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date: 11 July 2020

(p. 503) Index

(p. 503) Index

Abdallah, C 178
Abel, RL 50, 119–20
Abbott, A 30, 36–7, 144, 256–7, 340, 353–4, 457
accounting firms 4–5, 17, 34–6, 58–9 see also “Big Four” accountancy firms
anxiety-regulation 415
career forms 358, 364, 366
client relationships 126–7, 315, 317–18
commoditization 437
consensus-building 173–4
diversification 153, 259
diversity 452–3, 458, 460, 461–2, 464
education and training 318
entrepreneurship 99, 257, 259, 267–8
ethics 114, 117, 123, 126–9
global financial crisis 444
homogeneity and heterogeneity 149–50, 153–4, 156
human capital 95
hybrid professionalism 95, 97, 99–102
identity 100, 406, 414–15, 417
innovation 241, 249–50
knowledge intensity 95
mergers 172–4
motivation 221
outsourcing and offshoring 328–9, 332, 335, 340–1
partnerships 196–7, 436
professional associations 99, 431
public perceptions 102
publications 287
regulation 10, 49, 61–4
reputation 287–8, 291, 311
size of firms 34–5, 61, 79
sociology of professions 146
teamwork 374, 380, 382, 387, 388–90
transnational regimes 49, 63
accreditation 7, 17, 36, 78, 428
Acker, J 458
Ackroyd, S 33, 94–6
adhocracies 99, 265, 425, 433–4
Adler, PS 101, 183
Alford, RR 248
Alternative Business Structures (ABSs) 342, 360
Alvehus, J 354–5, 363
Alvesson, M 99, 164–5, 169, 171–2, 175, 180, 314, 413, 428–9, 438–9
Amabile, T 385–6
Amin, A 428
Anand, N 170, 239–40
Anderson-Gough, F 442
anxiety-regulation 14, 415–16, 418, 420
apprenticeship model 167–8, 357–9, 362, 365, 368, 374
Aristotle 115
Ashcraft, KL 414
Ashley, L 312, 319, 363, 414
aspirational firms/professions 5, 103, 182, 415–16, 427, 434, 437, 446
autonomy 28–31, 337–9, 352–60
deregulation 155
entrepreneurship 256, 258, 265–6
ethics 114, 121–5, 128
gatekeepers 123
governance 77, 87
human resource management 481–2
hybrid professionalism 92–4, 98–9, 105
identity 407–11, 416–17, 420
ideology 146–7
innovation 258
knowledge 140–2, 156, 216, 406, 409–12, 416, 434, 437, 446
leadership 11, 163–4, 167, 170, 172, 174–80, 183
marketing 280
(p. 504) regulation 50, 121
reputation 141
size of firms 152
teamwork 14, 375, 380, 391–3, 395–7
back-office operations 333–4, 339
Bagdoniene, L 286
Baker, WE 307, 310
Barker, SF 119
Barley, SR 369
Barnett, ML 283
Barney, JB 480
Barrett, M 63
Bartlett, CA 73, 80
Beckman, CM 319
Bedwell, WL 377, 396
Benders, J 264
Bentham, J 115
Berger, R 287
Berle, AA 193
Bessy, C 54
Bettencourt, LA 313
“Big Four” accountancy firms 5, 61, 85, 365–6, 370
Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) professionals 453
entrepreneurship 268
hybrid professionalism 93
internationalization 1–2, 71, 78, 80, 85
professional associations 431
strategy and strategic alignment 223–5, 227–8
Biong, H 229
Birkinshaw, JM 243
Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) professionals 455–8, 460, 462–7
assimilation 463
career forms 369–70
client relationships 319
Critical Race Theory (CRT) 458, 464, 467
homogeneity and heterogeneity 414
intersectionality 370, 458, 464
Blackler, F 439
Blinder, AS 332
Bourdieu, P 369, 459, 464
Boussebaa, M 85
branding
identity 81–2, 412–13, 416, 417
outsourcing and offshoring 341–2, 343
reputation 280, 281, 283, 293–4, 476
Brint, S 126
Briscoe, F 319, 391–2, 394
Brivot, M 438
Brock, DM 32
Broderick, M 176, 178
Brown, AD 176
Brown, TJ 282
Buckley, P 72
Bunderson, JS 386
bureaucracies
autonomy 354–5, 359–60
culture 99
deskilling 29, 98
ethics 125–6
gender 367, 458
hybrid professionalism 92, 98–9
identity 406–9, 412, 416
knowledge 433–4, 436–7, 444, 446
large bureaucracies 29, 31–2, 38, 125–6
Burrage, M 29, 52, 62, 95, 431
Burton-Jones, A 428
Campbell, A 74–5, 139
Campion, M 354, 358
capital intensity 137, 150–3, 156
capitalism 28, 34, 49, 54
career forms 14, 351–71
boundaryless careers 351
bureaucratic form 13, 352–3, 354–60, 364–71
client relationships 362–4, 370
diversity 15, 363–4, 366–8, 369–70
entrepreneurship 13, 352–3, 355–7, 360–2, 364–71
ethics 354, 357, 366–7, 370
hierarchies 351–5, 358–9, 365
institutionalization 13, 352, 357–9, 361–2, 368
Kanter’s typology of career forms 13, 352
lived experiences 364–8
mixed career patterns 352, 356–7
new entrants 357, 360–1
(p. 505) portfolio careers 351
practice, career forms in 357–62
professional form 13, 352–4, 356–9, 364–71
reputation 353–6, 363, 365, 368, 370
Carlsen,A 177–8
Carruthers, BG 59
Casson, M 72
championing 168–70, 172, 179, 181
Chapman, CS 100, 192
characteristics of PSFs 25–33, 304
customization 137, 142, 146, 149
four key characteristics 5–6
homogeneity and heterogeneity 135–8, 142–5, 151–2, 156
internationalization 74–86
knowledge 32, 434–5
teamwork 375
Chittipeddi, K 178
Chun,R 282–3
Clarysse, B 262
class
career forms 363, 370
client relationships 319
diversity 453, 456–7, 460, 462–3
identity 413
power 33
client capture 11, 16, 125–9, 148–52, 309
client relationships 13, 18, 304–21
boundaries 487–90, 493–5
career forms 362–4, 370
characterization of relationships 13, 32, 306–11
client capture 11, 16, 125–9, 148–52, 309
close identification 410–11, 416, 492
commitment 291–2, 306–7, 314, 318
communication 149–50, 286, 309–15
complexities 3, 309, 315, 318
culture 312, 318, 320–1
dissolution 13, 305, 315–17, 320
diversity 363–4
duration of relationship 307–8
dyadic level 305, 307, 317, 320
education and training 315, 318–19
effects of PSFs 317–20
elementary relationships 308
embedded relationships 308
employees, clients as partial 314
entrepreneurship 259, 262, 264–5, 269
exchange of personnel 319
exit of employees 229
expertise 309–10, 321
fiduciary relationships 16, 26, 120, 443
formation 13, 305, 311–13, 320
geographic scope of PSFs 312, 317–18
homogeneity and heterogeneity 75–6, 86–7, 148–9
human capital 13, 315, 317–18, 363
human resource management 477–85, 487–95
identity 14, 410–12, 419–20
innovation 248
institutions 310, 313, 315, 321
integration relationships 308
interactive relationships 308–9
internationalization 10, 75–6, 86–7, 317–18
learning 13, 318–19
life cycle of relationships 311, 320
long-term projects 410
loss of key personnel 316–17
loyalty 410–11, 416
maintenance 13, 308–9, 313–16, 320–1
mergers and acquisitions 226, 316
mobility 316–17, 361–2, 364, 370
multinationals 75–6
negative effects 320
performance 305, 313–15, 320
phenomena 311–17
portfolio level 305, 307–8
positive effects 317–20
power, balance of 18, 311
pricing 148, 151–2, 309, 314
relational relationships 306–11, 314, 320–1
reputation 291–6, 311–12, 318, 363
resources, where relationships are embedded in 317
satisfaction 286–7, 291–2, 379, 388
senior-level contact 485, 488, 493
service teams 375, 387–8, 391
size of PSFs 312, 316
social capital 479, 487–8, 490
sources of variation 308–11
specific clients, investment in infrastructure and training for 3, 315
(p. 506) strategy and strategic alignment 13, 214–16, 221–31, 308, 318
structure of firms 13, 309, 318, 321, 362
talent and star performers 291
transactional relationships versus relational relationships 306–9, 311, 321
type of service 305, 308–11
uncertainty 306–7, 311
variation 308–11, 321
coaching 167–8, 171, 175, 179, 181
Coff, R 140, 218
Coffee Jr,JC 122–3
Cohen, L 363, 367
Cohen, MD 172
Cohendet, P 428
collaboration see teamwork and collaboration
Collins, R 104
commitment
affective commitment 292
calculative commitment 292
career forms 355, 357
clan control 164
client relationships 306–7, 314, 318
diversity 458–9, 463–5, 467
human resource management 480–1, 487, 489, 496
normative commitment 292
reputation 291–2, 295
commoditization 3, 29, 247, 309, 436–9, 446, 467
communities of practice 54, 63, 240–1, 425, 430, 439–41, 488
competition
authorities, rise of competition 55–61
barriers to entry 145
client relationships 305, 307
commensalism 38
diversity 463, 464–5
European Union 55–6, 58–9
globalization 53
human capital 214
human resource management 478, 480, 489, 491–2, 494–5
hybrid professionalism 101
innovation 242
International Competition Network (ICN) 55
internationalization 73, 82–3
jurisdiction 145–6
malpractice 56–7
marketing 280
mergers and acquisitions 226–7
motivation 220
networks 58–9
outsourcing and offshoring 13, 340–4
oversight, shift towards greater public 56–8
policy into services, expansion of 55–6, 58–61
professional associations 59, 441
public interest 55–6
quality 146
regulation 10, 48, 51, 53, 55–61
reputation 284, 285, 290, 293, 295
strategy and strategic alignment 12, 214–15, 220, 222–3, 226–7
talent and star performers 222, 379–80
teamwork 14, 101, 375, 378–9, 381, 385, 388–9
transnational entanglement of state regulatory systems and obligations 58–61
value creation from workforce 214, 220, 222
configuration theory 95, 265
conflict see also conflicts of interest
bureaucracies 31, 38
client relationships 314, 318
ethics 10–11, 124, 129
internal conflict 27
networks 79
teamwork 378, 387–8, 390
theoretical perspectives 29–30, 31
conflicts of interest
competition 226
ethics 27, 113, 117, 120–1, 129, 146
leadership 164
marketing 280
partnerships 76
regulation 51, 57, 59, 63, 76
conformity tensions 14, 408–9, 420
consensus-building 167, 170–1, 173–4, 178–9, 181
Cooper, C 32, 61
Cooper, DJ 197, 444
corporate form
client relationships 227–8
governance 76, 189, 191–2, 195, 208
hybrid professionalism 99–100
joint stock corporate form 76
knowledge 217
leadership 164, 177
logic and structures of corporations, adoption of 32–3
liberalization 55
motivation 220–1
outsourcing and offshoring 329, 340–3
strategy and strategic alignment 214–28, 230
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 279
Costas,J 366–7
Covaleski, MA 268
Crane, DB 310
Cravath Model of partnership 192, 196, 268, 484
Critical Race Theory (CRT) 458, 464, 467
culture
Anglo-Saxon cultural bias 27
autonomy 380
bureaucracies 99
capital 460, 462
career forms 368–9
client relationships 312, 318, 320–1
communal culture 27–9
diversity 458–67
dominant culture 368–9
emergent culture 368–9
entrepreneurship 255–6, 258
ethics 125, 129–30
expertise 258
governance 12, 191–3, 203, 207
homogeneity and heterogeneity 414, 418
homosocial culture 465
human resource management 481–2, 485–6
identity 405, 407, 412, 414–15, 418, 420
individuals 255–6
knowledge 440
leadership 165, 169, 176–7, 181
matching 461
meaning making 176–7
meritocracy 465
promotion 169
reputation 294
residual culture 368–9
stakeholders 192–3
sub-cultures, offices with different 14, 378
talent and performers 380, 386, 388
teamwork 14, 378–80, 392, 396–7
theoretical perspectives 26–9
Cummings, JN 376, 384–5
customization and bespoke services 6–7, 304, 309
databases 438–9
entrepreneurship 259
homogeneity and heterogeneity 136–7, 142–3, 146, 149–50, 156
human resource management 483
knowledge 438–9, 444, 446
leadership 163, 168–9
outsourcing and offshoring 341
teamwork 379, 388–9
databases 425, 429, 438–9, 441
Davenport, T 478
Davies, M 315
Davis, JH 201
Davis-Blake, A 477
Deetz, S 410
definition of PSFs 4–8, 16, 135–6, 142, 155, 304, 306
Delery, J 477
DeLong, TJ 175
Denis, JL 182
Derber, C 7
deregulation 48–9, 53–4, 60–2
diversification 144
homogeneity and heterogeneity 137, 151, 154–6
innovation 155, 242
outsourcing and offshoring 334
deskilling 29, 98, 344
development practices 477–8, 481–4, 487, 488–91
Devine, F 364
developing countries 16, 65, 87–8
Dezalay, Y 34
DiMaggio, PJ 35, 266
Dinovitzer, R 127
(p. 508) disability 453, 467
discrimination see diversity and inclusion
diversification 145, 153–5, 224, 239–41, 259, 341–2
diversity and inclusion 15, 452–67 see also Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) professionals; gender
affirmative action 35, 460
audits 461
business case rationale 461, 463–6
career forms 15, 363–4, 366–8, 369–70
client relationships 363–4
commitment 458–9, 463–5, 467
competition 463, 464–5
culture 458–67
deficit model 456, 461–3
demand side 456, 462–3
direct discrimination 461
disability 453, 467
Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) policy 454–5, 460–7
elites 455, 463, 465–7
embodiment 459–60
Equal Opportunities (EO) policy 454–5, 460–7
essentialism 36, 458, 461, 465, 467
ethics 454, 466
hierarchies 454, 459–60, 466–7
homogeneity and heterogeneity 413, 417, 454
human resources management 35, 466
identity 455, 459–60, 467
indirect discrimination 458, 461
intersectionality 458, 464, 467
lower grade roles or sectors, confinement to 453, 457, 463, 466
mainstreaming 454
masculinity 467
meritocracy/talent 15, 456–7, 465–6
monopolies 456–7
networks 461–4
neutrality 453–4, 465
outreach and mentoring programs 462
partnerships 453–6, 462–4, 466
policy and practice, evolution of 15, 460–3
post-structuralism 457–8, 459
professional associations 454–5, 457
recruitment and promotion 461–3, 465, 467
regulation 63
religion 467
segregation and subordination 453
self-interest 464–6
sexual orientation 462
social categories 454–6
social closure 454, 457, 460
social constructs 458–60
socialization 459–60
socio-economic changes 454–5, 457
stereotyping 461–2, 464–5
stratification theory 456–8, 460, 464
structural barriers 456–8, 459–61, 463
supply side 456, 461–3
traditional PSFs 455, 466
traits 454
Dobbin, F 35
Doorewaard, H 477, 481
Doty, D 477
Dougherty,D 239–40
Drucker, P 296
Duberley, J 369
Dunning, J 72
Durkheim, E 26
e Cunha, MP 177
Eccles, RG 310
ecology of professions 10, 12–13, 30, 34–9, 327–8, 339–40, 457
economic rents, sharing of 12, 217–19
economic theories 11, 13, 136, 204, 331, 334
economics, society, and scholarship, significance of PSFs to 1–4
Edelman, LB 35
education and training
career forms 364
client relationships 315, 318–19
continuing professional development (CPD) 359, 437, 441
emotional intelligence (EI) 295
globalization 54
homogeneity and heterogeneity 413, 417
(p. 509) human resource management 477, 481, 483, 487–8, 491
hybrid professionalism 94, 96, 99, 104, 106
identity 409, 411–13, 416–17
knowledge 17, 137, 426, 437, 441–3
outsourcing and offshoring 342, 344
partnerships 197
professional associations 491
prolonged training 26
socialization 51–2
unconscious bias training 464
elitism 26, 27–8, 30, 33–5
administrative elites 466
entrepreneurship 268
diversity 455, 463, 465–7
regulation 49
theoretical perspectives 26, 27–8, 30, 33–5
emotional intelligence (EI) 286, 294–5
Empson, L 100, 169, 172–4, 180, 182, 192, 197–9, 265, 312, 319, 353–6, 363, 414, 434, 436, 440
enabling 170–1, 172–3, 179, 181
Enron scandal 57, 59, 102, 105, 122, 127, 295, 320
entrepreneurship 12, 16, 35, 255–71
agency 265–7, 271
apprenticeship model 362
boundary management 362
bureaucracies 99
championing 169–70
classic or regulated PSFs 257, 270–1
client relationships 259, 262, 264–5, 269, 362
commercialism 356
consensus-building 174
continuous entrepreneurialism 262–3
culture 255–6, 258
embeddedness, low levels of organizational 356, 361
enabling 170–2
expertise 168, 258–61, 263–5
gender 366–7
governance 262, 265–6, 269–70
growth, stages of 16, 262–3, 270
human resource management 478, 482, 485, 487–8, 490–1
hybrid professionalism 97, 99, 100–1
ideology 361
innovation 12, 255–61, 264, 267, 269
institutionalization 258, 266–71, 361–2
institutions 97–9, 101, 258, 266–71, 361–2
knowledge 12, 255–63, 267, 269
leadership 165, 168–72, 174, 179–80
legitimacy 261–3, 265, 268–9
marketing 257, 265, 268, 270–1
meritocracy 167
mixed career patterns 352, 356–7
mobility 361
motivation 257–9, 267–9
networks 259, 262–3, 269
new businesses 12, 262–3, 269–70, 360–1
opportunities 255–6, 258–9, 263–70
opposing concepts, entrepreneurship and professionalism as 256–7
organizational field 256, 266–7, 270–1
outsourcing and offshoring 340–1, 344
professional associations 257, 268
reputation 259, 263–5, 356
self, entrepreneurs of the 356, 360–1, 365–6
service delivery 258–9, 263–4
strategies 262, 263–6, 270
teams 12, 180, 256, 259–63, 269
tournament or up-or-out promotion system 361
transnational entrepreneurs 61
essentialism 36, 458, 461, 465, 467
European Union 34, 53, 55–6, 58–9, 63–4, 331
exclusion and inclusion see diversity and inclusion
experience
bargaining power 154
customization 142
expertise 153, 215–16, 220, 222
human resource management 477, 480–5, 488–90, 492
innovation 244, 248
internationalization 76
leadership 168–9
marketing 280
outsourcing and offshoring 343
reputation 141, 282, 286–8
rewards 358–9, 492
teamwork 260, 383, 385, 387, 389, 392
expertise 221–4
bureaucracies 92
career forms 368, 370
championing 169
client relationships 309–10, 321
culture 258
entrepreneurship 258–61, 263–5
experience 153, 215–16, 220, 222
human resource management 478, 481–5, 489–90, 493
hybrid professionalism 92, 94–7, 100–1, 103
identity 406–7, 409, 412, 416, 419
innovation 243, 248
jurisdiction 143–5
leadership 11, 163, 166–72, 175, 179–80
mentoring 220
organization theory 96
outsourcing and offshoring 340
partnerships 197
reputation 285, 287–8
social control 143
Fama,EF 192–4
Faulconbridge, J 52, 63, 85, 168, 338–9, 354, 406, 436–7, 440–2
Fennell, ML 126
Fenton, E 163, 181
Fernando, D 367
Fichman, M 307
fiduciary relationships 16, 26, 120, 443
Fisher, J 120
flexible working 464–5
Flood, J 57
Fombrun, CJ 281, 283–4
foreign direct investment (FDI) 73–4, 79, 331
form of PSFs 10, 14, 56, 72, 80–8, 95, 425, 433–7
Fortune’s Most Admired Companies (FMAC) 283
Foucault, M 356, 459, 465
Fourcade, M 35
fraud 114, 122
free trade 10, 48–9, 53
Freeman, J 37
Freeman, RE 192, 200
Friedland, R 248
Freidson,E 27–8, 32–3, 137, 433–4
future research directions 15–18
Galanter, M 33, 354, 358, 370
Garth, B 34
gatekeeping 11, 25, 34, 114, 122–3, 128, 414–15
GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 53, 58, 443
gender 456–66
assimilation 463
bureaucracies 367, 458
career forms 363–4, 366–8, 369–70
client relationships 319, 363–4
commitment 464–5
culture 458, 463–4
decreasing centrality of work 102
entrepreneurialism 366–7
essentialism 458, 461, 465
feminization 102
flexible working 464–5
gendered organizations 458
homogeneity and heterogeneity 414
indirect discrimination 458
leadership/mentoring programs 462
lower grade roles 453, 463
networks 462
new ventures 263
power 33
prestigious firms, lower representation in 453
public and private patriarchy 457
(p. 511) socio-biological view of women 465
status, loss of 102
stereotyping 462, 464
stratification theory 458, 460, 464
teamwork 377, 384–5
unconscious bias training 464
geographic scope 224–5, 230, 312
Ghoshal, S 73, 80
Giddens, A 369
Gill, R 371
Gioia, DA 178
global financial crisis 114, 444
globalization 2, 15, 53–4, 62
diversity 454
innovation 242
internationalization 15, 88
knowledge 443–4
liberalization 49, 56, 58
new global compact 53–4, 61
outsourcing and offshoring 327, 339–44
regulation 15, 49, 53–4, 61–3
teamwork 378–9, 384, 392
trickle-up and trickle-down dynamics 58, 62–4
Goode, WJ 26
Gottschlag, O 221
governance 6, 10, 189–209
agency perspective 11, 191–6, 199–207
autonomy 77, 87
client relationships 362
command-and-control 54
committees 189, 194
conflict resolution 12, 189–90, 201–2, 204–7
corporate form 76, 191, 195, 208
corporations 189, 191–2, 208
critical constituencies 12, 190–1, 203–4
culture 12, 191–3, 203, 207
decision-making 189, 191–2, 194–8, 201, 204, 207
definition 12, 190–1
entrepreneurship 262, 265–6, 269–70
four foundational theoretical perspectives 11–12, 191–203
guardians of firm 189, 193
homogeneity and heterogeneity 76–7, 86–7, 208–9
institutions 190, 193, 207
intellectual property rights 207–8
internationalization 10, 76–7, 86–7
knowledge 14, 198–9, 203, 425, 431–3
leadership 11, 164, 166, 173, 198–9
limited liability firms 77, 86–7, 190
literature, review of 191–203
Managed Professional Business (MPB) archetype 338
management hierarchies 15, 190
motivation 220
outsourcing and offshoring 327, 333–5, 338–9, 343–4
partnership/partnership ethos 11–12, 76–7, 86, 189–99, 203, 207–9
regulation 49, 54–5, 58–64
reputation 189, 199–200, 207–9
rights and obligations 205–6
stakeholder perspective 11, 16, 191–3, 200–1, 203
strategy and strategic alignment 12, 189, 191, 217, 219–20, 226–8, 230
structural views 11–12, 191–2, 203–7
trait theory 31–2
transnational governance 49, 54–5, 58–64
trusteeship perspective 11, 191–3, 201–3
Gowler, D 355
Greenwood, R 3, 6, 26, 31, 61, 97, 173–4, 196–9, 201–2, 223, 244, 268, 315, 337, 354, 436
Grimshaw, D 319
Groysberg, B 222
Günther, A 263
Haas, M 376, 384–5, 388
Hackman, JR 376
Hakim, C 456
Hall,RH 26–7
Halliday, TC 29, 59, 147
Han, SK 312
Hanlon, G 85
Hannan, MT 37
Hansen, MT 388, 394, 434
Hart, O 204
Hayek, F 459
(p. 512) Haynes, K 414, 460
Hazard Jr, GC 378
Heckscher, C 183
Heiligers, P 102
Heinz, JP 312
Henderson, W 354, 358, 370
Heracleous,L 200–2
herding cats metaphor 3, 139–43, 146, 150–5, 178, 180, 258, 484
Herman, K 392
Herrbach, O 366
Heusinkveld, S 264
Hickson, DJ 27
hierarchies
career forms 351–5, 358–9, 365
diversity 454, 459–60, 466–7
governance 15, 190, 205
human resource management 482, 492–3
hybrid professionalism 96, 100, 101
identity 408–9, 412, 415–16
knowledge 213–17, 221, 436–7
leadership 163–4, 167, 169, 183
marketing 296
meritocracy 179
power 27
teamwork 101, 148, 374, 376–8, 390, 396
Hingstman, L 102
Hinings, B 76, 78, 95, 97, 173–4, 224, 239, 242
Hirschman,AO 206–7
Hitt, M 154, 225, 315, 495
Hohfeld, WN 205
Holmström, B 195
home/work balance 362, 368
homogeneity and heterogeneity 27, 135–56
characteristics of PSFs 135–8, 142–5, 151–2, 156
class 413
client relationships 10, 75–6, 86–7, 148–9, 151
communities of practice 63
culture 414, 418
customization 136–7, 142–3, 146, 149–50, 156
definitional heterogeneity 136, 143–4
deregulation 137, 151, 154–6
distinctiveness 135, 155–6
diversity 413, 417, 454
economics theory 11, 136
entrepreneurship 270
face-to-face client interaction, extent of 149–50
governance 76–7, 87–8, 208–9
identity 14, 413–15, 417, 418, 419–20
ideology 136, 144, 146–7, 151
internationalization 10, 75–8, 86–8
jurisdiction 136, 143–6, 151, 156
knowledge 77–8, 86, 135–48, 152, 156, 260, 434, 436, 491
leadership 181–2
non-definition heterogeneity 136, 144, 147–50
organizational theory 11, 135–7
partnership form 137, 143–4, 147, 152, 156
recruitment 413–14
size of firms 137, 151–2, 155–6
social closure 137, 143–5
sociology of professions 11, 136–7, 139, 143–4, 147–8
sources 5, 135–56
status 142, 145, 153, 413–14, 418
strategy and strategy alignment 137, 151–4, 156
Huckman, RS 382
Hui, PP 315, 477
human capital
client relationships 13, 315, 317–18, 363
diversification 154
diversity 456
human resource management 15, 476–80, 483–7, 490–1, 493, 495–6
hybrid professionalism 95, 100
innovation 15, 477, 493
knowledge 214–16
mergers and acquisitions 226
motivation 220
partnerships 198, 207
reputation 285
strategy and strategic alignment 12, 214–16, 218–26, 228–31
trait theory 32
value creation from workforce 214–22
human resource management 476–96
centrifrugal model 485–7, 489–93, 494–6
centripetal model 485–9, 493–6
client relationships 477–85, 487–95
commitment 480–1, 487, 489, 496
cooperative relationships 478–9, 487–90
culture 481–2, 485–6
development practices 477–8, 481–4, 487, 488–91
diversity 35, 466
education and training 477, 481, 483, 487–8, 491
entrepreneurship 478, 482, 485, 487–8, 490–1
evidence from practice 485–93, 495
experience 477, 480–5, 488–90, 492
expertise 478, 481–5, 489–90, 493
flexibility 482–4, 488–9
hierarchies 482, 492–3
human capital 15, 476–80, 483–7, 490–1, 493, 495–6
innovation 15, 477, 483, 483, 487, 492–6
inputs 477, 479–82, 484, 493, 495
internationalization 80
knowledge 476–80, 482–95
mentoring 480, 481, 483, 488, 491, 494
models 485–96
nation state, connection with 36
networks 478–9, 482, 485, 487–96
outputs 477, 482, 484–5, 492–5
performance management 3, 16, 76–96
balanced-scorecard approach 488–9
definition of performance 476
strategy 3, 16, 76–96
power 33
processes and practices 477, 479, 483, 485–96
professional associations 490–1, 495
promotion 484, 489, 492
recruitment 477, 480, 482, 487, 490
remuneration and reward systems 477–8, 481, 484–5, 487, 488–94
reputation 476, 481–2
retention of employees 481, 484, 492–3
senior-level 481–5, 488–9, 492–4
social capital 15, 477–80, 485–91, 493, 495–6
specialization 476, 482, 490
standardization 481–3
standards 483–4, 490–1
tacit knowledge 485, 488, 490–1
talent management 482, 492–3
target-based systems 476, 481, 484, 489, 491–3, 495
firm-specific 481, 484, 489
individual 476, 489, 491–2
technologies 477–8, 493
tournament or up-or-out promotion system 484–5, 492–3
traditional PSFs 482, 485, 489
trust 478, 480, 488–9, 492, 494
universal human resources policy 80
Humphrey, C 59
hybrid professionalism and 92–106
autonomy 92–4, 98–9, 105
bureaucracy 92, 98–9
collaborative community 101, 105
combining occupational and organizational insights 95–7
connected professionalism 103
corporate professionalism 100
demographic shifts 101–2
dualism 100, 103
education and training 94, 96, 99, 104, 106
encroaching organizations 98–9
engagement and alignment with organizations 98
entrepreneurship 97, 99, 100–1
expertise 92, 94–7, 100–1, 103
gender 102
hierarchies 96, 100, 101
human capital 95, 100
identity 63, 96, 99–102, 105
independence 92–3, 97–8
institutional entrepreneurs 97, 99, 101
interdependency and co-evolution 10
international context 104
inter-professional working 101
knowledge 95, 100–1
legitimacy 10, 94, 97, 100–3, 106
non-professionals, delegation to 98
occupations and organizations, relationship between 92–106
organizational theory 94–7
organizations and occupations, relationship between 92–106
professional associations 97, 99
(p. 514) public and non-profit organizations 92, 94–5, 98–9
public perceptions 101–2, 106
reconfiguration of professionalism 100–3, 105
regulation 63, 103, 105
separate fields and theories 94–8, 101
socialization of professions 100, 106
sociology of occupations of the sociology of organizations 94
sociology of professions 10, 96–8
support departments 92
transparency 102–3
wicked cases 101
Ibarra, H 175, 365
identity 403–20
alternative sources of identity 409–10
anxiety-regulation 14, 415–16, 418, 420
autonomy 14, 407–11, 416–17, 420
branding 81–2, 412–13, 416, 417
bureaucracy 406–9, 412, 416
career forms 365, 367
challenges to identities 14, 403–4, 407, 409, 417–18
class 413
client relationships 14, 410–12, 416, 419–20
coaching 168
conformity tensions 14, 408–9, 420
coping mechanisms 418
culture 405, 407, 412, 414–15, 418, 420
depth of identity construction 419–20
diversity 455, 459–60, 467
education and training 409, 411–13, 416–17
elite identity 14, 33, 176, 404, 406–8, 412–15, 417–18
equal, PSFs as not being 417–18
ethics 125, 127–8
expertise 406–7, 409, 412, 416, 419
formation 404–6, 409
gate-keeping mechanisms 414–15
governance 207
hierarchies 408–9, 412, 415–16
homogenization of workforce 14, 413–15, 417, 418, 419–20
hybrid professionalism 63, 96, 99–102, 105
innovation 247
intangibility 14, 420
knowledge workers 406–12, 416–17, 418
leadership 166, 168, 170, 174–6, 178–9
maintenance of identity 405–6
massification of professional services 416
meaning making 176
multinationals 61
multiple actors as affecting identity 419
organizational individual identity, relationship between 14, 403–6, 412, 415, 418–20
outsourcing and offshoring 334
politics 455, 459
positive image 14, 405, 407–8, 411–12, 416, 420
power 404–7, 411, 413, 416, 419
professionalism, concepts of 14, 404, 416, 417
PSF, definition of 6, 8
regulation 63
remuneration and reward systems 411–12, 415
reputation 282–3, 286, 297, 411–12
role-modeling 175
size of PSFs 417–18
social closure 96
social construction 404–5, 459
social identity 404–6, 414, 419
temporary identification 419
traditional notions 409, 416
traits view of PSFs 417
trust 286
ideology 53, 136, 144, 146–7, 151, 173, 249, 359–61, 415
Ielliatchitch, A 369
impression management 286, 293, 310
incentives see motivation/incentives
individuals 197–8, 243, 294, 296
(p. 515) client relationships 311, 317
culture 255–6
entrepreneurship 255–6, 258–9, 261–71
expertise 167–8
knowledge 7, 388–9, 429, 433–9
organizational identity, relationship with 14, 403–6, 412, 415, 418–20
target-based systems 476, 489, 491–2
information technology see technology
innovation see service innovation
institutional theory 37, 98, 101, 231, 242, 267, 271, 467
institutionalization 12–13, 34–6, 408, 417, 484
bureaucracies 359
career forms 13, 352, 357–9, 361–2, 368
diversity 467
entrepreneurship 258, 266–71, 361–2
governance 206–7
knowledge 78, 443
leadership 177
networks 288
regulation 52, 54–5, 58, 61
international economic institutions (IEIs) 35, 53, 59, 64
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 35, 53, 59, 64
international trade 49, 63, 331–2
internationalization 71–88
Anglo-American PSFs, dominance of 85, 86
career and reward systems 86
characteristics of PSFs 74–86
client relationships 10, 75–6, 86–7, 317–18
competition 73, 82–3
differentiation 74–8
distinctiveness 10, 72, 74–5, 78, 84, 86, 88
entry modes into markets 73
ethics 129–30
expansion 71
experience 76, 84–5
federal form 10, 79–80, 81–6
foreign direct investment (FDI) 73–4, 79
forms of internationalization 78–81
future directions 86–8
globalization 15, 88
governance 10, 76–7, 86–7
homogeneity and heterogeneity 10, 75–8, 86–8
human capital 318
knowledge 10, 77–8, 80, 86, 88, 442–3
leaking of proprietary knowledge 73
liability of foreignness 73–4
locational advantages 72
multinationals 71–6, 81–2
national units to career prospects, importance of 84
networks 10, 75, 79, 84, 86
OLI (ownership, location and internalization) framework 72
organizational implications 71, 81–3, 86–7
outsourcing and offshoring 331
ownership advantages 72
project form 10, 78–9, 81, 84–5, 86
reasons for establishing foreign operations 72
reputational risk 73–4, 79
strategy and strategic alignment 73, 224, 225–8, 231
structures, systems, and practices 83–4
transnational form 10, 72, 80–6, 88
intersectionality 370, 458, 464, 467
Jakstaite, R 286
Jensen,MC 192–4, 320
Johns, G 370
Johnson, TJ 27, 96
journals 4, 18
jurisdiction 30, 32, 37, 143–6
diversity 456
ecological theory 30, 37
homogeneity and heterogeneity 136, 143–6, 151, 156
knowledge 14, 143–5, 426, 431, 437, 442–4, 446
Kaghan, WN 94
Kaiser,S 438–40
Kang, S 477, 495
Kant, I 115
Kanter,RM 352–7, 364–5, 368, 371
Kärreman, D 99, 175, 413
Kase, R 477
Keynes, John Maynard 54, 460
(p. 516) Kiechel, W 169
Kim, SH 123
King,Z 361–2, 367
Kinnie, N 440
Kipping, M 100
Kirkpatrick, I 100
knowledge and learning 5, 14–17, 425–46 see also technical knowledge
accreditation 7, 17, 78, 428
adhocracies 433–4
applied knowledge 375, 386–90, 396, 428, 437–8, 441, 446
autonomy 140–2, 156, 216, 406, 409–12, 416, 434, 437, 446
bureaucracies 433–4, 436–7, 444, 446
capital intensity 150–1
characteristics of PSFs 434–5
client relationships 7, 13, 305–10, 318–19, 436, 440–1, 446
coaching 168
codification 7, 243–4, 388–9, 426, 446
cognitive abilities 428
commoditization 436–7, 438–9, 446
communities of practice 425, 430, 439–41
competition 385, 429, 441, 443
continuing professional development (CPD) 437, 441
core knowledge base 426–7, 431
customization 438–9, 444, 446
databases 425, 429, 438–9, 441
defined knowledge 431–3
diversification 153
education and training 17, 137, 426, 437, 441–3
elitism 466
entrepreneurship 12, 255–63, 267, 269
experience 139, 260–1, 264, 428, 441, 477, 480–5, 488–90
explicit knowledge 425, 428–31, 437, 439, 441, 442
externalization 429–30
form and content of knowledge 14, 428–31
form, impact on organizational 14, 425, 433–7
geographies of PSFs 442–4
globalization 443–4
governance 14, 198–9, 203, 425, 431–3
hierarchies 213–17, 221, 436–7
homogeneity and heterogeneity 77–8, 86, 135–48, 152, 156, 260, 434, 436, 491
human capital 214–16
human resource management 476–80, 482–95
hybrid professionalism 95, 100–1
identification of intra-team knowledge 381–3
identity 406–12, 416–18
individuals 7, 388–9, 429, 433–9
information technology 426, 446
innovation 239–49, 260–1, 429, 437–8, 446
intensity 428, 433, 439, 442
governance 198–9, 203
homogeneity and heterogeneity 135–43, 146, 150–1, 153, 156
human resource management 478
hybrid professionalism 95, 100
identity 406, 409–12, 416
PSF, definition of 6, 304
visioning 178
internationalization 10, 77–8, 80, 86, 88, 442–3
jurisdictional knowledge 14, 143–5, 426, 431, 437, 442–4, 446
know what and know how distinction 428–9
knowledge-integration capability (KIC) 387
leadership 163–4, 168, 171, 173, 178–81, 183
local-global dynamics 426
maintained knowledge 431–3
management 14, 426, 434, 436, 437–42, 444, 446
monopolies 426, 442
networks 14, 440
normative knowledge 77–8, 436
organizations, impact on 430–7, 444
partnerships 217, 436
professional associations 97, 431, 433, 441, 442
professionalism 141, 434
project teams 381–90
protected knowledge 431–3
publications 287
quality 139–42, 433, 446
reputation 287, 294
retention of employees 429
sharing 7, 97, 240, 317, 337
human resource managementxs 480, 484, 487–9, 491–2, 494
teamwork 260–1, 375, 381, 383–6, 396
social capital 222
(p. 517) social control 143
social interaction 439–41
sociology of professions 139, 426–8, 430–1
specialization 6–8, 97, 228, 352, 454, 476
stability 409–11
status 137, 139, 387–8, 427
strategy and strategic alignment 12, 214–19, 223–4, 226–30
structured knowledge 425
syncretic knowledge 77–8, 147, 436
tacit knowledge 168, 215–16, 425–31, 434–41, 444, 485, 488, 490–1
teamwork 148, 260–2, 374–97, 425
theoretical perspectives 26, 32
transfer 74, 168, 215, 279, 319, 430, 441, 477, 482
transnationality 426, 443, 446
value creation from workforce 216–17
visioning 178
Koehn, D 118, 120–1
Kor, YY 225
Kosmala, K 366
Kumra, S 463
Kunda, G 409, 415
Kurunmäki, L 103
labor market shelters 27
labor process theory 98
LaFollette, H 117
Laing, AW 308
Lan,LL 200–2
Lange, D 288
Langley, A 178
Larson, G 371
Larson, MS 28, 32–3, 92, 96, 144–5, 257
law firms 4–7, 17
Alternative Business Structures (ABSs) 360
back-office operations 333
bankruptcy regimes 443
career forms 309, 353–4, 358, 360–5, 370
civil jurisdictions 437
claims farmers 6–7
class 319
client relationships 127, 309–12, 314–15, 317–19, 362–3
codes of ethics 119–20
commercial arbitration 36
common law 63, 437
commoditization 247, 436–7
communities of practice 63
complaints 119
competition 83, 443
databases 438
discipline 119–20
diversification 153–4
diversity 319, 452–3, 455–6, 460–4, 466
education and training 99, 441–2
entrepreneurship 99, 257, 265, 267–8, 361
ethnic minorities 319
face-to-face interaction 149–50
gatekeepers 123
GATS 58
gender 102, 319, 452–3, 456
geographic scope 224
global financial crisis 444
homogeneity and heterogeneity 145, 147, 149–50, 153–4, 156
homophily 312
human resource management 487, 491
hybrid professionalism 93, 97, 99, 101–2, 104
innovation 240, 247–8
internationalization 71, 75–7, 79, 83–4, 317–18
jurisdiction 145, 442–3
knowledge 77, 95, 434, 436–8, 441–4
leadership 172–3
lobbying 61
malpractice 56–7, 119
Managed Professional Business (MPB) archetype 99
meaning making 177
mega-law 93
mergers and acquisitions 63
multidisciplinary practices 62–3
multinationals 75–6
new practice areas 240
nurturing 171
one firm model 63, 85
outsourcing and offshoring 327–9, 332–3, 335–6, 341
para-legals 6–7, 247
partnerships 197, 247, 335, 436
peer review control process 434
personal-interactive services 309
professional associations 59, 99
promotion 156, 319, 362–3
(p. 518) prosecutions 120
regulation 10, 49, 61–3
relational relationships 310
reputation 288, 311
shared services centers 335–6
sole practitioners 93, 120, 129
transnational firms 49, 104
Lawler, EE 477
Lawrence, TB 35, 177
Lazega,E 377–8, 385, 390–4, 434
leadership 2, 16, 163–83
autonomy 11, 163–4, 167, 170, 172, 174–80, 183
balancing 167–9, 179, 181
Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) professionals 462
challenges 11, 163, 180, 183
championing 168–70, 172, 179, 181
charisma 177
clan control 164
coaching 167–8, 171, 175, 179, 181
coalitions 179, 182
conceptualization 165–70, 181–3
consensus-building 167, 170–1, 173–4, 178–9, 181
contingent managerial authority 163–4
corporate PSFs 164, 177
covert leadership 171–2, 177
crisis and disruption 177, 182
culture 165, 169, 176–7, 181
customization 163, 168–9
cyborg leaders 175–6
definition of leadership 164–6, 181
developing the conceptual framework 164, 166
directive style 16, 172–4
discrete leadership 11, 181
enabling 170–1, 172–3, 179, 181
entrepreneurship 165, 168–72, 174, 179–80
experience 168–9
expertise 11, 163, 166–72, 175, 179–80
explicit leadership 11, 167–8, 181
foci of leadership 11, 165–7, 169, 171, 173, 175–6, 181, 183
followers 163–4
formal roles 164, 171–2, 179–80
founder-managed firms 169–70, 181–2
gender 462
governance 11, 164, 166, 173, 198–9
hierarchies 163–4, 167, 179, 183
homogeneity and heterogeneity 181–2
identity 166, 168, 170, 174–6, 178–9
implicit leadership 11, 164, 181
influence 11, 164–75, 179–83
manifestations of leadership 165–8, 171, 173–81
meaning making 167, 175–7, 179, 181
mechanisms of leadership 11, 165, 167–70, 176, 179
networks 164, 172–3
organizational theory 164, 182
partnerships 164, 168–76, 179–80, 182, 198–9
personal embodiment 11, 166–7, 174–8, 179, 181–2
plural forms 165, 178–80, 182
political interaction 11, 166–7, 170–5, 179, 181–2
pooled leadership 179–80
power 164, 172–83
promotion 168–9
practitioner texts 166
publications 287
reputation 287
resources 11, 163, 165–8, 170, 174–5, 179
role-modeling 167, 175–6, 179, 181
seniority 167, 179
servant leadership 173
social control 11, 180
strategy 164–75, 177–9, 181, 183
technical expertise 163, 167–8
terminology 165
visioning 167, 175, 177–8, 179, 181
Leblebici, H 225, 464
Lee, K 268
Legge, K 355
legitimacy
career forms 351–2, 357, 368–9
diversity 463, 466
entrepreneurship 261–3, 265, 268–9
(p. 519) human resource management 495
hybrid professionalism 10, 94, 97, 100–3, 106
innovation 241–2, 249
knowledge 427
new ventures 263
public perceptions 102
Leicht, KT 126
Lepak, D 478, 495
Levi-Faur, D 54
Levinthal, DA 307
Levitt,T 333–4
Levy, F 334
Lewis, K 382
Lian, PCS 308
liberalization 48–9, 55–6, 58, 60, 62–3
limited liability 56, 76–7, 82, 86–7, 190, 340, 342
lobbying 61, 170
Lopez, SP 477
Lorsch, JW 168, 173–5
Lounsbury, M 94, 97, 103
Løwendahl, B 140, 143, 263, 434, 436, 438
loyalty 406, 410, 481
entrepreneurship 258
governance 199, 206
leadership 172, 177
reputation 282, 285, 291–4
teamwork 379, 397
theoretical perspectives 26
traits 26
Macey, JR 127
McKee, DL 224
McKinlay,A 353–4
McKinley, W 256
Maister, D 139, 142, 153, 168–9, 214, 228, 362, 481–2
Malhotra, N 32, 75–8, 99, 101, 136, 139, 141, 147, 149, 243, 270, 309, 354, 357, 360, 368, 436, 442
Malos, S 354, 358
malpractice 2, 51, 56–7, 59
Managed Professional Business (MPB) archetype
bureaucracies 360
hybrid professionalism 99, 105
innovation 242
outsourcing and offshoring 335, 338–9, 344
partnerships 77, 197
strategy and strategic alignment 231
management consultancies 2, 5, 17
anxiety-regulation 415
client relationships 309, 315, 319
entrepreneurship 257, 271
expertise 309
gender 102
homogeneity and heterogeneity 145, 146
hybrid professionalism 93, 100
internationalization 71, 78, 80–1, 84–5
jurisdiction 145
knowledge 78, 100, 257, 279, 427, 436
marketing 279
maturing fields 268
mergers 172
new practice areas 240
publications 287
reputation 287–8, 290–2
task-interactive services 308–9
teamwork 380, 384
management theories 13, 137, 331, 333, 335–7, 343
managerialism 18, 352, 356, 359, 444, 446
Manning, S 315
March, JG 172
Margulies,N 308–9
marketing 279–97
conceptual model which highlights antecedents and consequences of reputation 13
eight Ps of services 279, 296
functional group perspective 295–6
globalization 54
jurisdiction 144
reputation 13, 280–95, 297
sales, integration of 296–7
seven Ps of services 279
system-structure perspective 296
Martin, GP 172
Martin, MW 128
Mathur, I 313
Mathur, LK 313
Mawdsley, J 285
Mayer, C 202
meaning making 167, 175–7, 179, 181
Means, GC 193
(p. 520) Meihuizen, H 477, 481
Mennicken,A 63–4
mentoring 220, 462, 480, 481, 483, 488, 491, 494
mergers and acquisitions
client relationships 226, 316
leadership 172–4
regulation 53, 63
strategy and strategic alignment 223, 225–7, 230
teamwork 380, 391, 394, 396
meritocracy
diversity 15, 456–7, 465–6
expertise 167
hierarchies 179
myth of merit 15, 454
Mill, JS 115
Miller, D 165
Mills,PK 308–9, 314
Mintzberg, H 32, 164–5, 167, 171, 177, 425, 433–4
Miozzo, M 319
mixed career patterns 352, 356–7
mobility
client relationships 316–17, 361–2, 364, 370
human resource management 478, 485
labor market shelters 27
strategy and strategic alignment 218–20, 229, 231
teamwork 14, 382, 385
monopolies
diversity 456–7
ethics 118, 121
gender 457
jurisdiction 144–5
knowledge 426, 442
power 28–9
self-interest 28
self-regulation 121
theoretical perspectives 28–30
Moore, J 204
Moore, K 243
Moran, M 54, 58, 60
Moray, N 262
Morgan, G 176
Moshavi, DS 314
motivation/incentives
entrepreneurship 257–9, 267–9
knowledge 385–6
mobility 219–20
power and privilege 9, 17, 26, 27–30
profit-sharing 219–20
strategy and strategic alignment 12, 217–21, 230
value creation from workforce 217–21
Mueller,F 359–60, 365–7
Muhr,SL 175–6
multidisciplinary PSFs 5, 36, 62–3, 145, 391–2, 295
multinationals 1–2
client relationships 75–6
deregulation 52
diversity 467
elitism 34
identity 61
internationalization 71–6, 81–2
multidisciplinary practices 62–3
outsourcing and offshoring 331–2
regulation 55
teamwork 379, 384, 395
Murnane, RJ 334
Muzio, D 33, 52, 63, 85, 97, 118, 124, 338–9, 354, 426
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 53
neo-imperialism 85
neo-institutional theory 96–7, 457, 467
neo-liberalism 34, 48, 443–4, 454, 459–61, 466
networks
alumni 288
career forms 367
client relationships 75
competition policy 58–9
diversity 461–4
enabling 172–3
entrepreneurship 259, 262–3, 269
human resource management 478–9, 482, 485, 487–96
innovation 240–1
internationalization 10, 75, 79, 84, 86
knowledge 14, 440
regulation 63–4
reputation 285, 287–8, 292, 312
strategy and strategic alignment 222–7, 230
studies 17
teamwork 384, 394, 397
new global compact 53–4, 61
Newell, S 244, 406–7, 439
Niewiem, S 312
Nikolova,N 309–10
Nonaka, I 429
non-professionals
boundary between professionals and non-professionals 327–8, 344
bureaucracies 369
client relationships 362
delegation 98
deskilling 98
ethics 124–6
ideology 146–7
Managed Professional Business (MPB) archetype 338
motivation 220–1
outsourcing and offshoring 327–8, 344
proletarianization 124
Noordegraaf,M 101–2
Nooteboom, B 286
nurturing 170, 171–2, 179, 181
one-stop shopping 223, 318, 342
organization professionals 92, 103, 329, 338
organizational theory 11, 94–7, 103, 135–7, 164, 182, 218, 430
organizations
comparative organizational analysis 3
consensual management 3
encroaching organizations 98–100
importance of organizations for professions, growth in 98–103
hybrid professionalism 92–106
occupations, relationship with 92–106
knowledge-based economy 3
models 2–3
new forms, development of 2–3
reconfiguration of professionalism 100–3
separate fields and theories 94–8, 101
traditional 2–3
O’Rian, S 354, 361, 367
Orlikowski, WJ 249
outsourcing and offshoring 327–44
back-office operations 333–4, 339
brands 341–2, 343
captive outsourcing and offshoring 328–9, 331, 335, 343
change 15, 327–8, 331, 333–4
comparative national systems 344
competition 13, 340–4
corporate structures 329, 340–3
customization 341
decision-making 328–9, 331–3, 335–9, 341, 343–4
deregulation 334
deskilling 344
disaggregation of professional work 13, 327, 333–4, 340
diversification 341–2
ecology of professions 13, 327–8, 339–40
economic theories 13, 331, 334
education and training 342, 344
entrepreneurship 340–1, 344
ethics 334
evidence of outsourcing and offshoring 335–6
evolution of industry 344
foreign direct investment (FDI) 331
front-office operations 333–4
global value chain 327, 330, 341–2
globalization 327, 339–44
governance 327, 333–5, 338–9, 343–4
identity 334
information technology 13, 327–9, 331, 333–4, 340–2
institutions 331, 339
internalization 332
international trade 331–2
internationalization 331
knowledge 335, 340–3
location advantages 331
low-cost locations 329, 335
Managed Professional Business (MPB) 335, 338–9, 344
management theories 13, 331, 333, 335–7, 343
manufacturing 328, 331, 333–4, 341, 343
(p. 522) multinationals 331–2
new entrants 327–8, 340–4
non-professionals, boundary between professional and 13, 327–8, 344
offshoring, definition of 329
outsourcing, definition of 329
partnerships 335, 337–9, 342
personal and impersonal services, distinction between 332
primary activities 327–8
production-line approach 328, 333–5
property rights 331
public corporations 335, 336–7, 339
quality 331, 334, 341, 344
reputation 333–4, 340–1
restructuring 329, 337, 344
routinization 333, 334–5
rule-based tasks 334
self-regulation 334
shared services centers 329, 335–7
sole practitioners 329
standardization 13, 333–4, 337, 341
structure of PSFs 335, 340–3
support activities 327
technological change 15, 327–8, 331
theories 328–33, 343
value chain 327, 331, 341, 343
ownership
Alternative Business Structures (ABSs) 360
client relationships 230
deregulation 154, 156
governance 76, 191–2, 195, 205, 207, 217–21
homogeneity and heterogeneity 147, 151, 154, 156
internationalization 72–3, 76–7, 86
new/alternative forms 15, 56
non-professionals 147
outsourcing and offshoring 331, 333, 335, 339, 341–2
separation of ownership and control 76, 193, 217–18, 221
trait approach 32
transfers 192, 207
trusteeship norm 146
Palay, T 358, 370
Parker, C 57
Parsons, T 52
partnerships
agency 192, 193–6, 199
autonomy 337–8
Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) professionals 453
bureaucracies 355
capital intensity 152
career forms 352–3, 355
committees 194
conflicts of interest 76
consensus-building 173, 338
Cravath Model 192, 196, 268, 484
culture 192
decentralization 337–8
diversity 453–6, 462–4, 466
education and training 197
entrepreneurship 265–6
equity partners 358
ethics 126
expertise 197
federal form 80
gender 453
homogeneity and heterogeneity 147, 152, 156
human capital 198, 207
individualism 197–8
knowledge 217, 436
Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) 77, 86–7, 340
Managerial Professional Business (MPB) 77, 197
motivation 219–20
new associational forms 207
norms, importance of 199
outsourcing and offshoring 335, 337–9, 342
partner primacy model 197
peer control 337
salaried partners 358
size of firms 56–8, 79, 145, 152, 192, 193–6, 413, 455
team production theory 198
teamwork 14, 375, 376–8, 385, 390–5
unlimited liability 142
(p. 523) peers
championing 170
control 337, 434
leadership 163–4, 169–70, 173, 175, 180, 182
teamwork 14, 374–93
performance management 3, 16, 76–96
balanced-scorecard approach 488–9
definition of performance 476
strategy 3, 16, 76–96
Pennings, JM 478
Penrose, ET 225
Perrons, RK 331
Pettigrew, A 163, 181
Phillips, DJ 263, 319
Pinnington, A 32, 242, 364
Plato 115
Polanyi, M 428
political interactions
leadership 11, 166–7, 170–5, 179, 181–2
teamwork 378, 394, 397
Porter, ME 327
post-structuralism 457–8, 459
power
bargaining power 218–20
career forms 365, 366–7
class 33
client relationships 18, 311
discretion 3
dynamics 17–18
elitism 26, 27–8, 33–4
entrepreneurship 260–1, 265, 269–70
gender 33
governance 204
hierarchies 27
human resources management 33
internationalization 87
leadership 164, 172–83
meaning making 176
role-modeling 175
social closure 28–9
teamwork 377–8, 380, 387, 392, 394–7
theoretical perspectives 9, 17, 26, 27–30
Power, M 35
prestige see status and prestige
pricing
capacity and value based pricing (CVBP) model 297
client relationships 148, 151–2, 309, 314
competition 146
marketing 297
reputation 290, 295, 297
teamwork 379, 384
production-line approach 328, 333–5
professional associations
codes of ethics 141
competition 59, 441
displacement of power 454
diversity 454–5, 457
education and training 491
entrepreneurship 257, 268
globalization 53–4
human resource management 490–1, 495
hybrid professionalism 97, 99
immunity 99
innovation 244, 248–9
knowledge 97, 431, 433, 441, 442
punishments 431
regulation 51, 53–4, 62, 64
reputation 294
social closure 28, 457
standards 97
professional ethics 18, 113–30
applied or practical ethics 114–17
autonomy 114, 121–5, 128
bureaucracies, PSFs as large 125–6
career forms 354, 357, 366–7, 370
classical model of PSFs 113
client capture 11, 16, 125–9
competition 57
conflict 10–11, 124, 129
conflicts of interest 27, 113, 117, 120–1, 129, 146
consequentialism 115–16
corporate responsibility 117
culture 125, 129–30
diversity 454, 466
due diligence 114
expectations gap 122
experience 117, 120, 127–8
expertise 125
(p. 524) fiduciary duties 16, 120
gatekeepers, contested role of professional 11, 114, 122–3, 128
hybrid professionalism 100
identity 125, 127–8
independence 11, 128
internationalization 129–30
knowledge 433, 437
legal obligations 114
oxfordhbical/bio-ethics 116–17
meta-ethics 115
monopolies 118, 121
non-professional organizations, professionals in 124–6
normative ethics 115–16
observational studies 130
outsourcing and offshoring 334
partnerships 126
public interest 113, 119–20
retrospective studies 130
self-regulation 15, 121
self-report hypothetical studies 130
social responsibility 121
standards 100
theoretical ethics 114–17
trait or attribute approach 118–20
utilitarianism 115–16
virtue ethics 115–16
whistleblowing 117
professionalism
career forms 352–3, 356, 360
entrepreneurship 255–7
hybrid professionalism 92–106
identity 14, 404, 416, 417
innovation 242, 247
knowledge 434
measurement 26–7
projects
client relationships 410
entrepreneurship 259, 269
internationalization 10, 78–9, 81, 84–5, 86
knowledge 381–90
large value clients 78
teamwork 259, 269, 374–97
proletarianization 28–9, 124
promotion see also tournament or up-or-out promotion system
client relationships 319
culture 169
diversity 461–3, 365, 467
governance 196
human resource management 484, 489, 492
leadership 168–9
quality control 169
size of firms 152
property rights 195, 204, 214, 226, 331
public and not-for-profit bodies 7–8, 55, 58, 65, 92, 94, 98–9, 363
public perceptions 101–2, 106, 283–8, 293–5
publications 287
Pulakos, ED 477
quality
agency 193–4
client relationships 315, 320
competition 146
endorsements 289–90
knowledge 433, 446
marketing 297
opaque quality 139–42
outsourcing and offshoring 331, 334, 341, 344
performance (SERVPERF) 289
promotion 169
regulation 51
reputation 281, 285–91, 293–5, 297, 311
service (SERVQUAL) 289
quasi- or semi-professions 27
Raelin,JA 433–4
Rajan,RG 204–5
Ram, M 262, 313
recruitment 2, 34, 80, 97, 257, 264
career forms 359–60
diversity 461–3, 465, 467
homogeneity and heterogeneity 413–14
human resource management 477, 480, 482, 487, 490
talent and star performers 477
Reed, DL 200
Reed, M 96
regulation 4–5, 48–65 see also deregulation
bureaucracies 359
competition 10, 48, 51, 53, 55–61
complex ecologies of actors 10
dynamics 10, 48–65
ethics 26
EU law 53, 63–4
foreign service providers 48
free trade 10, 48–9
globalization 15, 49, 53–4, 61–4
hybrid professionalism 63, 103, 105
innovation 244, 246
institutions 54–5, 61, 63
liberalization 48–9, 62–3
mergers and acquisitions 53, 63
networks 63–4
new regulatory bargain, alternative scenario for 61–4
new regulatory state 49, 55
privatization 49
production by producers 50–1
production of producers 50–1
professional associations 51, 53–4, 62, 64
public interest 50–1
self-regulation 10, 15, 48, 50–1, 58, 62–3, 121, 334
size of firms 48–9, 51, 57, 62, 65
social closure 48–9, 51
socialization of new members 51–2, 54
standards 48, 50–2, 57–61, 86
state
traditional regulative bargain with the 49–52
transformation of state and regulatory policies 54–61
traditional forms, challenges to 10, 61–4
transnational governance 32, 49, 54–5, 58–64
Reihlen, M 268
relational relationships 206, 209, 306–11, 314, 320–1
remuneration and reward systems 2, 33, 190, 192, 195–6
career forms 353–4, 356, 358–61
characteristics of PSFs 26, 454
contingent compensation 140, 142–3, 151–2
deferred compensation 140, 142–3, 151–2
diversity 454, 457–8, 461, 464
ethics 124–5
expertise 358–9, 492
human resource management 477–8, 481, 484–5, 487, 488–94
identity 411–12, 415
internationalization 53–4, 83–6
monopolies 28
motivation 218, 220–1, 258, 266
profit-sharing 219–20
reputation 291
strategy and strategic alignment 218–21, 226, 440
teamwork 378, 385, 391–4, 397
templates 97
theoretical perspectives 26
reputation 280–95
antecedents 280, 282, 285–90, 292, 295, 297
autonomy 141
awareness 283, 293
brands 280, 281, 283, 293–4, 476
building 13, 280–95
bureaucracies 355
career forms 353–6, 363, 365, 368, 370
class 363
client relationships 291–6, 311–12, 318, 363
collaborative imperative 294
commitment from clients 291–2, 295
communication 286, 293–4
comparative, reputation as 284
competitors 284, 285, 290, 293, 295
conflicting reputations 294
consequences 282, 290–2, 295
culture 294
definition 13, 281, 282–4
differentiation 293
direct and indirect effects of building reputation 285, 292
education and training 295
emotional intelligence (EI) 286, 294–5
employees 281
entrepreneurship 259, 263–5, 356
experience 141, 282, 286–8
expertise 285, 287–8
favorability 288
financial performance 283, 291
gatekeepers 122
governance 189, 199–200, 207–9
(p. 526) human capital 285
human resource management 476, 481–2
identity 282–3, 286, 297, 411–12
image 282–3, 297
impression management 286, 293
Impressional School 283
individuals 294
industry reputation, comparison to 284
information asymmetries 281
internationalization 73–4, 79
investment, attracting 291
issue-specific 284
knowledge 287, 294, 385
leadership 287
loyalty 282, 285, 291–4
marketing 13, 280–95, 297
measurement 13, 281, 283–4
mental associations 282
negative reputations 282–4, 290, 295
networks 285, 287–8, 292, 312
outsourcing and offshoring 333–4, 340–1
perceptions 283–8, 293–5
positive perceptions 283–4, 290–1, 293, 312
post-employment relations 288
price/quality relationship 290, 295, 297
prior reputation, comparison to 284
procurement 294, 297
professional associations 294
projects 81
prominence 288
publications 287
rankings 290
referrals 287, 312
Relational School 283
risk 73–4, 79
sales, enhancing 291
satisfaction of clients 286–7, 291–2
social capital 292, 294
social networks 287–8, 292
stability and endurance 284
stakeholders 200, 282–4, 288, 291
talent, attracting and retaining 285, 290–1
teamwork 378, 380, 383, 385, 387–8, 391
word of mouth (WOM) 287, 291
workforce 285, 288–9, 294
research 1–9, 15–18
Resick, CJ 387
retention of employees
human resource management 481, 484, 492–3
identity 418
knowledge 139–40, 429
motivation 258
remuneration and reward systems 140
teamwork 394–5, 397
Richardson, AJ 59
Richter, A 312
Rindova, VP 281
Ringlstetter,M 438–40
Rivera, LA 414
Robertson, M 176, 413
Robson, K 61
Rogan, M 227, 229
role-modeling 167, 175–6, 179, 181
Rose, N 356
Rose, T 224
routinization 7, 16, 98, 207, 333–5, 467
Rylander, A 413
Sako, M 241
Sander, R 456
Sang,K 363–4
Sardais, C 165
scandals 15, 57, 59, 208, 295, 320
Schneider, E 434, 436
Schön, D 261
Scott, WR 2, 96, 249
Scott-Kennel, J 442
Seabright, MA 229
self-regulation 10, 15, 48, 50–1, 58, 62–3, 121, 334
senior-level
autonomy 380
human resource management 481–5, 488–9, 492–4
leadership 167, 179
separation of ownership and control 76, 193, 217–18, 221
service innovation 238–50
client relationships 248
(p. 527) co-creation strategies 248
collegiality 243
commodification 247
communities of practice 240–1
competition 242
contextual change 242, 246
corporatism 242
deregulation 155, 242
development and use of new practices 12
differentiation 245
diversification 239–41
ecosystem 246–7, 249
entrepreneurship 12, 255–61, 264, 267, 269
experience 244, 248
expertise 243, 248
globalization 242
healthcare providers 246
human resource management 15, 477, 483, 487, 492–6
identity 247
information technology 245–50
institutions 239, 242–3, 248–50
internationalization 73
legitimacy 241–2, 249
networks 240–1
new practice areas 240
new service models 242, 244–7
organizational change 239, 241–2
practice-based knowledge 239, 243
professional associations 244, 248–9
professionalism 242, 247
regulation 155, 244, 246
social capital 15, 477, 493
socialization 247
sociomaterial practice 239, 249–50
structures and systems 239
teamwork 379, 387, 390, 395–7
value creation 240, 243–4, 246–8
service scope of PSFs 223–4
sex discrimination see gender
shared service centers 329, 335–7
Sherer, PD 268
Shiplov, AV 224
Shleifer, A 191
Singh, J 384
size of firms 2, 5, 151–2
bureaucracies 31, 77
client relationships 151–2, 312, 316
entrepreneurship 262, 270
ethics 127
globalization 61
governance 195, 208, 338
homogeneity and heterogeneity 137, 151–2, 155–6
identity 417–18
internationalization 77, 79
marketing 312
regulation 48–9, 51, 57, 62, 65
strategy and strategic alignment 152, 221, 223
teamwork 376, 380
Smircich, L 176
Snell,S 477–8, 495
social capital
client relationships 319, 479, 487–8, 490
human resource management 15, 477–80, 485–91, 493, 495–6
knowledge 222
new ventures 263
relationships inside and outside PSFs 15, 485, 495–6
reputation 292, 294
social class see class
social closure
career forms 367, 369
certification and credentials 28
diversity 454, 457, 460
double closure 96
homogeneity and heterogeneity 137, 143–5
hybrid professionalism 94
informal mechanisms 51
knowledge 426–7, 431
professional associations 28, 457
theoretical perspectives 28–30
social duty or calling, sense of 26, 27
social oxfordhbia 287
socialization 51–2, 100, 106, 247, 365
sociology of professions 9, 17, 25, 26–30, 31
characteristics of professions 143–4
diversity 467
homogeneity and heterogeneity 11, 136–7, 139, 143–4, 147–8
hybrid professionalism 10, 96–8
knowledge 139, 426–8, 430–1
organization theory 96
teamwork 383, 390, 396
(p. 528) sole practitioners 92–3, 120, 129, 329
Somaya, D 285, 315
specialization 17, 31, 352, 454, 481–3
knowledge 6–8, 97, 228, 352, 454, 476
marketing 296
PSF, definition of 7–8
strategy and strategic alignment 223–4
Spicer, A 165
stakeholders 9–11, 16, 191–3, 200–1, 203, 282–4, 288, 291
standardization 3, 13, 101, 257, 259, 333–4, 337, 341
standards 2, 12, 50–2, 320, 416
accounting standards 61, 78, 145, 443
entrepreneurship 257, 263, 267
ethics 100, 118–20, 128
governance 190
homogeneity and heterogeneity 144–5
human resource management 483–4, 490–1
hybrid professionalism 92, 97, 99–100, 102
internationalization 78–9, 81–5
knowledge 433–4
leadership 176
regulation 48, 50–2, 57–61, 86
reputation 294
status and prestige 17, 28–30, 96, 99, 320 see also reputation; talent and star performers
career forms 352–3, 369
contests 387–8
diversity 102–4, 453–4, 457, 466–7
homogeneity and heterogeneity 142, 145, 153, 413–14, 418
identity 407, 411–17, 418–19
internationalization 85
knowledge 137, 139, 387–8, 427
leadership 169–70, 172
professionalism 416, 417
symbols 413
stereotyping 461–2, 464–5
Stjernberg, T 168
strategy and strategic alignment 213–31
characteristics of PSFs 151–2
client value and client relationships 13, 214–16, 221–31, 308, 318
competitive advantage 12, 214–15, 220, 222–3, 226–7
consensus-building 173–4
corporate strategies 214–28, 230
customization 153
differentiation 12, 216, 223, 229
diversification 153–4
economic rents, sharing of 12, 217–18, 219
employee mobility 218–20, 229, 231
entrepreneurship 262, 263–6, 270
exit of employees 217
experience 153–4
expertise 153–4
firm value 12, 219
future directions 229–31
geographic scope 153, 223, 224–5, 230
global expansion 224, 225–8
globalization 228, 231
governance 12, 189, 191, 217, 219–20, 226–8, 230
homogeneity and heterogeneity 137, 151–4, 156
human capital 12, 214–16, 218–26, 228–31
human resources management 3, 16, 76–96
hybrid professionalism 97–8
incentives/motivations 12, 217–21, 230
institutional theory 231
internationalization 73, 224, 225–8, 231
mergers and acquisitions 223, 225–7, 230
motivations 217–20
networks 222–7, 230
novices 216, 218, 220, 224
opportunities 222–9
outsourcing and offshoring 327–8, 335–8, 341–4
performance management 3, 16, 76–96
professionalized workforce 213–23
property rights 214, 226
service scope of PSFs 223–4
talent and star performers 221–2
value creation from workforce 12, 213–22
visioning 177–8
stratification theory 456–8, 460, 464
Sturdy, A 319
Suddaby, R 32, 35, 97, 118, 124, 244, 426, 437
Sullivan, K 175
support activities 92, 327
Sutton, J 121
Sveningsson, S 169, 171, 180
(p. 529) Swaine, RT 196
Swan, JA 244
Swart, J 440
Takeuchi, H 429
talent and star performers
celebrity CEOs 285
celebrity firms 288
client relationships 285
competition 222
culture 380, 386, 388
diversity 15, 456–7, 465–6
human capital 221–2
human resource management 482, 492–3
recruitment 477
reputation 285, 288, 290–1
strategy and strategic alignment 221–2
teamwork 379–80, 386, 388, 393, 396–7
value creation from workforce 221–2
war for talent 285
target-based systems 476, 481, 484, 489, 491–3, 495
taskwork 381
teamwork and collaboration 374–97
apprenticeship model 374
autonomy 14, 375, 380, 391–3, 395–7
challenges 379–81
client service teams 375, 387–8, 391
coalitions 179
codified versus personalized knowledge 388–9
competition 14, 101, 375, 378–9, 381, 385, 388–9
complexity 374, 378, 382, 386–7, 391, 395–7
conflict 378, 387–8, 390
credit recognition 14, 378
culture 14, 378–80, 392, 396–7
customization 379, 388–9
decision-making 14, 378, 380, 394
engagement teams 259–62, 269
entrepreneurship 12, 256, 259–63, 269
evolution of teamwork and collaboration 376–81
experience 260, 383, 385, 387, 389, 392
fluid, open-ended, peer-to-peer collaboration 14, 374–83, 391
gender 384
geographic distribution 377, 385
globalization 378–9, 384, 392
hierarchies 101, 148, 374, 376–8, 390, 396
highly structured teams 14, 375, 395
hybrid professionalism 101, 104
information technology 376–7, 385
innovation 379, 387, 390, 395–7
knowledge 148, 260–2, 374–97, 425
core processes 381–90
hierarchies 148
identification of members’ knowledge 375, 396
integrating and applying 375, 386–90, 396
intra-team knowledge, identifying 381–3
knowledge-integration capability (KIC) 387
motivation 385–6
project teams 381–90
seeking and sharing 375, 383–6, 396
status effects on knowledge integration 387–8
lateral hiring 380
leadership 183, 384, 386, 393, 396
learning 374, 381, 384
long-term teamwork 385, 390–1, 394
oxfordhbiating hierarch 198
mergers 380, 391, 394, 396
mobility 14, 382, 385
motivation 385–6, 389, 391–3, 395–7
multidisciplinary collaboration 391–2, 395
multinationals 379, 384, 395
multiple team membership 377, 384–5, 397
networks 384, 394, 397
outputs 382, 388, 394, 396
partnerships 14, 190, 375, 376–8, 385, 390–5
peers 14, 374–93
performance pressure 381, 386, 389–91
peripheral team members 384–6
political interactions 378, 394, 397
prestige 377–8
pricing 379, 394
project teams 259, 269, 374–97
psychological barriers 260
referrals 391–2, 394
(p. 530) remuneration and reward systems 378, 385, 391–4, 397
reputation 294, 378, 380, 383, 385, 387–8, 391
retention of employees 394–5, 397
senior-level 148, 374–85, 388–90, 394–7
sociology of professions 383, 390, 396
specialization 14, 377–8, 381–2, 388–9, 391, 393, 395
standardization 101
talent and star performers 379–80, 386, 388, 393, 396–7
taskwork, focus on 381
time pressure 381, 383–4, 386, 389
tournament or up-or-out promotion system 379–80, 396
traditional forms 14, 374–8, 381, 391–3, 395–7
trust and familiarity, interpersonal 380, 385, 394, 396–7
virtual teams 377, 385
technical knowledge 17, 145, 306–9, 436, 439–42
client relationships 306–9
internationalization 77–8
jurisdiction 145
leadership 163, 167–8
normative versus technical knowledge 137, 147
technology
change 15, 327–8, 331
deskilling 29, 98
exchange of personnel 319
human resource management 477–8, 493
hybrid professionalism 98
innovation 245–50
knowledge 426, 446
outsourcing and offshoring 13, 15, 327–9, 331, 333–4, 340–2
teamwork 376–7, 385
Terrett, A 438
Terry, LS 55
theoretical perspectives 25–39
abstract knowledge, formal body of 26
altruism and collegiality 27–8
autonomy 28, 30, 31
bureaucracies, large 29, 31–2, 38
characteristics of PSFs 25–8, 30–3
collective self-control, absence of 26
conflict perspective 29–30, 31
culture 26–9
dynamic nature of interactions between multiple stakeholders 9–10
ecological-institutional theory of professions 30, 34–9
elitism 26, 27–8, 30, 33–5
five key traits 26
gatekeeping role of large PSFs 25, 34
hybrid professionalism 10
internationalization 72–5
jurisdiction, contests over 30, 32, 37
management, theories of professional organizations in 31–7
monopolies, professions as 28–30
outsourcing and offshoring 328–33, 343
power and privilege 9, 17, 26, 27–30
process and practice 9, 26, 29–30, 34–7
proletarianization 28–9
social closure 28–30
social duty or calling, sense of 26, 27
sociology-based theories 9, 25, 26–30, 31
stabilising role 26–7
state, relationship with the 29–30
structural-functional theories 9, 26–7, 30, 31–3, 35–8
systematic body of theory 26
trait theory 26, 27–8, 30, 31–2
Thomas, MW 27
Thompson, DF 117
Thompson, JD 177
Thornton, PH 248
Tierney, TJ 168, 173–5
Tomlinson, J 367
Torstendahl, R 95
tournament or up-or-out promotion system
anxiety-regulation 415
bureaucracies 359, 361
career forms 368–61, 368
competition 379–80
entrepreneurship 361
human resource management 484–5, 492–3
identity 415
teamwork 379–80, 396
transactional relationships 306–9, 311, 321
transnational PSFs 10, 72, 80–6, 88
communities of practice 54
entrepreneurship 61
governance 32, 49, 54–5, 58–64
knowledge 426, 443, 446
organizational implications 81–3
regulation 49, 54–5, 58–64
transactive memory system (TMS) 381–3
trust
client relationships 306–8, 314, 316–17, 480, 492, 494
human resource management 478, 480, 488–9, 492, 494
reputation 285–6, 291–2, 294
teamwork 380, 385, 394, 396–7
trusteeship 11, 146, 191–3, 201–3
Tsai,W 391–2, 394
Uhl-Bien, M 173
Ulvnes, AM 229
United Kingdom
accounting firms 4, 452–3, 461–2
Alternative Business Structures (ABSs) 342, 360
autonomy 50
career forms 358–9, 362
client relationships 305, 315
commoditization 436–7
common law 63
competition 55
continuing professional development (CPD) 359
cultural bias 27
deregulation 154, 334
diversity 452–3, 461
economic importance of PSFs 1
education and training 99
gender 452
innovation 248
internationalization 58, 63, 78, 85–6, 88, 225
knowledge 215, 229
law firms 4, 57, 229, 360, 362, 462
commoditization 436–7
deregulation 154, 334
gender 452–3
innovation 248
malpractice 57
reputation 354
transnational 58, 63, 85, 88, 225
malpractice 57
outsourcing and offshoring 334
professionalism 104
quasi-imperialism 85
regulation 50, 54–6, 65, 154, 344
reputation 354
standardization 54
tournament or up-or-out promotion system 358
up-or-out promotion system 156
United States 29, 64–5, 85
accounting firms 56–7, 61, 85, 127, 198
audits 57
autonomy 50
charities 35
client relationships 310, 313, 316
culture 27, 29
diversity 454–5
economic importance of PSFs 213
entrepreneurship 35, 268
ethics 114, 127
fraud 114
GAAP 78
human capital 225
internationalization 85, 86
law firms 56, 62, 78, 119, 129, 225, 229, 268, 315, 455
measurement and accountability 35
outsourcing and offshoring 331–2, 336, 344
presidential and congressional campaigns, PSFs as corporate donors to 2
professionalization 35, 104
quasi-imperialism 85
regulation 49
reputation 187
Sarbanes-Oxley Act 56–7, 123
scandals 56–7, 114, 123
teamwork 394
tournament or up-or-out promotion system 358
trustee model of governance 201–2
up-or-out promotion system see tournament or up-or-out promotion system
(p. 532) Uppsala Internationalization Process Model 73
utilitarianism 115–16
Valentine,MA 391–2, 394
value creation 12, 213–22, 240, 243–4, 246–8
Verbeke,A 74–5, 139
Viale, T 97
Vinnicombe, S 460
Vishny, RW 191
visioning 167, 175, 177–8, 179, 181
von Batenburg, Z 442
von Nordenflycht,A 4–6, 32, 49, 95, 105, 136, 139, 142, 144, 152, 213, 217, 221, 223, 243, 305, 319, 434, 436
Walker,K 283–4, 295
Wallace, JE 124
Wang, HC 195
Weber, Max 72, 98, 121, 390, 456–7, 466
Weberian proletarianization 28–9
WebTrust 241, 249–50
welfare states 65
Werr, A 168
whistleblowing 117
Wilkins, DB 465
Williams,R 368–9
Winch, G 434, 436
Wood, MS 256
word of mouth (WOM) 287, 291
workforce, value creation from professional 213–22
human capital 214–22
incentives/motivations 217–21
knowledge hierarchies and leverage 216–17
strategic alignment 217–21
strategic management 213–22
World Bank 59, 64
World Trade Organization (WTO) 34, 53, 61, 443
Worldcom scandal 57, 59
Yukl,G 165–6, 181
Zardkoohi, A 5, 136, 142–3
Zingales,L 204–5
Zohar, D 130
Zollo, M 221
Zupan, N 477