent 661, 662, 663, 664, 806
Nkurunziza, Pierre 731, 735, 737, 738
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 193, 295, 614, 774–5
non-intervention, and state sovereignty 79–81
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 5, 60, 61
bombing campaign in Yugoslavia 617
Bosnia 82, 386, 387, 388, 389
cooperation with United Nations 66–7, 69, 70
Darfur 781
Dayton Accords (1995) 512
Georgia 448
Implementation Force (IFOR) 512, 513, 523
Kosovo Force (KFOR) 617, 618–20
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of 501, 508
Ntaganda, Bosco 806, 807
Ntaryamira, Cyprien 463
Ntganda, Bosco 663–4
Nuri, Said Abdullo 495
Nyerere, Julius 731
Nzomukunda, Alice 736
Obama, Barack 843
Obasanjo, Olusegun 631, 637, 663, 664, 806
O’Connor, Mike 533
Office of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan and Pakistan (OSGAP) 272–3
Ohrid Agreement (2001) 501, 508
Okello, Francis 599, 602, 603, 630, 631, 636
Opande, Daniel Ishmael 637
Organisation for economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 4
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 849
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 14, 528, 533
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 295, 328
Democratic Republic of the Congo 657
Rwanda 470
Organization of American States (OAS) 14, 25, 46, 61, 192
Dominican Republic 214, 215, 216, 217, 218–19
Haiti 540, 545, 573, 580
Organization of the Islamic Conference 410
Oslo Accords (1993) 129
Ouagadougou Peace Agreement (2007) 712
Ouattara, Alassane 82, 708, 713, 717
Owen, David 502
Oxfam 469, 792
Palestine
Arab-Jewish tensions 121
British withdrawal from 122
Truce Commission 122
United Nations’ Partition Plan 121–2
Palestine Commission 114
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 128, 129, 150, 252–3, 255
Palmer, Bruce 215
Papadopoulos, Tassos 205
Paris Agreements (1991) 363, 395, 396, 399
Parti pour la Libération du Peuple Hutu - Forces Nationales de Liberation (PALIPEHUTU-FNL)
(Burundi) 731, 734, 736
Patassé, Ange-Felix 588, 590, 592, 593
path dependency 97
Pattison, James 87
peace operations
1946-2013 31–6
during Cold War 15–16
conflict management 15
definition of 13
dominant role of United Nations 19–21, 31
duration of 25–7
growth in size of 29–30
non-United Nations 13, 21
political geography and types of operation 28–9
post-Cold War growth in 14–15
regional differences in preferred type of peacekeeper 21–5
regional variations 16–19, 28–9, 31
relationship between size and type of 27–8
size of 27, 29–30
types of 13, 20
United Nations-authorized 13
United Nations-led 13
United Nations-recognized 13, 20–1
wars and peace operations (1946-2013) 36–41
Peacebuilding Commission 586
peacebuilding missions 14, 47, 264
evaluation of 103–4
Pearson, Lester 81, 116, 147
Pellegrini, Alain 771
People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) 298, 300
People’s Redemption Council (Liberia) 454
Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier 189, 269, 270, 272, 277
Angola 287, 289, 341
Cambodia 402
Central America 308, 309
Cyprus 205
East Timor 644–5
El Salvador 353
Namibia 296
Ping, Jean 65
(p. 882) Pinto de Andrade, Manuel 284
Plaza, Galo 200
Pol Pot 363, 364, 395
Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste (PNTL) 755, 757, 760–1
Polisario Front 325–6, 327, 328, 333
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 284, 285, 289, 338, 342, 346, 563
Porcell, Gerard 402–3
Portillo, Alfonso 559
Portugal, and East Timor 643, 644, 645
Powell, Colin 413, 433
Pretoria Agreement (2002) (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 660
Pretoria Agreement (2005) (Côte d’Ivoire) 711
Préval, René 542, 547, 573, 581, 583, 722
Primakov, Yevgeny 447
problem-solving theory 94
Prodi, Romano 771
Pronk, Jan 745
protection of civilians (PoC) 266
Provide Comfort, Operation 81
Putin, Vladimir 449
Qazi, Ashraf 746
quick impact projects (QIPs) 702
Rabbani, Burhanuddin 273
Radjabu, Hussein 736
Rahmon, Emomalii 492, 495, 496
Ramos-Horta, José 645, 757, 759, 761, 762
Ranariddh, Prince 400
Ratanga, Barthelemy 592
Rawlings, Jerry John 469
Reagan, Ronald 290
Reeves, Eric 786, 787
regime support missions 14
regional organizations
mandating of peacekeeping operations 46–7
peacekeeping operations 5
Reinado, Alfredo 758, 759
Republican Forces of Côte d’Ivoire (FRCI) 713
responsibility to protect (RtoP) 266
abuse of 88
as guiding principle for international decision-making 90
humanitarian interventions 78, 79, 84, 86–9
Libya 88, 90
opposition to 88
Restore Democracy, Operation 540–1
Revolutionary United Front (RUF) 597, 598, 602, 630, 634, 635–6, 639
Rice, Susan E 846, 848, 850
Rieff, David 85
Rikhye, Indar Jit 174, 215, 217
Riley, William 123, 126
Riza, Iqbal 467, 513
Roberts, Adam 78
robust peacekeeping 614
Rodriguez, José 559
Rolz-Bennett, José 201
Roos, Klaas 403
Ruak, Taur Matan 762
Russia
Abkhazia 449, 450
Georgian-Abkhaz conflict 444, 445–6
Lebanon 770
Moldova Joint Force 22, 27
peacekeeping role in Georgia/Abkhaz conflict 446
South Ossetia 449
South Ossetia Joint Peacekeeping Force 22, 27
Syria 843, 845–6, 849, 851
Tajikistan 493, 494, 495
tensions with Georgia 448
see also Soviet Union
Rwanda 82, 261, 266
Arusha Peace Accords (1993) 465–6
attacks on refugee camps in Zaire 656–7
civil war 462, 463, 475
exodus into Zaire 477, 656
French humanitarian mission 475–6
genocide of the Tutsi (1994) 463, 468, 469, 656
humanitarian crisis 475
(p. 883) Kibeho massacre 479
massacres of Tutsi (1959, 1963) 462–3
Nairobi communiqué (2007) 663
return and resettlement of refugees 477–8
Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) 462, 463, 464, 465, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) 462, 656
attacks refugee camps in Zaire 657
Rwasa, Agathon 731, 738
Saakashvili, Mikheil 448–9
Sadat, Anwar 229, 230, 232, 235, 236
Sadry, Berhrooz 638
Sahnoun, Mohammed 410–11, 412, 413
Sallal, Abdullah 180
San Isidro Declaration (1989) 309
Sanderson, John 366, 396, 397, 403
Sandinistas 306, 307
Sankoh, Foday 597, 602, 630, 634, 635
Santiago Charter 540
Sanz, Fernando Ortiz 176
Sassou-Nguesso, Denis 567
Satti, Nureldin 733, 736
Saudi Arabia 321
Syria 843
Yemen 180–1, 182, 183
Save Darfur Coalition 745
Savimbi, Jonas 284, 290, 342, 346, 347, 563, 567, 568, 569
Schachter, Oscar 43, 56
Scorpions (paramilitary group) 523
self-defense
defense of mission mandate 3, 52
use of force 51–2
Serbia 372
Sesay, Issa 638
sexual abuse 56
Seybolt, Taylor 85
Shaheen, Imtiaz 412
Shevardnadze, Eduard 448
Sibanda, Philip 347
Sierra Leone
Abidjan Peace Agreement 598
Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC) 599, 601, 630, 634
atrocities 598, 601
British intervention 608, 635
ceasefire agreement (2000) 639
child soldiers 598
coup against Kabbah (1997) 599
ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring and Observation Group (ECOMOG) 599, 600–1, 631, 636–7
invaded by Revolutionary United Front (RUF) 597–8
Lomé Peace agreement (1999) 602, 603, 629, 630
militia groups 598
private security companies 598
United Nations’ first engagement with 598
Sihanouk, Prince 363, 364, 365, 367, 396, 400
Siilasvuo, Ensio 128, 232, 250
Simla Agreement (1972) 137–8, 139
Siniora, Fouad 768, 770
Sisco, Joseph 202
Sivan, Benon 272
Six-Day War (1967) 149, 150
Skogmo, Bjoern 255
Slaughter, Anne-Marie 86
Sleiman, Michel 773
Slovenia 372
Brioni Agreement (1991) 373
conflict in 373
secession from Yugoslavia 372
Smarth, Rosny 574
Smith, Rupert 387
Smith, Stephen 593
Solarz, Stephen 364
Solomon Islands, Regional Assistance Mission to 24
Somali National Alliance (SNA) 429, 434, 435
Somalia 261
African Union/United Nations cooperation 65
(p. 884) airlift of supplies to 411
ceasefire agreement 410
civil war 409–10
refugees 411
Soro, Guillaume 711, 712, 713
Soto, Alvaro de 352, 355, 358, 359
Soto, Horacio Vicioso 218
South Africa
Angola 285–6, 290, 296
Burundi 732
Namibia 285, 286, 295, 296, 302–3
South Arabian Federation 180, 183
South Ossetia 444, 448–9
South Ossetia Joint Peacekeeping Force 22, 27, 28, 445
South Sudan
African Union High-level Implementation Panel 830
civil war legacy 830–1
conflict within 831
developmental challenge facing 831
independence of 747, 830
internal inter-ethnic tensions 831
internal political struggles 837–8
post-referendum conflicts 749
relationship with Sudan 831, 837
security sector reform 831
South West Africa, see Namibia
South West African Broadcasting Commission (SWABC) 300
South West African People’s Organization (SWAPO) 285, 295, 296, 298, 300, 303
Southern African Development Community 14
Southern Lebanese Army 251, 253
sovereignty, and humanitarian interventions 79–81, 87
Soviet Union
Angola 285, 290
Central America 306, 307
détente and UN peacekeeping operations 190–1, 192, 193, 195
Dominican Republic 217
financing of UN peacekeeping operations 4, 45
hostility towards United Nations 115
India/Pakistan conflict 222, 223, 224, 226, 227
invasion of Afghanistan 269
Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) 276
proposals for reform of UN 118
Suez crisis (1956) 145
United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) 167–8
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization for Palestine (UNTSO) 125
West New Guinea 177
withdrawal from Afghanistan 270, 271
Yemen 181
Yom Kippur War (1973) 230
see also Russia
Spain
Lebanon 771
Western Sahara 325, 326, 327
Spinelli, Pier 183
Srebrenica 82, 261, 266, 384, 386, 387, 392
Standby High Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG) 673
Stanimirović, Vojislav 527
Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) 48, 49
Stoltenberg, Thorvald 511
Strasser, Valentine 598
Sudan 752
Abyei Boundary Commission 745
African Union High-level Implementation Panel 830
civil war 742, 830–1
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005) 742–3, 818, 830
Darfur Peace Agreement (2006) 782
elections (2010) 747
improved relations with Chad 798
post-referendum conflicts 749
relationship with South Sudan 831, 837
Southern Sudan referendum 747
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) 742, 745, 746, 784–5, 819
Sudan Liberation Army 821
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) 742, 745, 746, 747, 779, 818, 819, 830, 831
Sudan Revolutionary Forces 821
Suez crisis (1956) 116, 126–7, 144, 145
United Nations General Assembly 146–7
Suharto 176, 644, 645
Sukarno 172
Sukarnoputri, Megawati 688
Sun City Agreement (2001) 660
Syria 150
civil war 242, 243, 245, 842–3
condemnation of 88–9
diplomacy over conflict 843–4, 848–9
Yom Kippur War (1973) 193, 229–30, 238
Tafall, Osorio 201
Tagliavini, Heidi 448
Taha, Ali Osman 750
Taief Agreement (1989) 253
Tajikistan
civil war 492–3
Commission of National Reconciliation 495
elections 496
General Agreement 495
Tehran Agreement 493, 494
Talat, Mehmet Ali 205
Taliban 273
Tashkent Declaration 226
Tatam Ly, Oumar 861
Taylor, Charles 454, 455, 459, 597, 637–8, 694, 695, 696, 700
Thakur, Ramesh 80
Thant, U 3, 48, 165
Cyprus 201, 206
Dominican Republic 217
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) 193
United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) 192
use of force 191
West New Guinea 171, 172, 174, 177
Yemen 183, 184
Thimayya, K S 200
Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) 644
Timorese Popular Democratic Association (APODETI) 644
Timor-Leste
army/police tensions 757
challenges facing 685
crisis in (2006) 757
crisis in (2008) 759
elections (2007) 758–9
elections (2012) 762
International Security Force (ISF) 757, 759
justice system problems 686, 761
language 686, 761
relations with Indonesia 688
United Nations missions to 756
Tolbert, William 454, 694
Touré, Amadou Toumani 588–9
Tousignant, Guy 480
Trujillo, Rafael 216
Tshombe, Moise 161, 165, 166
Tubiana, Jérôme 786
Tudjman, Franjo 375, 376, 378, 387, 511
Tueni, Ghassan 255
Tumioja, Sakari S 200
(p. 886) Turkey
invasion of Cyprus 202–3, 204
Uganda 464, 662
Unified Task Force (Somalia) (UNITAF) 408, 412–13, 429, 432–4
failure to disarm warlords 433–4
Union pour le Progrès National (UPRONA) (Burundi) 731
United Arab Republic (UAR) 153
Arab nationalism 180
United Kingdom
Aden 180, 184
Cyprus 199, 200, 202, 203, 204
Palestine 121, 122
Sierra Leone 600, 608, 635
Suez crisis (1956) 145, 146–7, 148
Syria 843, 846, 849
United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) 363
assessment of 368
background to 363–5
contributing countries 365
deployment of 365–6
deterioration of situation in Cambodia 366–7
establishment of 365
expanded mandate of 366
mandate 365
United Nations Advance Mission in Sudan (UNAMIS) 743
United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM I) 283, 338
assessment of 289–91
background to 283–6
continuation of Angolan conflict 290–1
contributing countries 286
cooperation of parties 289
course and conduct of operation 286–9
deployment of 287
establishment of 286, 287
favourable historical context for 290
mandate 286, 287
realistic mandate 289
relaxation of Cold War rivalries 290
respect for peacekeeping principles 290
timetable for troop withdrawal 289–90
withdrawal of Cuban troops 287, 288
United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II)
assessment of 344
contributing countries 340
course and conduct of operation 341–3
establishment of 289, 338, 339
factors contributing to failure of 344–6
mandates 339–40
United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III)
assessment of 344
contributing countries 340
course and conduct of operation 343–4
establishment of 338, 339, 341, 343
factors contributing to failure of 344, 346–8
mandates 340, 343
United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) 484
achievements of 488
assessment of 489
background to 484–5
contributing countries 486
cost of 487
course and conduct of operation 487–8
establishment of 486
limitations of 488
mandate 486
rapid deployment of 486–7
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR I) 82
assessment of 469–70
casualties 468
contributing countries 464, 466
cost concerns 465
creation of 463, 465
expanded mandate of 469
genocide of the Tutsi (1994) 468, 469
lack of resources 466
limited role of 465–6
mandate 464
pressure to close mission 467
reduction in strength of 468
rescue of expatriates 468
strength of 466
told not to seize weapons 467
(p. 887) warned of potential genocide of Tutsi 466–7
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR II)
anti-UN demonstrations 478
assessment of 481–2
civilian police (CIVPOL) 480
contributing countries 474, 475
creation of 473
delays in deployment 473
deteriorating security position in refugee camps 478–9
disagreement over role of 475
equipment offered by member states 474–5
extension of mandate 475, 480
French humanitarian mission 475–6
gradual build-up of force 476–7
Kibeho massacre 479
mandate 473–4
radio station established by 478
reduction in strength of 480
relations with Rwandan government 478, 479–80
replacing French mission 477
return of refugees 478
withdrawal of 480–1
United Nations Assistance Mission for Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 597
United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH) 572, 576, 580
achievements of 584
assistance to Haitian National Police 582, 583
background to 580–1
contributing countries 581
differences in international/Haitian approaches 585
difficulties faced by 583, 584–5
duration of 582
extension of mandate 582
lessons learned from 585–6
limitations of 584–5
mandate 580, 581
personnel problems and inadequacies 584
political crisis in Haiti 583
technical role of 584
weakened position of Haitian National Police 584–5
withdrawal of 583, 585
United Nations Civilian Police Support Group in Croatia (UNPSG) 519, 528
contributing countries 520
mandate 520
United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) 134, 135, 136
United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) 123, 124, 126
United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO) 371
assessment of 377
contributing countries 374
Croatian army offensives 376–7
mandate 374, 376
passivity of 379–80
United Nations Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel 46
United Nations Department of Field Support (DFS) 4
United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 1, 265, 390
cooperation with regional organizations 62
New Horizon process 608, 611–12
Office of Military Affairs 3–4
planning of peacekeeping operations 4
robust conception of peacekeeping 614
use of force 54
United Nations Department of Political Affairs (DPA) 1, 4
peacebuilding missions 14
United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) 837
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 543, 582
Chad 795
Timor-Leste 686
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) 128, 194, 234, 238, 245
area of separation 240
assessment of 243–5
background to 238–9
casualties 241, 242, 243, 244
challenges facing 242
conflict resolution 244–5
(p. 888) contributing countries 239, 241, 242, 243
cooperation with other missions 241
course and conduct of operation 240–3
deployment of 238, 239
duration of 239
establishment of 239
freedom of movement 240, 242
limitations on 240–1
mandate 239, 240
problems with monitoring 244
shooting incidents 241
Syrian civil war 242, 243, 245
as traditional peacekeeping mission 245
upholding Disengagement Agreement (1974) 240
violations of ceasefire agreement 242–3
violence abatement 243–4
United Nations Economic and Social Council 586
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) 44, 120n, 140–1
area of deployment 147–8
assessment of 149–51
conflict containment 150
conflict settlement 150–1
consent 147, 151
contributing countries 146
course of the operation 146–9
duration of 146
establishment of 116, 145, 147
establishment of UN peacekeeping principles 48–9, 147, 151–2
mandate 146, 148
minimum force 151
monitoring ceasefire 148
neutrality 147, 151
origins of 144
self-defense 51
as seminal operation 151
size of 147
unprecedented nature of 147
violence abatement 149–50
withdrawal of 149, 193
withdrawal of British, French and Israeli forces 148, 149
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) 128, 193–4, 235–7
assessment of 233–5
conflict containment 234
conflict settlement 234–5
contributing countries 230, 231
course and conduct of operation 231–3
disengagement of Egyptian/Israeli forces 232
Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement 232–3, 236
end of operation 233
establishment of 193, 229, 230
financing of 193
lessons learned from 236–7
mandate 229, 230
violence abatement 233–4
Yom Kippur War (1973) 229–30
United Nations General Assembly 3
Cambodia 364
Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power 55
Declaration on Third Party Liability (1998) 55–6
Democratic Republic of the Congo 164
East Timor 644–5
Guatemala 557
mandating of peacekeeping operations 46
Resolution ES-6/2 269
Resolution 48/267 557
Resolution 997 146, 148
Resolution 998 147
Resolution 1237 156–7
Resolution 1514 172
Resolution 3292 326
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 269
Suez crisis (1956) 146–7
Syria 843
Uniting for Peace Resolution (1950) 46, 146
West New Guinea 172
United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
assessment of 273
contributing countries 270
course and conduct of mission 271–3
establishment of 270
extension of mandate 272
Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan 271
voluntary return of refugees 272
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 272, 319
Bosnia 388
Cambodia 399, 401
Chad 791, 792, 795, 797
East Timor 650
Kosovo 619, 621
Namibia 302
Rwanda 477–8
Western Sahara 331, 334
United Nations Human Rights Commission, East Timor 645
United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM)
assessment of 227
background to 222–4
challenges facing 225
constitutional basis of 224
contributing countries 223
course and conduct of operation 225–6
end of mission 226
establishment of 137, 192, 222, 224–5
mandate 223
troop withdrawals 225–6
United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) 610, 692, 764–5
assessment of 763–4
background to 756–8
border stabilization 760
Committee on High Level Coordination 759
contributing countries 755, 756
elections (2007) 758–9
elections (2012) 762, 764
establishment of 755
internally displaced persons 760
justice system problems 761, 763–4
mandate 756
policing 760–1, 763
refugees 760
Serious Crimes Investigation Unit 761–2
withdrawal of 762
United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi (BINUB) 733, 737
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I) 129, 194, 767
absence of conditions for success 254
achievements of 254–5
attacks on 251–2
chain of command 250
contributing countries 249, 250
establishment of 249
fragmented area of operations 251
humanitarian assistance 254
intended as short-term expedient 250
Israeli invasion of Lebanon (1982) 252
Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon 253
Israel’s Operation Change of Direction (2006) 768
lack of consent 255, 256
lessons learned from 256
limitations of 255
mandate 249–50
number of troops 250
objectives 249
renewals of mission 249, 254
stabilization role 254–5
withdrawal of Israeli troops (1978) 251
withdrawal of Israeli troops (2000) 253–4
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL II) 610
achievements of 772–3
ambiguities of political mandate 770–1
assessment of 776–7
background to 767–8
command structures 774–5
contributing countries 769, 771
cooperation with parties 773
degrading of deterrence capacity 772
deployment of 768
divisions between national contingents 772
European contributing countries 771
harassment of 772
impact on local economy 773–4
limitations of 775–6
mandate 768–9, 770–1
mandate renewal 775–6
negotiation of UN Security Council Resolution 1701 769–70
parties’ testing of 772
stability in area of responsibility 772–3
(p. 890) Strategic Military Cell (SMC) 774–5
unsupported by political process 776
use of force 770–1
United Nations Interim Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
assessment of 624–5
background to 617
civil administration 621–2
civilian police (CIVPOL) 620
collaboration with other multilateral organizations 618–19
complex nature of 618, 624
coordination 619
course and conduct of operation 618–19
deployment of 617
duration of 617, 618
economic development 622–3, 625
establishment of 617
establishment of Kosovo Police Service (KPS) 620
ethnic violence (2004) 623
humanitarian assistance 621
institution-building 622, 625
judiciary 625
lessons learned from 626
mandate 618
as neo-trusteeship 618
political status of Kosovo 623, 624
return of refugees 621
security 619–20, 624–5
self-government 622
unpreparedness 624
United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNIFSA)
accommodation problems 822
achievements of 823–5
assessment of 826–7
background to 818–19
challenges to mandate implementation 825–6
contributing countries 820, 821, 826
contribution to peace and security 824–5
course and conduct of operation 821–3
humanitarian assistance 825
joint border verification and monitoring mission (JBVMM) 821
mandate 820, 821
mandate implementation 823–4
promotion of Dinka/Misseriya coexistence 824
rapid deployment of 821–2
return of refugees 824–5
Sudanese obstruction 822–3
withdrawal of Sudanese/South Sudanese security forces 822
United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) 275
achievements of 280
assessment of 281
ceasefire monitoring 277–8
ceasefire violations 278
contributing countries 277
course and conduct of operation 277–9
disengagement from Iraq 279
impact of Iraqi invasion of Kuwait 279
inadequate resources 280
limitations of 280–1
limited host-state cooperation 280
mandate 276–7
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Boundary demarcation Commission (IKBDC) 314, 316
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
achievements of 319
assessment of 320–1
assistance to other missions in Iraq 314
attacks on 318
contributing countries 315
course and conduct of operation 316–19
criminal activities in demilitarized zone 320
deterioration of Iraq’s confidence in 318
establishment of 314
expulsion of personnel 319
factors contributing to failure of 321
financing of 319–20
limitations of 319–20
mandate 315
monitoring of demilitarized zone (DMZ) 316–17
(p. 891) pollution of demilitarized zone 320
refugees 319
strength of 315
tensions with Iraq (1993-94) 317–18
unexploded ordnance 320
violations of demilitarized zone by British/US aircraft 318–19
withdrawal of 319, 320
United Nations Joint Office on the Prevention of Genocide and RtoP 89
United Nations Liaison Office for Peace and Security (UNLOPS) 64, 67
United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 114, 140–1, 222
ceasefire violations 222
contributing countries 134
course and conduct of operation 135–9
duration of 134
establishment of 134
failure to report atrocities 140
India-Pakistan War (1965) 136–7
India-Pakistan War (1971) 137
insufficient personnel 139
intensification of conflict 223–4
mandate 134, 138, 139
military observers 135–6, 138
minimalist role of 136
monitoring of ceasefire line 136
not recognized by India 137–8, 139
situation on the ground 140
successes and failures of 139–40
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
assessment of 335–6
civilian police components 332
confidence-building 334
contributing countries 327, 332
deployment of 330
difficulties faced by 329–30
establishment of 328
exclusion of human rights monitoring 333
factors contributing to lack of progress 334–5
Houston Agreements (1997) 331
identification of potential voters 330–1
mandate 327
medical unit 332
military component 331–2
mine clearance 333
political nature of 334
reduction in strength of 330
role of 334–5
supervision of ceasefire 332–3
United Nations Settlement Plan for Western Sahara 329
violations of ceasefire agreement 333
United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) 388
achievements of 514–15
assessment of 517
background to 511–12
contributing countries 512
course and conduct of mission 513–14
establishment of 511
international police task force (IPTF) 512, 513–14, 515
limitations of 515–17
mandate 512
negative perceptions of 516
obstruction from the police 515–16
termination of 514
weak support from member states 516
United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) 646–7, 653
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) 610
assessment of 681
attempts to normalize relations between parties 677
background to 671–2
border demarcation 677–8
breach of ceasefire by Eritrea 679
contributing countries 673
deployment of 673–4
Eritrean criticism of 678–9
Eritrean militia and police in Temporary Security Zone 676
Eritrean restrictions on 678–79, 680, 681
establishment of 672
failure of 680, 681
headquarters in both capitals 674
(p. 892) human rights component 675
humanitarian assistance 675
lessons learned from 681
mandate 673
Military Coordination Commission (MCC) 675–6
Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC) 675
operational activities 674–6
public information and outreach centers 675
relations with Eritrean government 676
relations with Ethiopian government 676–7
Standby High Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG) 673
Temporary Security Zone 672, 674
termination of 680
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 545, 547
achievements of 544
assessment of 543–4
background to 540–1
construction works 543
contributing countries 541
coordination with other UN agencies 543
course of mission 542
election organization and supervision 542, 543, 547
establishment of 540, 541
lack of disarmament campaign 544
lack of Security Council support 544
limitations of 544
mandate 541–2
objectives 541
police reform 543, 544
United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) 610
achievements of 701, 703
anti-sexual abuse and exploitation (SEA) campaign 702–3
apprehension of Charles Taylor 700
assessment of 703
background to 694–5
benchmarks for drawdown 698
contributing countries 696
cynicism towards 703
dependence of Liberian security institutions on 698, 699
deterrence effect on armed groups 697
disarmament, demobilization, repatriation and reintegration (DDRR) 696–7
Gender Office 702
gradualist approach to withdrawal 699
as integrated mission 701–2
lessons learned from 703
Liberian National Police (LNP) 698
local scepticism over departure of 698–9
mandate 695–6
occupied rubber plantations 697–8
police reform 698
quick impact projects (QIPs) 702
reintegration, rehabilitation and recovery (RRR) section 702
relationship with Liberian government 699–700, 701, 703
security benchmarks 698
support for elections 699, 700
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 599, 629
assumes parties adherence to Lomé Agreement 633–4, 635
background to 630–1
British deployment in Sierra Leone 635
contributing countries 633
disarmament 639
distinctive features of 629
divisions within leadership of 636–7
ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring and Observation Group (ECOMOG) 631–2, 636–7
factors affecting 630
increase in strength of 638
kidnapping of UN peacekeepers 634, 637–8
mandate 632–3
as model peacekeeping mission 639
negative perceptions of 635
offensive military operations 638
peace process 639
reorganization of 638
resistance to disarmament 634
restoration of reputation of 637–9
rules of engagement 638
(p. 893) rumours of rebel advance 634–5
slow deployment of 634
success of 639
United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) 610, 830
Abyei 819
achievements of 748
ambiguities in Comprehensive Peace Agreement 750
assessment of 751
background to 742–3
building trust between parties 746
ceasefire monitoring 748
Comprehensive Peace Agreement implementation 744–5, 746
contributing countries 744
contribution to peace and security 749
criticisms of 748–9
election organization and supervision 747
involvement in Darfur 745
lack of international support 750–1
lack of political will among parties 750
lessons learned from 751–2
mandate 743–4
mandate implementation 748
obstacles to mandate implementation 750–1
obstruction of 745, 750
parties’ relationship with 750
protection of civilians 748–9
security threats 746
slow deployment of 744
Southern Sudan referendum 747, 748
termination of 747
United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) 610
assessment of 798–800
background to 791–2
civilian protection 793–4, 796–7, 799
contributing countries 793, 794
cooperation between MINURCAT and EUFOR 794
course of the operation 793–4
Détachment Intégré de Securité (DIS) 794–6
European Force (EUFOR) 792, 793–4, 799
focus on vulnerable populations 796–7
intercommunity dialogue 796
inter-mission cooperation 797–8
lack of political mandate 799
mandates 793
promotion of Chad/Sudan dialogue 798
protection of humanitarian workers 797, 799
slow deployment of 794
termination of 798
United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)
assessment of 594–5
background to 588–9
contributing countries 590
deployment of 588
disarmament 592, 593
international context of creation of 590–1
limited impact of 593
limited resources 592
limited scope of 591–2
mandate 589, 591
peacebuilding 591
withdrawal of 593
United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
assessment of 838–9
background to 830–1
Civil Affairs Division 835
civilian protection 833, 834, 839
composition of 832
constraints on troop deployment 836
contributing countries 832
county support bases (CSBs) 833–4
establishment of 832
government civilian disarmament campaign 834, 838
human rights monitoring 838
inter-mission cooperation 835
lack of aircraft and boats 836
local reconciliation processes 835
logistical constraints 836
mandate 830, 832–3
peacebuilding 832, 833, 835
personnel shortages 835–6
relationship with government 834, 837–8, 839
(p. 894) response to inter-communal violence 834
security restrictions on 837
state development 835
unrealistic expectations of 839
United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 532
area of operations 534
assessment of 537–8
background to 532–3
border monitoring 532
ceasefire violations 534–5
contributing countries 534
course and conduct of mission 534–7
Croatian/Montenegrin diplomacy 535
Croatian/Yugoslav diplomacy 536–7
impact of Kosovo crisis 536
mandate 534
United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) 492
assessment of 497
background to 492–3
casualties 496
ceasefire violations 494
contributing countries 493
disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) 496
establishment of 493
implementation of 1994 mandate 494–5
implementation of 1997 mandate 495–6
increase in strength of 496
mandate 493
return of refugees 496
suspension of UN activities 495
United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) 610, 651, 755
achievements of 691
assessment of 691–2, 763
border security 688–9
Civilian Support Group (CSG) 685–6
contributing countries 684
creation of 683
development of law enforcement capacity 687
development of national administrative structures 685–6
extension of mandate 690
incomplete tasks 689, 690
internal/external security 688
language problems 686
lessons learned from 692
limitations of 691–2
mandate 683, 684–5
mandate adjustment 689–90
nation-building responsibilities 684–5
public order challenges 687
strength of 684
unrealistic timetable 685
withdrawal of 683
United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) 318
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in CAR (MINUSCA) 595
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) 70, 854, 863
background to Mali conflict 856–7
contributing countries 856
deployment of 861
election organization and supervision 861
establishment of 860
French military support 860
governance and development initiatives 862
lack of aviation capacity 861, 862
mandate 855–6, 860
north-south political process 862
options for UN engagement in Mali 859–60
political basis for operations 861
re-hatting of AFISMA personnel 861
strength of 861, 862
volatile security situation 862
United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) 116
assessment of 157–8
challenges facing 155
closure of 157
contributing countries 154
course and conduct of operation 154–7
(p. 895) duration of 154
establishment of 153
impact of American deployment 156
increase in personnel 155–6
mandate 154, 155, 158
methods of operation 154–5
political context 156–7
success of 156, 157
United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) 306
assessment of 311–12
confidence-building 309, 311
contributing countries 306, 308
demobilization and disarmament of Nicaraguan Resistance 309–11
innovations by 311
lack of intelligence capacity 309, 312
mandate 306, 307–8
naval operations 308, 309
reintegration of former combatants 311
slow deployment of 308–9, 312
strengthening of peace process 311
verification of cessation of aid to irregular forces 308–9
United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
assessment of 568–9
attacks on 565
background to 563
contributing countries 564
course and conduct of mission 564–8
establishment of 339, 344, 563, 564
limited impact of 569
mandate 564
responsibilities of 565–6
withdrawal of 567–8
withdrawal of UN peacekeeping forces 564–5
United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
active verification mission 351, 358
assessment of 358–9
civilian police (CIVPOL) 354–5
contributing countries 352
election monitoring 357–8
establishment of 351
human rights monitoring 353–4
land transfer programme 356–7
lessons learned from 360
mandate 352
military demobilization 355–6
organizational structure 359
phases of operation 353
reintegration of former combatants 356
success of 351, 359
United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) 443, 445, 449–50
assessment of 450–1
background to 443–4
casualties 448
civilian police 448
dependence on Russian peacekeeping role 446
deteriorating security position 448
difficulties in dealing with conflict 449
establishment of 445
lack of progress on return of displaced persons 447
mandate 444
mission strength 445
status negotiations 446–7, 448
tensions between Georgia and Russia 448
withdrawal of 450
United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
assessment of 459–60
contributing countries 456
demobilization and disarmament 458
election organization and supervision 459
establishment of 455, 456
mandate 455–6
perceived as being partial 457
reduction in strength of 458
relationship with ECOMOG 456–7, 458
renewal of mission 456
security of personnel 457–8
support for regional peacekeeping operation 456
United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) 597, 629
assessment of 603
background to 597–9
contributing countries 600
(p. 896) course and conduct of operation 599
deterioration in security situation 600
ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring and Observation Group (ECOMOG) 600–1, 631
establishment of 599
evacuation of 600
expansion of 602
extension of mandate 601
Lomé Peace agreement (1999) 602, 603
mandate 599
symbolic role of 597, 603
United Nations Observer Mission in Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
contributing countries 464
creation of 463, 465
mandate 464
United Nations Office in Angola (UNOA) 568
United Nations Office in Burundi (BNUB) 733
United Nations Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL) 690, 755
United Nations Office of Legal Affairs 55–6
United Nations Office to the African Union (UNOAU) 65
United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB) 610
achievements of 737
assessment of 738–9
background to 731–2
Burundi Partners’ Forum 736
contributing countries 733
course and conduct of operation 733–7
disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) 735
election organization and supervision 735
establishment of 732
extension of transitional period 734
implementation of Arusha Agreement 733–4, 735–6
integration of ex-combatants 734–5
Joint Ceasefire Commission 734
lessons learned from 738–9
limitations of 737–8
mandate 733
security sector reform 735
withdrawal of 736–7
United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) 82–3, 610, 707
achievements of 715
assessment of 716–17
background to 707–8
constraints on mandate implementation 714
contributing countries 709
deployment of 710
difficulty operating with weak host consent 715–16
election organization and supervision 711, 712, 713, 715
failure of disarmament, demobilization and rehabilitation programme 715
France’s impact on 716
increase in strength of 711, 714
mandate 708–9
mandate renewal 712–13
November 2004 crisis 710–11
Ouagadougou Peace Agreement (2007) 712
post-election crisis 713–14
presidential elections (2010) 713
restoration of state administration 712
use of force 51, 714
weak leadership 716
work undertaken by 712
United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)
ambitious nature of 418–19
background to 416–17
Boutros-Ghali’s intervention 422
ceasefire monitoring 419, 421
contributing countries 418
creation of unified army 422, 424
delays in deployment 420–1
demobilization and disarmament 419, 421, 422, 423
effective mission leadership 418, 425–6
election organization and supervision 419, 421, 422
establishment of 416
factors contributing to success of 423–6
financing of 420
humanitarian assistance 420
(p. 897) implementation of peace agreement 419
lessons learned from UNAVEM II in Angola 423–4
mandate 418, 419–20
obstruction by parties 421–2
Reintegration Support Scheme 423
return of refugees 422
Security Council support 418, 424–5
success of 417–18
troop levels 420
war weariness and desire for peace 424
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM I) 405
anti-UN sentiment 411
assessment of 414
background to 409–11
ceasefire monitoring 411
contributing countries 409
deployment of 411
failure of 408, 413–14
humanitarian assistance 411
impotence of troops 412
increase in size of security force 411–12
mandate 408, 409
operational limitations 414
partial deployment 412
strategic limitations 413–14
Unified Task Force (Somalia) (UNITAF) 412–13
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) 81, 408, 413
assessment of 439–40
attacks on 434, 435
‘Black Hawk Down’ episode 430, 435
casualties 429, 430, 434
command structure problems 438
contributing countries 430
coordination problems 438–9
course and conduct of operation 432–6
disarmament 434
factors contributing to failure of 436–9
failure of 430
faulty assumptions behind 432–3, 437
hunt for General Aidid 435
lack of capability to create secure environment 433
lack of intelligence capabilities 439
limited achievements of 436
mandate 430–1
mission-creep 438
multidimensional operation 429
nation-building tasks 429, 438
objectives 429
strength of 429, 432
transition from UNITAF 432–4, 437
unrealistic mandate 437–8
use of force 434, 437
war-fighting 434–5
withdrawal of 436
United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) 45, 117–18, 167–8
achievements of 168
arrest and death of Lumumba 164
assessment of 167
attacks on 165, 166
Cold War context 163–4, 167–8
collapse of Congolese government 163
contributing countries 162
course and conduct of operation 162–6
duration of 162
end of 166
establishment of 160
impartiality 167
Katangese hostility towards 164–5
Kitona Declaration (1961) 166
mandate 161–2
military operations 166
Operation Morthor 165
Operation Rumpunch 165
Soviet opposition to 167–8
use of force 51, 118, 164, 167
withdrawal of national contingents from 164
United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) 656
achievements of 665–6
assessment of 665–8
background to 656–7
contributing countries 659
criticisms of 664
disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) 665
establishment of 657
(p. 898) gap between tasks and resources 661, 667, 668
human rights 666
implementation of Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement (1999-2002) 659–60
implementation of transitional governance arrangements (2003-6) 660–2
inability to end violence against civilians 666–7
institutional constraints 667
lack of Security Council leadership 667
lack of security sector reform 668
mandate 658–9, 660–1
operational support to Congolese Army 661, 664
operations against militias 661
post-electoral stabilization (2007-10) 662–5
protection of civilians 660, 661, 662–3, 665–6
reconfiguring of mandate 664
reduction in troop levels 665
security sector reform 661, 668
sexual abuse 56, 661–2
strategic review of 664
United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) 50, 656, 665, 803
background to 804
civilian protection 805–8
contributing countries 804
future of 815
Goma debacle 807–8
human rights protection and promotion 810–11
International Security and Stabilisation Support Strategy (ISSSS) 805
intervention brigade 813–14, 815
leadership structure 804
M23 rebellion 806–8, 813
mandate 803–4
operations against militias 806
police reform 810–11
public works 812
questioning of stabilization initiative 813
restoration of state authority 811–12
security sector reform 809–11
stabilization and consolidation of peace 804–5
strengthening of rule of law 810–11
support for elections 808–9
use of force 51
weakness of Congolese state 813
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) 119, 191, 197
assessment of 206–9
challenges facing 197
contributing countries 198, 200
divisions within Greek Cypriot community 201–2
duration of 198, 206
establishment of 197, 199–200
failure of 206
failure of Greek/Turkish negotiations (1974) 203–4
financing of 198, 209n
Greek-inspired coup d’etat (1974) 202
Greek/Turkish Cypriot fighting 200–1
humanitarian assistance 204, 208
inability to contain fighting 200, 203, 206
inter-communal talks (1968-72) 201
lack of mission definition 207
maintenance of ceasefire 204, 208
mandate 197, 198, 207
pacifying influence of 207
police functions 208
political background to 199
Turkish invasion of Cyprus (1974) 202–3, 204
United Nations peacekeeping operations 1
achievements of 5–6
authorization of 3, 45–7
budget 262, 607
bureaucratic inefficiency 266
capability development 612
casualties 607
challenges facing 7–8
Charter of the United Nations 44
(p. 899) civilian protection mandates 43, 45, 82, 613
Cold War peacekeeping (1964-87) 189–96
conflict containment 189
conflict management 262–3
consent 2, 48–50, 147, 151, 264, 266, 611
core principles of 2–3, 44, 47–52, 151
cost of 4
cost-effectiveness of 6
détente peacekeeping 190–1, 192, 193, 195
diversity of peacekeepers 614
divisions amongst member states 613
duration of 26
early experiences (1948-63) 113–19
establishing principles of 48–9, 151–2
expectations of 7
factors affecting success of 265–6
factors contributing to failure of 266
financing of 4, 26, 189, 191
financing of UN peacekeeping operations 45
first deployments 114–15
global field support strategy 612
impartiality 2–3, 50–1, 152n, 264, 266, 609–10, 611
improvised nature of 266
inconsistent and weak support for 7
institutional competence 45–7
institutional inadequacies 7
integrated operations 613, 701
internal armed conflicts 262
involvement in internal affairs 264
lack of basis in UN Charter 43
motives for states’ participation 5
multidimensional peacekeeping 103, 264, 266, 613
neutrality 2–3, 50–1, 147, 151
New Horizon process 608, 611–12
‘no-peace-to-keep’ situations 266
number of 2
number of peacekeepers 262
objectives 2, 3
origins of 2, 114
partnerships with other organizations 5,