Abstract and Keywords
The examination of the life cycle, institutional structure, and governance and policy environment of co-operatives in the argan oil sector, in south-west Morocco, outlines the successes and setbacks of the co-operative model as a suitable tool for economic and social development in rural areas. Despite the positive development outcomes argan oil co-operatives attained, they strayed from four basic co-operative tenets: democratic decision-making, equitable profit distribution, open membership, and member education on co-operatives. Starting from this analysis, this chapter argues that the success of argan oil co-operatives is to be attributed to their abandonment of the basic co-operative principles. Furthermore, it seeks to understand the conditions that make co-operatives feasible and effective in particular environments and how co-operatives, or employee-centric firms, can be adapted to their environments, or vice versa, through e-commerce and financial transparency in order to generate economic and social development.
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