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date: 24 February 2020

(p. 641) Index

(p. 641) Index

n = endnote. t = table/diagram.

Abbey, Edward, The Monkey Wrench Gang 580
‘ability to pay’ principle 355, 357, 358
Abram, David 581
acid rain 450, 510
Ackerman, Bruce 59, 109, 111
Action Research Teams (Northern Arizona University) 134, 135–40, 141–2
benefits for University 141
collaborations 135, 140, 141
course content 136–8
ethnic minority students 137
First Year Seminar (FYS) programs 135, 136, 137, 142n
link of theory and practice 136–7
neurological impact 139–40, 142n
origins 135
pedagogy 137–8
political/environmental impact 138–9, 140, 141–2
range of topics 135–6
retention rates 137, 142n
activation, discourse of 269
actor-network theory 13, 97–8, 179, 183, 186, 567, 625–36
criticisms 627–8
critique of scientific objectivity 626–30, 635
and material participation 626, 633–5
origins 626
political theory 626, 630–3, 635–6
adaptive learning 120–1
Addams, Jane 85n2, 164
Adorno, Theodor W. 20, 27–8, 45, 90–1, 92–3, 96, 97, 388
Aeschylus, Antigone 387
Africa
peace parks 220
proposed population controls 282
Agamben, Giorgio 180, 227, 230–1, 405
Agarwal, Anil 551, 553
‘Age of Man Environmentalism’ 367–8
agency 399–409
and capabilities theory 415–16, 423, 424–5, 426
collective 423
definitions of 400
distinguished from freedom 394–5
exclusions 400
definitions of non-sovereign 401–5
of objects 183–6, 406–8
phenomenological approach 403, 407
relationship with ontology 400, 405–8
‘sovereign’ 399, 400–1
agriculture, global capacities 330–1
Agyeman, Julian 124, 127t
air travel, environmental impact of 601–2, 605n9
Alaimo, Stacy 181, 407, 616, 620–1n1
Alexander, David 359n1
Alford, C. Fred 95
All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health (UK) 285
American Ecological Engineering Society 202
American Political Science Review 113
Amnesty International 333
anarchy 478–9
Animal Liberation Front 589
animal rights 30, 214
compatibility with environmentalism 214–15 (p. 642)
discrepancies between species 231
legislative implementation 231
animal studies 214–16
animals
duties of care towards 423–4
Anishinaabe people (Canada) 570, 573–5
Anker, Elizabeth 395
Anthropocene 4, 11, 193–206, 222, 362–76, 462, 535
alternative terminologies 194, 370–1, 374–5
coinage of term 153, 184, 194, 363
criticized for over-generalization 368–9, 375–6
critiques of 153–4, 194, 195, 367–76
dynamic nature 540–1
environmental management in 193–4, 196–206
etymology 363, 366
global environmental governance 535–6, 540–3
“good” 194–5, 366–7
in keynote speeches 364–8
as keyword 363–5, 369, 371
non-use of term 371–6
politics of 155, 157–8
role of visibility 195, 202–5
studies 194, 363
Anthropocene meme 363, 364, 371, 373, 376n2
anthropocentrism, of Western science/politics
challenges to 111
contrasted with Asian approaches 42–3
in critical theory 95–6
critiques of 27, 39, 40–2, 45
and democracy 515–16
within environmentalist movements 367–8, 369–70, 417–18
of sustainability agenda 264
in theories of justice 109–10
apes, granting of rights to 231
Apollo 8 289, 292
Arendt, Hannah 20, 28, 29–30, 31, 393–4, 402, 410n3, 430, 437, 614–15, 618–19, 634
Argentina, environmental activism in 556
Arias-Maldonado, Manuel 610
Aristotle 4, 23, 24, 29, 31, 73, 74, 85n2, 118–19, 173n5, 227, 229, 230–1, 304, 387, 432, 434, 437–8, 464, 625
appropriations/critiques of 4, 414–15, 420, 426n3
Politics 30
Arizona Corporation Commission 138, 142n
Association for Environmental Science and Studies (AESS), 2014 Conference 366–7, 372
Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) 127n1
Atchinson, Jennifer 232, 233
Athens, Georgia, oak tree 232
Atkinson, Judy 375
Attenborough, Sir David 275
Augustine, St. 20
Australia
Aboriginal communities 374–5, 377–8n32
environmental legislation 449
non-ratification of Kyoto 449
autonomous subject, doctrine of 265
Bacon, Francis 41, 387, 494
Barad, Karen 189, 405, 409
Bari, Judi 588–9
Barry, Andrew 631
Barry, Brian 64–5, 242
Barry, Christian 355
Barry, John 28, 29, 32, 81, 82, 84, 393
Bassani, Luigi Marco 61
Bauman, Zygmunt 266
Baxter, Brian 64–5
Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012) 193, 201
Beck, Ulrich 261, 347, 349, 552
bees, relations with humanity 221
Beijing, environmental problems 523–4, 526
Beitz, Charles 241–3, 250, 252n3
Bell, Derek 64, 342–3, 611, 612
Bell, Simon 122
Bell Curve 297
Bendik-Keymer, Jeremy 113–14, 414, 420–2, 425 (p. 643)
‘beneficiary pays’ principle 355, 356, 358
advantages 357
limitations 357
Benjamin, Walter 99, 100
Bennett, Jane 97, 183, 184, 207n6, 405, 406–7, 636n6
Bentham, Jeremy 61–2, 432
Benton, Ted 27
Bergson, Henri 405
Berlin, Isaiah 391–2
Berry, Wendell 67, 118
Biermann, Frank 537, 540
Bilgrami, Akeel 40–1, 45
Bingham, Anne Willing 85n2
biocentrism (eco-centrism) 41, 45, 235, 581
vs. anthropocentrism 50–1, 213
blending with anthropocentrism 369–70
incorporation into political mainstream 111
‘biocide’ 555–6
biodiversity 4
acceptance of losses 340
compensation for losses 293
conservation 222
framing of policies 507–8
loss of 49, 275, 341, 393, 399, 448
vulnerability 283
Biodiversity Convention 1992 568
biopiracy 552
biopolitics 11, 222, 463, 628
place of plants in 227, 230–6
Biro, Andrew 26, 27–8
Blühdorn, Ingolfur 99, 609, 615, 620
Boelens, Rutgerd 554
Bolivia, environmental activism in 554
Bookchin, Murray 6–7, 21, 26, 28, 92, 389, 584–5, 586, 613
Booth, Annie L. 42
Borras, Jun 553
boundary thesis 198–9, 298–9, 301, 301n2
Bourdieu, Pierre 131–2
Boyte, Harry 142n1
BP 448, 453
Braidotti, Rosi 180
Braungart, Michael 453
Brazil
environmental activism 548, 554, 556
eucalyptus plantations 552–3
rubber industry 216
Breen, Sheryl 25
Brenner, Neil 172–3n4
Bronx-Lebanon Medical Waste Incinerator 634–5
Brotsky, China 554
Brown, Mark 635
Brown, Wendy 141, 142n6
Brulle, Robert J. 599
Brundtland Report 263, 264
Bruno, Kenny 554
Bryant, Levi 187
Buddhism 43, 44
Bullard, Robert 127t, 322–3, 548
Burke, Edmund 26
Burkett, Paul 27
Bush, George W. 452, 492
Butler, Judith 231
California, logging industry 588–9
Callicott, J. Baird 106
Callon, Michel 626, 628–9, 631, 633
‘Cambridge school’ 21–2
Canada
indigenous peoples 563, 570, 573-5
plant legislation 233
pollution 450
social activism 619
Caney, Simon 328–9, 339, 340–1, 357
Cannavò, Peter 28, 29–30, 31, 33n3, 170
capabilities, theory of 413–26
‘ceilings’ 417–18
reflexive element 424–5
relationship with EPT 416–18, 424–6
ten elements of 415, 416, 419
and universal flourishing 419–24
capitalism 12, 445–57
in China 522–3
compatibility with individual identity 265–6
environmental impact 49, 52, 133, 370–1, 446–8, 450–2, 455–7, 522–3
equated with ‘the economy’ 307
green critiques of 261–2, 307–9, 370–1, 582–4, 585–6
Marxist critiques of 27, 163, 278–9, 308–9, 312, 447 (p. 644)
monopoly 91, 98
‘natural’/‘green’ 452–5, 456–7
relationship with republicanism 72, 77–8, 81
‘Capitalocene’ 194, 370–1
Capra, Frijtof 494
carbon
as currency 486
‘footprint,’ measurement 468–9
carbon dioxide, proportion of atmosphere 535
Carbon Disclosure Standards Board 486
care, specific vs. non-specific 423–4
Carson, Rachel 63, 118, 277, 494–5
Carter, Alan 299
Castells, Manuel 164, 167
Catney, Philip 541
Cato, Molly 305, 306, 307
Catton, William 387
Cawley, R. McGreggor 28
Center for PostNatural History (Pittsburgh) 201
Chadwick, Edwin 61
Chakrabarty, Dipesh 184–5, 194, 369–70, 371
Chaloupka, William 28, 31
Chambers, Edward 142n1
Chamovitz, Daniel 228–9, 233, 235
Chapman, Anne 28
Chapple, Christopher Key 42
Chevron-Texaco case 551
China 12, 275, 520–9
air pollution 295, 523–4, 526
authoritarianism of government 520, 521, 528, 529
denial of climate responsibilities 354–5, 536–7
domestic politics 525–6
environmental activism 556
environmental policy 520–3
international impact 527–8
population policies 280, 282, 527
social unrest 523–4, 526
state-owned enterprises 523, 527
Chipko Andolan (Hug the Tree Movement) 50
choice architecture 394–5, 595–6, 600, 602, 604, 605n4
Christianity
mandate for anthropocentrism 41, 60
role in environmental destruction 60
Western vs. Eastern interpretations 41
Cicero, M. Tullius 73
circuses 423
civil society, relationship with State 476–7
‘civilizational’ approach 39–40, 42–6
Clark, Brett 447, 452, 586
Clark, Rebecca 22, 26
Clark, Septima 134
Clean Air Coalition 634–5
Clean Development Mechanism 365, 484, 554
climate change 12, 29, 83–5, 133, 153, 170–1, 173n6, 184–6, 194, 243, 259, 321–31, 455–6
absence of international strategy 170–1, 199, 365, 516, 520, 533–4
avoidance of responsibilities 352–3, 354–5
and capabilities theory 418
denial/scepticism 260, 354, 629
disagreements over responsibilities 354–7, 358–9
disclosure of research 499–500
exemptions from responsibilities 327–8
framing of issues 595, 601–2, 605n2, 631
and future generations 321–2, 341–2
and human rights 340–2
individual responsibilities 329–30, 351–3, 455–6
inequality of impacts 321–2, 325, 347, 356–7, 368–9, 510–11
and limits to growth 290
predictions 362–3, 520
public views as to cause 497
responsibility for tackling 244–5, 326–30, 354–7
‘runaway’ 298, 301n2
and state ‘greening’ 483–6
as structural injustice 347–8, 350–1, 356–7
climate justice 321–2, 325–31, 339, 343, 353–4, 363, 371, 553–4
‘climategate’ 499–500
Cloke, Paul 232 (p. 645)
Club of Rome 277, 279, 304, 522
Coase, Ronald 483
Cobb, John 294
Coleman, Frank 25
collaboration skills, teaching of 120
colonialism 369
commodification 482–3
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), principle of 325, 326–7, 329
liability standards 327–8
common good, role in republican thought 75–6, 79, 80
commons
movement 554–5
‘privatization’ 158n2
‘tragedy of’ 157, 158, 516–17n4, 554
Commons Preservation Society 63
communication skills, teaching of 120
‘communicative turn’ 90, 92–6
community, concept of 74–5
Comte, Auguste 63
Confucius 28
Connolly, William 33n2, 117, 132–3, 180, 184, 393
constructivism 275, 495, 496–7, 501, 629
consumers
environmental choices 465
individuals viewed primarily as 265, 268, 616, 617–18
rights/freedoms of 246, 389–90
usage of term 430
consumption 429–38
ecological critiques of 582
excessive 609
‘productive’ 430–1
(proposed) reduction 431–2
range of meanings 430–1
sustainable 616–17
well-being compromised by 436–7
see also consumers
context design 594, 596, 598–604
seen as anti-democratic 598–9
see also framing; nudging
contraception, availability of 285
convening, as function of institutions 571–3
Cook, Deborah 91
Coole, Diana 46, 185, 189–90, 403, 406
Copenhagen Conference/Accords (2009) 362, 499, 524, 540
Copenhagen Zoo 205
Corntassel, Jeff 569
Corporate Eco Forum (CEF) 448
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 465
corporeality 615–16
cosmopolitanism 11, 238–51
Classical/Enlightenment notions 251n1
defined 238–9
and the environment 241–3
and the good life 240, 252n4
and human rights 243–6
institutions 250–1
and justice 239, 243
political 240, 249–50
and poverty 245–6
The Cove (2009) 204
Cranston, Maurice 57
Cresswell, Tim 172n2
Cripps, Elizabeth 426, 426n10
Crist, Eileen 195, 197
critical theory 10, 27–8, 89–100
‘communicative turn’ 90, 92–6
defined 89, 95
Frankfurt School 89–92, 98–9
problems 89–90
role in sustainability studies 119–20, 122
and structural injustice 356–7, 358–9
Cronon, William 165
Crutzen, Paul 184, 194, 200, 363
Dagger, Richard 26, 30, 394–5
Daly, Herman 294, 304, 306, 310, 313
dams, building of 554
opposition to 580
Dann, Mary/Carrie 565
Darier, Eric 28
Darwin, Charles 495
David Suzuki Foundation 449
Davies, Kert 452
Davis, Angela 279
de Vries, Gerard 626, 632, 633
Dean, Jodi 583–4
Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD 2005–14) 118 (p. 646)
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007 338
deep ecology 41, 43, 51, 165, 581–4
links with primitivism 586–7
problem areas 582, 584–5
Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010) 448
‘degrowth’ movement 299–300, 555
Deleuze, Gilles 92, 405
Demeritt, David 636n3
democracy 4, 29–30, 505–16
compatibility with context design 598–9, 602–4
conflicts with environmental policy 506–12
conflicts with green citizenship 612–13
(contradictory) expectations of 270, 509–10
corporate/technological practices opposed to 132–3
deliberative 624
and environmental justice 513–16
and global environmental governance 534
habitus of 132
and human rights 336–7
vs. irreversibility 508–9
lack of, in national government 520, 521
and non-human entities 514–15
object-oriented 626, 630–3, 635–6
vs. paternalism 506–8, 509
problems of scope 509–12
relationship with science 500–1
‘right answers,’ search for 506–7, 509–10
‘simulative’ 609
theory/practice, teaching of 136
undermined by inequality 314
Democratic Party (US) 497
‘demographic dividend’ 281–2
Deng Xiaoping 526
Derrida, Jacques 92, 231, 232, 350
Descartes, René 40, 173n5, 494
developed countries
damage done to others by 245–6
disclaiming of responsibilities 358–9
environmental responsibilities 245
rejection of environmental policies 358–9, 449–52
share of greenhouse gas emissions 296, 329
Dewey, John 28, 29, 31, 59, 93, 119, 120–1, 123, 124, 134
Di Chiro, Giovanna 201, 636n6
Diamond, Jared 524
direct action 588–90
disability theory 399–400, 404–5
Dobel, Patrick 41
Dobriansky, Paula 452
Dobson, Andrew 6, 19–20, 26, 29, 31, 57, 59–60, 110, 203, 387, 394, 611, 612
Citizenship and the Environment 610
Justice and the Environment 111–12
Dogen 388
Donnelly, Jack 337
Donner, Wendy 58
Donovan, Dennis 142n1
Dorling, Danny 283
Dostoevsky, Fyodor 387–8
Doyle, Tim 541
Dryzek, John 6, 27, 29–30, 98, 113, 117, 196, 199, 203, 250–1, 314, 355, 476–7, 478–9, 485, 486, 542, 624–5, 627, 629
DeGeus, Marius 394
Dubois, René 277
DuBois, W.E.B. 28
Dunn, John 21
Durban Group for Climate Justice 554
Dworkin, Ronald 59
Dwyer, Anna 374
Earth First! 580, 587–9
Earth Liberation Front 588–90
“Earthrise” (photograph) 289, 292
East Asia, economic development models 525
Eckersley, Robyn 6, 19–20, 26, 27–8, 29–30, 31, 92, 113, 389, 476, 477–9, 485, 486, 487, 516n2, 539, 618
Environmentalism and Political Theory 111
The Green State 112
eco-centrism see biocentrism
‘ecocide’ 555
eco-feminism 6, 92, 107–8, 368, 557
influence on green citizenship theory 609–10, 615–18
‘ecological debt’ 553
‘ecological democracy’ 477–8, 624–36
problematic features 624–6
(p. 647)
ecological modernism (EM) 475, 477, 481–2
ecologism 59, 289–90, 299, 301n1
radical 60, 261–2, 264, 269, 272, 283
ecology 160, 212–13
‘ecological turn’ 388
relationship with freedom 386–7, 389–91
ecosystems, flourishing of 426
Ecuador
case law 551
environmental activism 555
environmental legislation 223n2
education 116–24
EPT syllabus 118–22
problems/pressures of 133
transdisciplinary 121, 123
Ehrlich, Paul 277
Emmot, Stephen 283
Endangered Species Act 1973 (US) 511
Engels, Friedrich 585
engineering, ecological 201–2
Enlightenment 40
dissenting views 45
environment
building of 152–3, 155–7
definitions of 11, 149–50, 157–8, 165–6
as hyperobject 186–9, 190
as networks of agents 183–6, 189–90
non-English terminology 150
see also space
environmental ethics 20, 30, 170
and collective choice 108
feminist 107–8
individual vs. public 106–7, 108–9
limitations 106–9
(limited) political impact 123–4
in non-Western thought 45
relationship with EPT/political science 105–6
environmental human rights 243–6, 333–44
absence from rights agreements 333, 337
differing conceptions of 333–4, 338–41
entitlement 341–3
evolution of discourse 334–5
intergenerational 341–3
problem areas 335–8, 340–1
quality of environment 339–40
environmental justice 12, 29, 111–12, 165–6, 168–70, 321–31, 339, 547–58
and the Anthropocene 368–9, 371–5
collective responsibility 422–3
and democracy 513–16
evolution of discourse 322–5, 330–1, 547–8
global 324–5
and green citizenship 368–9
guiding principles 326–9
intergenerational 321–2
liability standards 327–8
linked to freedom 392–3
and race 371–3, 548–51
relationship with science 500
vocabulary 547–56, 549–51t
Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade (EJOLT) research project 548–51, 552
environmental management 193–4, 196–206
limits-based 198–9
past-focused 196–8
technological approach 200–2
environmental movements 6, 12–13, 165–6, 445, 448–9
integration into capitalist system 456–7
need for focus on governmentality 470–2
environmental political theory (EPT)
academic syllabus 118–22, 123, 127–9nn1–9; featured authors 125–6
and capabilities theory 416–18, 424–6
and citizenship 610–12
‘civilizational’ approach 39–40
definitions of 3–4, 19–20, 59–60, 105–6
development 6–7, 8–9, 30, 116–17
distinguished from other branches of theory 10–11, 20
diversity 460 (p. 648)
future challenges 13, 133–4
and global environmental governance 534, 537–8, 541–2
and governmentality 463–5, 467
and human rights 331, 334, 336–7, 339–40
interdisciplinarity 5–6, 10, 30–1, 121, 123
interspecies 211, 214, 222–3
locations 7, 13, 113
naming 7–8
non-Western approaches 39–52
objectives 133–4
opposing positions 4–5
place of freedom within 385–6, 391–6
and population theory 274, 275–6
relationship with political science/environmental ethics 105–6, 110–14
relationship with political theory see Western political theory
transgressiveness 6
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 450, 566
2014 Conference 371–3
‘environmental state’ 481–3, 487–8
vs. ‘green state’ 475–6, 476t
environmentalism
defined 149
‘of the poor’ 548, 551–2, 556–7
slogans 399
Epicurus/Epicureanism 432, 437–8
equity, as principle of justice 326
Escobar, Arturo 309, 555
Esposito, Robert 235
Esteva, Gustavo 555
European Commission 511
European Union 330, 537
Emissions Trading Scheme 484–5
Evans, Bob 127t
evolution, theory of 495
‘extensionism’ 30
extinctions
biodiversity policies framed in terms of 507–8
man-made 448
mass (late Cretaceous) 153
Exxon 452
Fanon, Frantz 369
Farr, James 33n2
Fausto-Sterling, Anne 181–2
fertility, controls on 279, 280
Firestone, Shulamith 278–9
First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit (US 1991) 323–4
fisheries 330–1
Flagstaff, Arizona 141
‘floral sensations’ 226–7
flourishing 12, 51, 79, 211, 413–26
of all species 419–24
and capabilities theory 416–18
climate requirements 418
see also well-being
Folke, Carl 541
food
cultivation, side-effects of 247
‘justice’ 52, 556
‘sovereignty’ 48–9, 553, 557
Ford, Henry 99, 483
fossil fuels, monitoring of 468–9
Foster, John Bellamy 27, 127t, 447, 452, 585, 586
Foucault, Michel 24, 28, 92, 227, 231
on governmentality 460–1, 463, 465–7, 468
Fournier, Vincent 201, 202
Fox, Warwick 62
fracking 290, 306
framing 594–5
(alleged) manipulativeness 598–9
‘deep’ vs. ‘surface’ models 600–1
Francis, Pope 553
Frankfurt School 89–92, 98–9, 308, 494
Fraser, Nancy 94–5, 112
freedom 4, 30, 385–96
agency vs. option 394–5
as constrained by environmentalism 386–8, 389–91
differing/conflicting forms of 385, 389–91, 392
as enabled by environmentalism 386–7, 388–9, 391–5
and governmentality 466–7, 469 (p. 649)
history of ideas 387–9, 391–2
incorporation into EPT 391–6
motivational force 392
as process of becoming 393–4
vs. property rights 390
relational view of 392–3
tensions with environmentalism 385–6
value 395
Freud, Sigmund 91, 99, 388
Friends of the Earth 619
Fry, Ian 572
Fulfer, Katy 421
Funtowicz, S.O. 497
future generations, rights/needs of 341–3, 436–7
G20 group 537–8
Gabrielson, Teena 609, 613, 615, 618, 636n2
Galileo Galilei 494
Gallatin, Albert 85n2
Gallup World Poll 435–6
Gandhi, Mohandas K. (Mahatma) 28–9, 39, 45–52
advocacy of non-violent protest 49–50
approach to nature 46–8, 50–2
vegetarianism 51
Gandy, Matthew 172
Ganz, Marshall 137
Gardiner, Stephen 200
Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie 405, 407
Gauthier, David 429
gentrification 167–8
geography
and justice 169–70, 171
Marxist 162, 165
and space 161–4
Geological Society of America 363
Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas 306, 555
Germany
environmental movements 449, 555
state-civil society relations 476–7
Ghana, forestry reforms 450–1
Gilbert, Liette 618–19
Gilley, Bruce 520
Glen Canyon Dam 580
Global Climate Coalition (GCC) 451–2
global environmental governance 12, 464, 533–43
critique 535–7
ineffectiveness 533–4
lack of reflexivity 542
minilateral approach 538–9
polycentric approach 538
proposed reforms 537–40
relationship with EPT 534, 537–8, 541–2
relationship with justice/democracy 534
subordination to economic/security issues 535–6
Global Resource Dividend 242
Global Warming Divestiture Campaign 451
Godrej, Fareh 28–9
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 230, 391
Goldman, Emma 396
Goodin, Robert 314, 460
Gorz, André 27
Gottlieb, Robert 164
Gould, K.A. 482
governance
environmental 202, 212, 464–5, 484–5, 564–6
indigenous institutions 564–6
links with governmentality 462
mechanisms 484–5
multi-level 240
neoliberal 12, 450–1
republican 76, 83
of unsustainability 268–71
governmentality 12, 132, 460–72
‘green’ 222, 461–3; implementation 468–70
and milieux 460–1, 465–7
need for future action 470–2
relationship with EPT 463–5, 467
relationship with governance 462
relationship with politics 462–3
Gray, John 26
Great Lakes region 219–20, 573–5
Green, T.H. 26, 59, 63
‘green’, use of term 7
green citizenship 608–20
(alleged) exclusionary nature 612–14
(apparent) redundancy 608–9, 614, 619 (p. 650)
criticisms 612–14, 616–17
individualism 613–14
influential strands of thought 609–10, 614–20
place in EPT 610–12
positive value 614–15, 619–20
treatment of private sphere 613–14, 616–18
Green Climate Fund 329
‘green deserts’ 552–3
‘green economics’ 452–5, 456–7; see also “green political economy”
Green Party/ies, national/international 80, 449
green political economy 304–15
critique of economic growth 307–9
history 304
marginalization 304–5
vs. neo-classical economics 304–5, 306–7
objectives 309–12, 314–15
scientific basis 306
‘green state’ 475–80, 487–8
challenges 480
conditions conducive to 476–7
vs. ‘environmental state’ 475–6, 476t
problems of 479–80
‘Green Syndicalism’ 584
greenhouse gas emissions 199
(calls for) disclosure 484
environmental impact 153, 246, 362–3, 447–8, 454
failure of negotiations on 170–1, 199, 520, 533–4
long-term effect 326–7
monitoring 484
national responsibilities 326–9; exemptions 327–8
rich vs. poor countries 296, 329
right to 339
scale 535
scientific debates on 595
Greenpeace 204, 449, 452
Grim, John 42
Grosz, Elizabeth 180
Grotius (Hugo de Groot) 30
growth, economic 12
(alleged) environmental benefits 295
decoupling from environmental degradation 297–8, 312
environmental damage resulting from 447–8
green critique 307–9
international agenda 262
proposed alternatives 309–12
Guattari, Félix 405
Guha, Ramachandra 44, 48, 51, 127t, 551–2
Gunnell, John 21, 22
Guthman, Julie 181
Habermas, Jürgen 20, 27, 28, 30, 90, 92–6, 97–8, 100, 538, 624, 633, 634
habitus 131–2
alternative, creation of 139–40
Haeckel, Ernst 468
Hailwood, Simon 59, 64
Hamilton, Alice 164
Hamilton, Clive 194–5, 200, 367
Hansen, P.G. 596
Haraway, Donna 182, 215, 218–19, 362, 363, 370–1, 375–6
Hardin, Garrett 21, 22, 26, 118, 120, 157, 158, 158n2, 296, 387, 496, 554
‘harm principle’ 108
Harvey, David 162, 167, 171, 483
Hawkins, Gay 408
Hay, Peter 494
Hayek, F.A. 58, 59
Hayward, Tim 339, 340
hazardous wastes
calls for reduction 323–4
siting of facilities 322–3
Head, Leslie 232, 233
health, right to 340–1
hedonism 432–4, 432–7
problems of 434–5, 436–7
Hegel, G.W.F. 30, 229–30
Heidegger, Martin 162, 189, 230, 388, 405
Heilbroner, Robert L. 521, 523, 528
Heinberg, Richard 118
Held, David 250–1
Hettinger, Ned 153–4, 195, 197, 367–8
Heyward, Clare 426n7
Hildreth, Robert 142n1 (p. 651)
Hill, Julia Butterfly 232
Hinduism 41, 42–3, 44, 51
Hird, Myra 182
Hirsch, Paul 83–4
Hirschmann, Nancy 391, 402, 404
Hobbes, Thomas 21, 22, 23, 24, 58, 387–8
appropriations/critiques of 25
‘hockey stick’ graph 365
Hoffman, Matthew J. 538
Holland, Breena 248, 252n8, 416–18, 425
Holtgren, Marty 574–5
Holway, Tatiana 226
Honneth, Axel 112
Honohan, Iseult 73, 75
Hopkins, Rob 300
Horkheimer, Max 27, 45, 90–1, 92–3, 388
Horner-Dixon, Thomas 127t
Houle, Karen 233–4
Howarth, Richard 30
Hubbert, M. King 297
hubris, and environmental management 200–2, 369
human rights 243–6, 333–44, 376–7n14
absence of environmental elements 333, 337
basic 243–5, 341
clashes between 340–1
emergence of discourse 334–5, 336, 343
intergenerational 341–3
international agreements 333, 336, 340–1, 343, 344n1
pre-eminent standing 334–5, 337, 339–40
state responsibilities 335
humanism 584–6
humanity 178–90
relationship with environment 181–2
(self-)definition 180
speciation 182
Hume, David 30, 157
Huntingdon Life Science 589
Hutcheson, Frances 58
Huxley, Aldous 67
hyperobject, environment as 186–9, 190
identity, notions of 265–6
Illich, Ivan 304, 309
India 39–52, 275
denial of climate responsibilities 354–5, 536
environmental activism 49, 50, 554, 555–6
famines 276
population policy 280
indigenous peoples 563–76
Declarations 568–70
defined 563
ecological projects 573–5
as ecological symbol 42
environmental governance institutions 564–6
environmental movements 13, 373–5, 565, 567–70
institutional functions/responsibilities 570–3
land rights 338
Indigenous Peoples Earth Charter 569–70
individuals
agency/capability 415–16, 424–5
animal rights focused on 214–15
climate responsibilities 246, 329–30, 351–3
property rights 58
relationship with community 336
social responsibilities 269–70, 359, 406–7
as units of justice 239
Industrial Revolution 290, 366, 369, 453
industrialization 295
critiques of 164–5
inequality 12, 77
of environmental impacts 321–2, 325, 347, 368–9
of global distribution 356–7, 358–9, 370, 446, 454, 552; advocated 296
moves to reduce 311, 313
relationship with economic growth 295
rise in 267, 270, 271
socio-economic implications 313–14
and structural injustice 356–7, 358–9
Inglehart, Ronald 552
Ingold, Tim 406, 407
institutions
applicability of justice to 245
supra-state 250–1
‘insurgent vulnerability’ 616, 620–1n1
interdependence, global 242–3, 250–1
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 327, 341, 451, 492, 500, 512, 566 (p. 652)
International Bill of Rights 336, 340–1, 344n1
‘international borrowing privilege’ 246
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 344n1
International Covenant on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights 1966 344n1
International Labour Organization (ILO) 310–11, 313
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 450, 533
International Relations theory 335
International Society of Environmental Ethics (ISEE), 2014 Conference 367–8
International Union of Geosciences 363
interspecies 211–23
political community 217–19
and power 220–2
social relations 216–17, 222–3
and sovereignty 219–20
intersubjectivity 628
irreversibility, of environmental policies 508–9
Isin, Engin 619
Isle Royale National Park 219–20
Jackson, Tim 297–8, 306, 312, 313
Jainism 43, 51
James, William 66, 67, 68
Jefferson, Thomas 25, 60–1, 65, 78, 81–2, 85n2
Jensen, Derrick 369, 587
Jespersen, A. 596
Jessop, Bob 172–3n4
Jevons, William Stanley 431
John, Peter 598, 605nn10–11
Jonas, Hans 387
Jones, Martin 172–3n4
Jones, Owain 232
Jones, Rhys 604
justice 4, 11–12, 29, 247, 418, 419–20, 425
applicability to institutions 245
and cosmopolitanism 239, 243, 247–9
distributive 239, 243, 250, 417–18
environmental impacts claim 247, 248–9
environmental preconditions claim 247, 248–9
extension to non-human world 111–12, 419–24, 514–15
and global environmental governance 534
liberal egalitarian theories 247
relationship with democracy 513–16
restriction to sentient beings 420–2
right-libertarian theories 247
spatial 169–70
theories of 109–10, 239, 247–9
Kahneman, Daniel 433
Kamsler, Victoria 426n6
Kant, Immanuel 30, 107, 214, 265, 387, 508, 512, 513, 517n5
Karajarri people (Australia) 374–5, 377–8n32
Kari-Oca 2 Declaration of the Indigenous Peoples Global Conference 569–70
Karliner, Joshua 554
Kasser, Tim 311
Kassiola, Joel 28
Katrina, Hurricane 455, 552
Keil, Roger 173n8
Keith, David 200
Kelley, Theresa 226, 229–30
Kennedy, Emily Huddart 402
Kenya, environmental activism in 616
Keulartz, Josef 422, 423–4, 425
Keynes, John Maynard 483
Kim, David Kyuman 400
King, Ynestra 107
Kinnane, Steve 374–5
Klein, Naomi 133, 454–5
Knights of Labor 81
Koggel, Christine M. 403
Kolbert, Elizabeth 376n6
Kompridis, Nikolas 203
Kothari, Ashish 552
Kovel, Joel 26, 27, 165
Kraft, Michael 109
Krause, Sharon 402, 403–4, 406–7
Kumari 455
Kurien, John 554
Kuznets, Simon/Kuznets Curve 281, 295, 297, 312, 480
Kyoto Declaration (2003) 568
Kyoto Protocol 1997 326, 484–5, 566
states’ refusal to ratify 449, 451–2
(p. 653)
Laclau, Ernesto 627
LaFreniere, Gilbert 26
Lakoff, George 594, 599, 601, 604n1
Lameman, Crystal 373–4
Lane, Joseph H., Jr. 22, 26, 31, 33n3
Lane, Melissa 24–5
Langlois, Anthony 357
Lappé, Frances More 394
Latouche, Serge 299–300, 309, 555
Latour, Bruno 97, 98, 110, 158n1, 171, 189, 202, 203, 405, 409, 626–7, 629–30, 633
The Pasteurization of France 628–9
Lavin, Chad 349
Law, John 627
Leeson, Susan 24–5
Lefebvre, Henri 160–1, 162, 164, 166–7, 171, 172n3, 618–19
Legislator, figure of 74
Leiss, William 387
Lemke, Thomas 463
Leopold, Aldo 62, 79, 96, 212, 218, 388
Levinas, Emmanuel 230, 350
Lewis, Lynne 109
Li Keqiang 526
liability
fault-based 327–8
hybrid models 355, 358
model, problems of 347, 348–9, 354–6, 358
strict 327
Liao, S. Matthew 200–1, 202
liberalism 10, 57–68, 469
compared with republicanism 73, 76
‘greening’ 63–5
history 57–9, 60–3
influence on radical environmentalism 583
relationship with EPT 59–60, 63–5
and social justice 59
and state neutrality 59
Liebell, Susan 25
life, right to 340–1
‘lifeboat ethics’ 296
lifestyle choices 389–90, 601–2, 609
Light, Andrew 93–4
limits to growth 12, 60, 63, 279, 289–301, 387, 521–2
boundary thesis 198–9, 298–9, 301n2, 535
degrowth/relocalization 299–300
objections to 173n6, 198–9, 291–6, 300–1
‘peak oil’ thesis 290, 297, 299, 301
poor countries’ objections to 296
return to ideas of 297–9, 301
substitutability argument 292–5
technological argument 291–2
thesis 290–1
Transition movement 300
Limits to Growth (report, 1972) 63, 289, 290–1, 304, 522
Linklater, Andrew 349
Lipietz, Alain 483
liquid modernity 266
Litfin, Karen 542
Little River Band of Ottawa Indians 574–5
Liu, Janguo 524
Livingston, Julie 223n1
Locke, John 22, 58, 60–1, 338, 390, 513
appropriations/critiques of 25–6, 401–2
London, Jonathan 169
Lovelock, James 278
Lucas, J.R. 350
Lucretius 434
Luke, Timothy W. 7, 27, 28, 206n1
Mabey, Richard 233
Macauley, David 28
MacGregor, Sherilyn 600
Machiavelli, Niccolò 30, 31, 73, 81–2, 85nn1–3, 470
Machin, Amanda 618
Mackenzie, Catriona 402
Mackie, Gerry 516n3
Macpherson, C.B. 58, 61
Madison, James 61
Maldives 510–11
Malthus, Thomas 62–3, 276–7, 289, 296, 304
critiques of 26, 274–5, 279–83, 296
modern appropriations of theory 277–9, 296
Mancuso, Stefano 236
Mandamin, Josephine 573
Maniates, Michael 127t, 401
Mansfield, Becky 181
Manukan Declaration of the Indigenous Women’s Biodiversity Network 568
Mao Zedong 522 (p. 654)
Marcuse, Herbert 20, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98–9, 278, 308, 389
appropriations/critiques of 27–8, 494
Marder, Michael 229–30, 235–6
Marres, Noortje 406, 408, 625, 631, 633–4
Marsh, George Perkins 194, 206n2
Martin, Trayvon 410n4
Martinez-Alier, Juan 338
Marx, Karl 20, 22, 30, 31, 91, 111
appropriations/critiques of 27–8, 352
on capital(ism) 308, 312, 438, 447, 585–6
definition of critical theory 89, 95, 98
Marxism 13, 27–8, 100, 111, 265, 387, 522
and economics 27, 306, 308–9, 312
and environmentalism 447, 580, 585–6
and geography 162, 165
and state formation 475–6, 481–3, 484, 486, 521
Massey, Doreen 162
material participation 626, 633–5
Maynor, John 74
McDonough, William 453
McGregor, D. 570
McKibben, Bill 118, 152–3, 194
McNeill, John 252n5
Meadowcroft, James 476, 478, 480, 486
Meadows, Dennis 304
Meadows, Donella 118, 304
meat, consumption of 51, 204–5
mega-circulations, political economy of 132
Mellos, Koula 26, 27
Mendes, Chico 548
Merchant, Carolyn 21, 25, 40–1, 45, 494
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 162, 405
Meyer, John M. 7, 20, 23, 24, 25, 31, 406, 601, 605n8, 613–14
Midgley, Mary 113, 218
Miéville, China 203–4
milieux, Foucauldian notions of 460–1, 465–7
Mill, John Stuart 31, 58–9, 150, 156, 157, 277, 310
appropriations/critiques of 25–6, 401
relevance to modern environmentalism 62–3, 65, 67, 68, 304
Miller, Clark 594, 595, 599
Miller, David 357
Miller, Elaine 229, 230
Mills, Charles 404
minilateralism 538–9
Minteer, Ben 28, 123–4
Mitchell, Jimmie 574
Mitchell, Timothy 173n7
mobility, politics of 390
Modern Constitution 627–8, 629–30, 635
Modern Languages Association (MLA) 370
Mol, Arthur 409, 636n4
Monbiot, George 197–8
Monsanto 227
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de 73
Montreal Protocol 1987 335, 484, 533, 538, 542
Mooney, Pat 552
Moore, George 157
Morse, Stephen 122
Morton, Timothy 186–9, 190
Moss, Lenny 92, 95
Mother Earth Water Walk 573–4
Mouffe, Chantal 100, 614–15, 618, 619, 627
Muir, John 164
Murtaugh, P.A. 284
Mystic Lake Declaration (2009) 569
Naess, Arne 41–2, 43, 51, 278, 581
Nandy, Ashish 555
Narain, Sunita 551–2, 553
Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Valley Movement) 49, 50, 554
Nash, Roderick 223n2
Native Americans 42
environmental governance institutions 564–6
environmental movements/conferences 373–4, 375, 567–70
natural disasters 454–5
natural resources
as common good 241–2
and human rights 338–9
inequitable access to 331
responsibility for depletion 296
(risk of) exhaustion 275, 290–1, 292, 547
sovereign rights 335–6
nature 149–58
defined as non-human 150–2, 154–5, 157–8, 627–8 (p. 655)
‘domination of’ (in critical theory) 91–2
environment defined in terms of 149–50, 157–8
Gandhian attitudes to 46–8, 50–2
human control/exploitation 40–1, 152–3, 155, 387, 547
liberal attitudes to 65–8
overstatement of human impact on 153–4
rights of 223n2
Navajo Peacemaker Court 571–2
neo-classical economics
debate with green political economy 306–7
pre-eminent position 304–5, 306–7
neoliberalism 12, 132–3, 221, 445, 455–6, 608–9
critiques of 266–7, 370
environmental impact 450–2
Netherlands 248, 632
new economics foundation 310
New Left 278, 280
New Orleans 455
New York
environmental action movements 371–3, 634–5
flooding (2012) 373
pet care 218
urban landscape 172
waste management 634–5, 636
New Zealand
animal legislation 231
deep-sea drilling debate 511–12
environmental legislation 449
indigenous population 563
Newton, Isaac 41, 494
Nickel, James 339–40
Niemeyer, Simon 113
Nietzsche, Friedrich 22, 29, 92, 230
Nigeria, protest activities 548
Nisbet, Matthew 595, 599, 602
Nixon, Richard M. 278
Nixon, Rob 370, 616
Nmé (Sturgeon) Stewardship Program 574–5
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 484, 485–6, 487, 493, 528
non-human entities
distinguished from human 180
duties of care towards 423–4
extension of justice/rights to 23, 30, 61–2, 111–12, 158n1, 214–16, 341, 419–20, 514–15
flourishing 419–24
human interaction with 4–5, 96, 110, 165–72, 182–9, 416–26
moral status 106, 110
normative values 408
overlooked by theorists 95–6, 109–10
non-identity problem 342
non-Western traditions 42–6
risk of stereotype/caricature 43–4
Nordhaus, Ted 127t, 601
Norton, Bryan 59, 65, 68, 83–4
Norway
environmental legislation 449
state-civil society relations 476–7
Nozick, Robert 59, 109
nuclear power, movements against 555
nudging 594, 595–8
(alleged) paternalism 596–7, 599–600, 603–4
environmental examples 597–8
overlap with framing 598
types of 605n6
Nussbaum, Martha 29, 98, 112
capabilities theory 414–15, 416, 417, 419–22, 423, 425, 426nn1–4, 426n9
Obama, Barack 410n4
objects
as active agents 183–6, 406–8
autonomy/withdrawal 186–9
O’Connor, James 27, 585–6
offsetting 293–4
oil
‘in the soil’ 555
spills 448
O’Neill, Brendan 284
O’Neill, John 25
Ontario Invasive Plant Council 233
ontology, relationship with agency 400, 405–8
Ophuls, William 6–7, 21, 23, 25, 26, 116, 127t, 387, 496, 521, 523, 528 (p. 656)
Orhan, Özgüç 25
Orr, David 134
Orwell, George 67
Ostrom, Elinor 120, 538
Ott, Paul 28
Pachirat, Timothy 204
Paehlke, Robert 80, 127t, 636n1
Page, Edward 356
Pangsapa, Piya 611
pantheism 41–2, 45
Parady, Katelyn 404, 613, 615, 618, 636n2
Parfitt, Derek 106–7, 342
Parham, John 63
Parks, Bradley C. 356–7, 358–9
Passmore, John 40–1
past, conservation projects focused on 196–8
objections to 196, 197–8
Pasteur, Louis 628–9
Patel, Raj 370
paternalism
challenge posed to democracy by 506–8, 509
‘hard’ vs. ‘soft’ 596–7
shown by scientists 499–500
Patkar, Medha 49, 554
Pavesich, Vida 92, 95
‘peak oil’ thesis 290, 297, 299, 301
Pelenc, Jerome 422, 425
Pellow, D.N. 482
People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit (1991) 548, 557
performativity 618–19
Perlman, Ferdy 587
Pesticide Action Network 556
Pettit, Philip 74, 76, 80, 392–3, 394–5, 402
phenomenology 162, 403, 407
Phillips, Catherine 232, 233, 618–19
Phoenix, Arizona 135
Pickering, Andrew 405
Pickering, Jonathan 355
Pickett, Kate 311, 313–14
Pielke, R.A., Jr. 497
Piketty, Thomas 446, 448
Pinchot, Gifford 164
place, sense of 170
Plamenatz, John 22
planetary boundaries 298–9, 301, 301n2, 535
plants 226–36
communication 228–9
defense mechanisms 229
discrimination between species 232–3
genetic manipulation 227, 232
historical attitudes to 229–32
indigenous vs. exotic/invasive 233, 236n3
individual, respected/valued 232, 292–3
moral rights 234–5
place in natural hierarchy 229–32, 235
sensory capacities 11, 227–8
signaling 229
Plato 19, 20, 22, 29, 464
appropriations/critiques of 23, 24–5
Republic 20, 21
Plumwood, Val 6, 25, 40–1, 107, 203, 215, 402
Pocock, J.G.A. 21–2, 78–9
Pogge, Thomas 242, 245–6, 252n3
Polanyi, Karl 308, 438, 554
political ecology 7–8, 20, 98, 212, 216
depoliticization of issues 268–9
turn away from 265–7, 271
urban 171–2
political economy 62–3, 304–15, 475–88
Chinese 522–3
of mega-circulations 132, 138
and private property 81
republican 76–7, 81, 82
political responsibility 347–8, 349–51, 358–9
individuals’ acceptance of 351–3, 359
political science 8–9
inattention to EPT 112–13
limitations 109–10
relationship with EPT/environmental ethics 105–6
relationship with political theory 5–6, 20
Pollan, Michael 118, 132, 228, 234, 236, 236n2
‘polluter pays’ principle 326–7, 355–6
modified versions 355, 358
objections to 355, 357
(p. 657)
pollution 244, 275, 277, 295
transnational 335
polycentrism 538
‘popular epidemiology’ 556
population 274–86
capacity to support 275–6, 340
computer simulations 284
‘demographic dividend’ 281–2
feasibility of stabilization 284–5
global statistics 275, 276, 277
growth 12, 274, 275, 281–2, 290, 547
projections 275, 284
proposals for stabilization/reduction 274, 277–9, 283–4, 582; objections to 274–5, 279–83
relationship with economic growth 275–6, 280–1, 285
and sustainable development 282–3, 285–6
theories of 62, 276–9
Porritt, Jonathan 432
Porter Hypothesis 480
possessive individualism 58
postcolonial justice, impact on citizenship theory 609–10
postcolonial studies 13, 389
post-democracy 609
‘post-ecological’ turn 265–7, 271, 609
posthumanism 11, 97, 179–80, 189–90
‘post-political’ thesis 608–9
post-sustainability 261, 264–7
poverty, responsibility for 245–6, 262, 280
power
interspecies 220–2
and responsibility 353–4
structures 4, 12–13
Press, Daniel 462
primitivism 586–7
property
Lockean theory of 22, 25, 58, 60–1, 390
modern theories of 110
in republican thought 81
Przeworski, Adam 508
Puar, Jasbir 223n1
Pykett, Jessica 604
race, issues of 28–9, 548–51
within environmental movement 371–3
and industrial development 368–9
and population theory 274–5, 279–80, 282
and siting of waste facilities 322–3
radical democracy, influence on green citizenship theory 609–10, 618–19
radical environmentalism 13, 580–91
conflict between strands 590–1
humanist 580, 584–6, 590
primitivist 580, 586–7, 590
principal ideologies 580
spiritual 580, 581–4, 590
syncretic ideologies 580, 587–90
Ramsey, Frank 429
Rancière, Jacques 100
rational choice theory 280, 538
rationalism 495, 585
Ravetz, J.R. 497
Rawls, John 29, 59, 64, 68, 109–10, 238–9, 250
critiques of 241–3, 248
Reagan, Ronald 280, 450
Redwood Summer 588–9
reflexivity 203, 205, 206, 393, 471, 534, 542–3
Regan, Tom 107
regime complexes 533–4
reification 97, 155–8
relocalization 299–300
Republican Party (US) 497, 629
republicanism 10, 29–30, 72–85
and civic virtue 72, 74–5, 77–8, 84–5
Classical/Enlightenment notions 73
and the common good 75–6, 79, 80
concept of self-government 73, 74–5, 76
defined 73
and egalitarianism 76–7
‘green’ 82–5, 389
links with environmentalism 72–3, 78–85
risk of corruption 77, 78–9, 82, 85n2
and sexism 85n2
tension of community and contestation 74–5, 76, 80, 83, 84–5
resilience 120–1, 282, 373, 375, 534, 541–2
Resilience Alliance 541
‘resonance machine’ 132–3 (p. 658)
responsibility 11–12, 346–59
collective 422–3
etymology 350
ex ante 422
liability model 347, 348–9, 354–6, 357
moral 347
range of meanings 348
restoration, ecological 196–8
Revkin, Andrew 194–5, 366–7
rhetoric
bonding vs. bridging 355
of climate change 355
Rich Picture Deliberation 122
rights 11–12, 30
basic 243–5
extension to non-human species 30, 234–6, 341
natural 338
sovereign 335–6
Rio Conference on Sustainable Development (1992) 259, 362, 451, 557, 569–70
Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development (2012) 199, 259, 535
keynote video 365
risk society 261, 347, 349
Robbins, Paul 171–2
Roberts, J. Timmons 356–7, 358–9
Robertson, James 308
Robinson, Kim Stanley 207n5
Rockström, Johan 198, 298–9, 301n2
Rodman, John 63
Rolston, Holmes, III 106
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 22, 25, 26, 29, 31, 58, 73, 77, 82, 388, 494
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality 78
The Social Contract 74
Royal Society 284
Rural and Indigenous Women’s Statement on Climate Change 568–9
Sabine, George 21–2
sabotage, ecological 588–9
Sachs, Wolfgang 555
Sagoff, Mark 431
San Diego, California 515, 589
‘sand mafias’ 555–6
Sandel, Michael 74, 76, 83
Sandilands, Catriona 28
Sankara 44
Saro-Wiwa, Ken 548
saving, intergenerational 429
Saward, Michael 539
Saxonhouse, Arlene 24, 33n2
scale, role in environmental scholarship 170–1
Schattschneider, E.E. 631–2
Scheuerman, William 27
Schiff, Jacob 351
Schlax, M.G. 284
Schlosberg, David 29, 30, 98, 165–6, 169, 248, 324
on capabilities theory 417, 418, 420, 422–3, 425, 426, 426n8
Defining Environmental Justice 112
Schnailberg, Allan 481–2
Schneider, Stephen 497–8
Scholtes, Fabian 418
Schumacher, E.F. 278, 304
Schwartz, Barry 395
science 491–501
advisory models 495–7
constructivist approaches 495, 496–7, 501
dangers introduced by 631
decisionist approach 496
ecological critiques of 495
expertise, political role/significance 491–2, 496, 497, 500–1
history of attitudes to 493–5
integration in modernist outlook 266–7
limitations 5, 263–4, 492–3
linear model (of relations with government) 496, 498
objectivity, critique of 626–30
public understanding 497–9
rationalist approaches 495–6
relationship with democracy 500–1
role in environmental politics 492
technocratic conception 496
scientists, attitudes to public 499–500
Scott, H. Lee, Jr. 453
Scruton, Roger 26
sea levels, rise in 510–11 (p. 659)
security, economic 309–12
and equality/well-being 313–14
self-determination, right to 336
self-government, role in republican thought 73, 74–5, 76
self-realization, changing attitudes to 265–6
Sen, Amartya 110, 414, 415–16, 418, 422, 425, 426n2, 426n5
Shantz, Jeff 584, 588
Shapiro, Ian 513
Shellenberger, Michael 127t, 601
Shelley, Mary, Frankenstein 202
Shiva, Vandana 28, 48–9, 52, 309, 392, 494, 555
Shrader-Frechette, Kristin 60
Shrivastava, Aseem 552
Shue, Henry 243–5, 339, 553
Shukin, Nicole 227, 231
Sibley, Mulford Q. 21, 24–5
sight, politics of 202–5
Simon, Julian 280–1
Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake 373–4
simulation, politics of 271
Singer, Peter 62, 106, 107, 514
Skinner, Quentin 21–2, 24, 74
Skorupski, John 58–9
slavery 356
Slicer, Deborah 107
Smith, Adam 58, 276
Smith, Kimberly K. 28
Smith, Mark J. 610–11
Smith, Mick 618
social ecology 580, 584–5
Society for Ecological Restoration 197
‘socio-logic’ 631–2
Socrates 118–19, 122
Soja, Edward W. 167, 169, 171
Solon 434
Solow, Robert 294
Soule, M.E. 462
South Asia, religious traditions 42–4
sovereignty
and agency 400–1
and governmentality 465–6
non-human 219–20
relationship with environmentalism 219
relationship with human rights 335–6
republican notions of 72
space 160–72
ecological 339
geographic 161–4
history of concept 173n5
and justice 169–70
linked with time 162–3
production view 161–4
relational 162–3, 165
relationship with environment 160–1, 164–5, 170–2
socially produced 162–3
synthetic approach 172–3n4
Spinoza, Baruch 405
Sri Lanka, tsunami damage 455
stakeholder networks 269
Stalin, Joseph 91
Standing, Guy 311
Stanford, Jim 305
Starhawk 142n1
states
denial of responsibilities 352–3, 354–7, 365
divergence of interests/policies 520
environmental movements/policies 448–9
environmental responsibilities 325, 326–9
evolution 540
inequalities between 296, 329, 356–7, 358–9
Steffen, Will 118, 194, 365
Steiner, Achim 454
Stephens, Piers H.G. 25–6, 388, 393, 401–2
Sterling, Bruce 202
Stern, Todd 553
Stern Review (2007) 454
Stevenson, Hayley 250–1, 542
Stiegler, Bernard 183–4
Stoermer, Eugene 184, 194, 363
Stone, Christopher 223n2
Stout, Jeffrey 314
Strauss, Leo 22, 24
Streeck, Wolfgang 522–3
structural injustice
defined 346–7
legitimation through power 353–4
remedying 351–3
responsibility for 349–51, 356–7, 358–9
(p. 660)
subsistence, right to 243–5, 340–1
elements of 244
substitutability 292–5
limits of 292–3
man-made for natural 294–5
objections to 293–5
Sugden, Robert 433
Sunstein, Cass 394, 595–7, 599, 602
sustainability 4, 8, 12, 111–12, 259–72, 430
blocking of agenda 260
in citizenship discourse 613–14, 616–18
diversity of interpretations 271–2
economics of 305–6
and human rights 337
as key objective 260, 271
lacunae in program 264
in liberal thought 62–3, 65–6
overambition of agenda 263–4
(perceived) failure of paradigm 259–64, 271
and political stability 81–2
and population growth 282–3
privatization 536
reconceptualization 262
weak vs. strong 65–6, 293, 294
sustainability studies 116–24
authors featured on syllabus 125–6, 127t
critical thinking 119–20, 122
data analysis 125
experiential component 121
skills development 118–22, 119t, 128n6
syllabus content 117–22, 123, 127–9nn1–9
systems thinking 121–2, 123, 128–9n9
universities/colleges committed to 127n1
‘Sustainocene’ 374–5
Swart, Jac A.A. 422, 423–4, 425
Switzerland
environmental legislation 234–5, 449
environmental movements 449
Swyngedouw, Erik 99–100, 615, 619–20
Sylvan, Richard 106–7, 108
systems thinking 121–2, 123, 128–9n9
Sze, Julie 169, 634–6
Tagore, Rabindranath 47–8, 50
Taylor, Bron 581–2
Taylor, Charles 401, 402
Tbilisi Conference on Environmental Education (1977) 116
technocracy 496
technology, faith in powers of 291–2
Thaler, Richard 394, 595–7, 599
Thatcher, Margaret 450
Third World Water Forum (2003) 568
Thompson, Allen 113–14, 414
Thoreau, Henry David 25, 45, 78, 82, 166, 388, 494
Thucydides 20, 29
Tietenberg, Tom 109
Tilly, Charles 477, 548
Tocqueville, Alexis de 31
Torgerson, Douglas 27–8, 29–30, 116, 389
Totnes, Devon (UK) 300
Trachtenberg, Zev 25, 26
‘tragedy of the commons’ see commons
Transition movement 84, 300
transport
availability of choices 390, 465, 556, 601–2
environmental cost 601–2, 605n9
‘treadmill of production’ 481–2, 483
trees see plants
Trudeau, Pierre 450
Tucker, Mary Evelyn 42
Tuvalu 572
United Kingdom
environmental legislation 449
environmental movements 399, 449
neoliberal reforms 450
population 282
state-civil society relations 476–7
United Nations 116, 280, 284
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 565
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) 563–4, 565, 573, 575
Environment Program (UNEP) 537
environmental conferences 199, 259, 362, 365, 499, 524, 536, 540
Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC) 321–2, 325, 326, 329, 362, 512, 514, 533, 540, 565
Human Rights Commission 333
Millennium Development Goals 338 (p. 661)
pledges for future 362, 364, 365
Reducing Emissions through Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) program 566
sustainability education project 118
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) 259, 262, 264, 362
United States
agricultural technology 132–3
animal rights law 216, 218
bee population 221
civil rights movement 73, 322–3, 376–7n14
Constitution 323
denial of climate responsibilities 354–5, 520, 536–7
domestic politics 260, 497
ecological management 219–20
environmental case law 323, 565
environmental conferences 365–8, 373–4, 375
environmental institutions 566
environmental justice gap 371–3
environmental legislation 278, 449
environmental movements 322–4, 494–5, 547–8, 556, 557, 588–9
indigenous peoples see Native Americans
land practices 170
marginalized sectors of population 400
natural/man-made disasters 373, 408–9, 448, 455
neoliberal reforms 450
non-ratification of Kyoto 449, 451–2
perspectives on climate change 595
plant law 227
political science publications 112–13
population 282
population policy 280–1
public awareness of science 497–9
racial divisions 371–3, 376–7n14, 410n4
regional differences 218
republicanism 72, 73, 78, 81–2, 84
rhetoric of “freedom” 388
role of science in policy 493
state-civil society relations 476–7
sustainability studies 127n1
waste sites 322–3
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 333, 338, 344n1
unsustainability, politics of 260–1, 267–71
Urbunati, Nadia 516
utopianism 394
Valencia Sáiz, Ángel 610
Vanderheiden, Steve 25, 30, 241–2
Varner, Gary 214
Vaughan, Thomas 387
Vedic texts/traditions 42–3, 47, 48, 52
Victor, David G. 538–9
Victoria, Queen 226
Vig, Norman 109
visibility, role in environmental management 195, 202–5
Vogel, Steven 97, 114
von Frantzius, Ina 536
Wainwright, Joel 633
Waldron, Jeremy 59, 110
Walker, Gordon 168
Wallace, David Foster 203
Walmart 453
Wals, Arjen 118
Walzer, Michael 6, 110, 507
Ward, Barbara 277
Warren, Karen 107
Warren, Mark E. 632
water
human responsibilities towards 571, 573–4
‘justice’ 554
right to 338
Water Declaration of the Anishinaabek, Mushkegowuk and Onkwehonwe (2008) 570
Watson, Dave 587
Weber, Max 31, 392, 488, 496
Weisman, Alan 283
well-being 429–38
decoupling from consumption 432–5
hedonic approach 432–4
impact of excessive consumption 436–8
impact of reduced consumption 431–2
limitations 431
needs vs. capabilities approach 434–5
objective state theories 434–7
poll 435–6
(p. 662)
West Harlem Environmental Action (WEACT) 371–3
Western Political Science Association (WPSA) 8–9, 112–13
Western political theory 19–32
appropriations/critiques of 24–9
canonical texts 19, 24–9, 31
‘historical’ approach 21–2
modes of interpretation 21–4
‘perennial issues’ model 22–4
relationship of EPT with 6, 10–11, 19–21, 29–32
transgressiveness 6
Whale Wars (TV) 204
White, Lynn 41, 42
Whitehead, Mark 604
White-Newsome, Jalonne 371–2, 373
Whiteside, Kerry 26, 28, 213
wilderness
clearing of 78
preservation/restoration proposals 196, 197–8, 278
symbolic significance 78, 79, 164, 165, 173n6, 588
Wilderness Act (US 1964) 278
wildfire 400, 408–9
Wilkinson, Richard 311, 313–14
Williams, Raymond 430
Williamson, Thad 73, 79, 81
Willox, A.C. 572
Wilson, E.O. 393
Wissenburg, Marcel 26, 59, 63–4, 392
Wolfe, Cary 178–9, 180, 231, 235
Wolin, Sheldon 20, 22, 24, 33n2, 124, 133
Wollstonecraft, Mary 85n2
wolves
ecological management 219–20
restoration projects 198
social organization 220
Woolgar, Steve 626
Wordsworth, William 63, 277
World Bank 49, 450–1, 533, 554
World Commission on Dams (WCD) 554
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 500
World Trade Organization (WTO) 511, 533, 557
World Values Survey 435–6
World Wildlife Fund 449
Worster, Donald 98
Wynne, Brian 632
Xi Jinping 526
Yellowstone National Park 198
York, Richard 447, 452, 586
Young, Iris Marion 29, 112, 114, 323, 346–56, 357, 358, 359nn1–3
Zamyatin, Yevgeny 67
Zizek, Slavoj 391
zoos 205, 423
Zvesper, John 59