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date: 22 November 2019

(p. 653) Index of Subjects

(p. 653) Index of Subjects

Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number.

Abu Dhabi Dialogue, 479t
acculturation, 493, 497
Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), 436, 449t
Action Network on Small Arms, 308
Addis Ababa, 566
Africa, 51, 112, 114, 117, 123, 561–3, 594
construction of regions, 273–6
regional organizations, 526
influencing identity, 565–6
Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific countries (ACP), 606
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, 490
African Court on Human and People’s Rights, 490
African Development Bank (AfDB), 377, 391t
African Economic Community, 275
African Energy Commission (AFREC), 379, 392t
African Monetary Fund (AMF), 366t
African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), 272, 277, 279, 284, 286, 309
African Peer Review Mechanism, 277–8
African regionalism, 19
democracy and governance, 285
drivers of, 273–9
institutional design, 280–2
legitimation behavior in, 590–1
outward-looking focus of political elites’ legitimation behavior, 590
peace and security, 284–5
post-colonial context, 25
sovereignty-boosting, 278
trade and development, 283–4
African Renaissance, 271, 277, 309
African Security Sector Network, 308
African Strategic and Peace Research Group, 308
African Union (AU), 19, 52, 92, 274–7, 279, 282, 284, 287t, 590, 615t, 623, see also Organization of African Unity (OAU)
development governance, 379
human rights, 490, 495, 502t
humanitarian interventions, 123
institutional design, 515t, 516, 523
migration governance, 469, 477t
monetary governance, 364, 366t
regional identity, 562–3, 565
security governance, 301, 302, 304, 306, 309, 311, 313–14, 315t
social and gender governance, 416, 422t
Social Policy Framework for Africa, 411
African Union Support to Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA), 302
Aid for Trade programs, 383
Almaty Process, 479t
American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1948), 489
Andean Community (CAN), 98, 162, 164–5, 170t, 315t, 411, 477t, 490, 503t, 540, 563
institutional design, and EU norm diffusion, 606
Mercosur and, relations between, 602
Andean Community Court of Justice, 162
(p. 654) Andean Development Bank (CAF) (now, Latin American Development Bank), 379, 390, 394t
Andean Group, 156, 164
Andean Pact (1969), 24, 162, 168t
Andean Tribunal of Justice, 98, 546, 552
anthropology, regional identity and community, 571–2
Arab Charter on Human Rights, 263–4, 416, 491
Arab Cold War, 83, 254, 257, 261, 268–70
Arab Common Market, 71
Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), 256, 261, 267t
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, 255
Arab League, 49, 73, 78, 113–14, 123, 249, 253–9, 261–5, 308, 312, 491, 566
Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), 256, 259, 267t
Arab nationalism, 252, 261, 263
Arab Organization for Human Rights, 264
Arab Peace Initiative, 264
Arab Spring, 312
Arab uprisings, 257
Arab–Iranian conflict, 71
Arab–Israeli conflict, 71, 256, 264
arbitration, 540, see also legitimacy
Arctic Council, 451t
area studies, 5, 11, 621
Argentina, 79, 97
entrenched inward-looking, 71
LAFTA, 24
Arizona, 138
Arizona–Mexico Commission, 135, 148t
ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, 241t
ASEAN Charter, 97, 234
ASEAN Civil Society Conference, 415
ASEAN Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Women and Children (ACWC), 491
ASEAN Committee of Permanent Representatives, 97
ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), 123, 234, 286, 336
ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, 491
ASEAN Infrastructure Fund, 397t
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR), 240t
ASEAN Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO), 235
ASEAN+3, 79, 96, 228–30, 236, 364, 390, 602t, 626t
ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO), 241t
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), 74–5, 78, 101, 229, 236, 240t, 307, 312, 562, 564–5
ASEAN Secretariat, 412
ASEAN way, 50, 74, 96, 309, 437, 516–17, 589
ASEAN-6, 231f, 390, 437, 589
Asia, 25, 46, 97, 112–14, 117, 123, 141, 541, 561, 594
challenge of integration in, 238
ideal currency area, 360
peace and security, 638
region, 226–7
security concerns, 119
Asian regionalism, 225
evolution, 227–33
institutional design and its effects, 233–7
soft regionalism, 238
Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung in 1955, 114, 117
Asia-Europe Meeting Process (ASEM), 93, 97, 241t, 604
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 46, 74–5, 78, 96, 123, 136, 227, 240t, 312
Asia-Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF), 240
Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), 240t
Asian Currency Union, 390
Asian Development Bank (ADB), 239t, 377–8, 382, 390, 396t
Asian financial crisis (AFC), 230, 232–3, 363, 605
Asian Free Trade Area, 50
Asian Infrastructure Development Bank, 382
Asian Monetary Union, 364
Asian Relations Conferences of 1947 and 1949, 114, 364
(p. 655) Association of Caribbean States (ACS), 169t
Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), 229
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 5, 8, 25–6, 41, 45–6, 50, 52, 54, 74, 93, 96, 111, 118, 227, 229, 233–4, 238–9, 239t, 311–12, 316t, 352, 360, 367t, 390, 412, 414, 423t, 437, 448t, 457, 478t, 491, 495, 503t, 516–17, 521, 523–4, 561–2, 564, 585, 636–7
AIPA, 591–2
confidence-building measures (CBMs), 101
deep integration, 332
delegation/pooling of authority, 626–7t
democratization and, 585
EU market regulation policies and disaster management mechanism, 101
formality of institutions, 54–5
HIV/AIDS norms, 101
influence of regional governance on international actorness, 527
institutional design, and EU norm diffusion, 606
intra-regional mobility flows, 473
inward-looking coalitions, 71
legitimacy, 585, 589–90
lesson-drawing and normative emulation, 97
migration governance, 465–6
normative emulation, 98, 100
progressive policy expansion, 625–6t
Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, 471–2
Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint, 412
asymmetric interdependence, 389
asymmetries of information, 388
autocentric regionalism, 25
autocracies, 210–11
autonomy, regional, 9, 67, 110–11, 114, 117–19, 163, 185
balance of power, 185, 231
Bali Process, 466, 478t
Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM), 449t
Baltic Sea, 434–5
Banco del Sur, 367t
Bangkok Treaty Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone, 75
Bank for International Settlements (BIS), 355
bargaining power, 47, 93, 118, 138, 186, 329, 632
Basle Accords, 354
Basle Committee on Banking Supervision, 355
Ba’th (Ba’ath) movement, 73, 254, 261
bazaar networks, 205
Belize, 312
Benelux Union, 194t
bilateral agreements in trade and security, 230
bilateral hub-and-spokes alliance structure, 304
bilateral preferential trade agreements, 334
bilateral swaps, 357
Black Sea, 205
Black Sea Commission (BSC), 450t
Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), 504t
Black Sea Environment Program (BSEP) (aka Black Sea Commission (BSC)), 218t
Black Sea Naval Cooperation Task Group (BlackSeaFor), 218t
Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our Americas (ALBA), 159, 161, 163, 166, 170t, 411, 414
Bolivia, 165
Border Environmental Cooperation Commission (BECC), 395t
Brazil, 45, 72, 79, 94, 97, 112
LAFTA, 24
Brazilian National Development Bank, 382
Bretton Woods institutions, 277, 356, 363–4
BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africs), 30, 374
BRICS Bank, 364
Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA), 397t
Budapest Process, 480t
bureaucracies, 68–9, 123, 272
emerging within regional organizations, 277, 419–20, 548
Burma, see Myanmar
Burundi, 311
carbon trading scheme, 139, see also environmental pollution
Caribbean, 100, 279
currency, 356
free-trade areas, 279
Caribbean Basin initiative, 328
Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), 156, 162, 165, 168t, 315t, 423t, 563
Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), 394t
Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA), 168t
Caribbean regionalism, 33, see also North American regionalism; South American regionalism
interregionalism, 608
regional identity, 563
regional organizations, EU and, 100
Caspian Environment Program (CEP), 450t
Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC), 19
Central African Power Pools (CAPP), 392t
Central America, 160
regional organizations, peace-building, 638
Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 160
Central America Marine Transport Commission (COCATRAM), 448t
Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI), 379, 393t
Central American Common Market (CACM), 115, 156, 160, 164, 167t
Central American Integration System (SICA), 503t
Central American System of Integration (SICA), 160, 169t
Central Asia, 45, 204–5, 590
Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO), 217t
Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC), 217t
Central Asian regionalism, legitimation behavior in, 590–1
central banks, 353–4, 357
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), 203
Central European Free Trade Area, 329
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO, aka the Baghdad Pact), 111, 254, 261, 265, 267t
CFA franc zone, 19, 281, 356, 360, 366t
Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI), 230, 235, 390, 589
Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM), 235, 241t, 357, 367t
Chile, 71–2, 165
China, 45, 79, 118
economic interdependence, 50
identity, 564–5
inter- and transregionalism, 607
Latin America and, 160
China–ASEAN FTA, 337
CIS Economic Union, 206, 216t
CIS Electoral Monitoring, 210
CIS Free Trade Area (CIS FTA), 206, 217t
CIS Payment Union, 206
civil society actors, 43, 144
involvement in security programs, 309
lobbying efforts on governments, 443
Climate Registry, 135, 149t
closed regionalism, 158, 605
CLRTAP regime, 435
Co-Prosperity Sphere, 112
coalitions, 68, 80
coalitional profile model, 75
domestic coalitions, 47, 74
internationalizing coalitions, 68–9, 74
inward-looking coalitions, 68–71
ruling coalitions, 69–70, 72–3, 76
strategic interaction among coalitions, 79
collective action dimension, 439
collective bargaining power, 118
collective defense, 119
collective governance, 443
collective identity, 96, 232, 563, 569, 583
ASEAN, 100
and learning, 561
multilateralism, 562
preexisting, 566
and regional integration, 632
collective security, 264, 311
Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), 206, 317t
(p. 657) Colombia, 312
Colombo Process, 479t
colonialism, and formation of regions, 19
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), 451t
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), 436
Commission Permanente del Pacifico Sur (CPPS), 448t
common market, 182, 282–3
formation of, 264
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), 274–5, 287t, 422t, 502t
Common Market Group, 462
Common Market of the South, see Mercosur
Common Monetary Area (CMA), 280
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 203, 206, 209, 216t, 424t, 491, 504t
communicative action approach, 604
community-building, 119, 121, 187, 205, 307
community method, 21
Community of Democratic Choice, 205
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), 159, 163, 166, 171t, 503t
Comparative Political Economy (CPE), 66
comparative politics, 5, 66, 184
comparative regionalism, 4–5, 16–17, 29–33, 31t, 621–3
methodological challenges and future research, 639–41
Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), 140–1, 147, 149t
computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, 209
Concert of Europe, 111–12
Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers, 135, 148
Conference on (now Organization for) Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE; OSCE), 101, 181, 307, 493
confidence-building measures (CBMs), 101, 307, 565
conflict management, 111, 264
consequentialist perspective, on political rule legitimacy, 581
conservative regimes, 414
constructivist approaches, 27–8, 44, 73, 78, 120–1, 184, 187–8, 232, 235–6, 262, 278, 632, 634
cooperation and integration, 48, 261
international policies–norms diffusion, 73
liberalism and, 121
regional environmental governance, 444
regional security communities, 121
Contadora Group, 163
Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Water (1996), 433
Council of the Common Market, 463
Council of Europe (CoE), 109, 180, 190, 194t, 313, 410, 419, 424t, 489, 503t
pooling, 514
Council of the Great Lakes Region, 135
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA; Comecon), 180, 194t, 203, 328
Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crime (CTTC), 302
coups d’état, 51, 281
Coutenou Agreement, 100
critical economy approach, 187, 420
cross-border micro-level regionalism, 43
cross-border spaces, 147
cross-regional studies, 4
cultural identity and autonomy, 111
currency, 353–4, see also regional monetary and financial governace
regionally hegemonic, 364
currency cooperation, 356
currency swap agreements, 356–7
currency unions, 358–9, 364
Customs Union (CU), 162, 206–10
Damascus Declaration, 256
Darfur, 311
Declaration of Migration Principles and Guidelines, 463
decolonization, 111, 117, 125, 180
deep economic integration, 520
(p. 658) defensive security regionalism, 301
delegation mechanisms, 8, 233, 236, 514–15, 636
informal institutions, 516
democracy, 161, 187
dispute settlement and, 549
emergence and consolidation of, 264
democracy governance, defined, 487–8
democratic legitimacy, 579, 594
democratic proceduralism, 581
democratic quality of states and their membership in regional organizations, link between, 50
democratic republicanism, 582
democratization, 4, 125
effect of regional organizations on, 638–9
demoi-cratic standards, 583
Design of Trade Agreements (DESTA) project, 329–30
design–data–methods issue, 565
deterritorialization, 145
development, defining, 375–6
Development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC), 391t
development banks, 390
emergence of regional and sub-regional, 382
developmental regimes, gender governance effects in, 419
developmental regionalism, 118–19, 237, 378
developmental state, 237
diffusion approaches, 50, 306, 493, 522, 636, 639–40
conceptualizing, 88–91
direct diffusion, 89, 94, 96
future research, 102
globalization and regionalism, 80
mobility provisions related to trade, 472
parliamentary bodies, 99
political survival, 72
processes vs. outcomes, 88–9
through enforcement, 89
through manipulating utility calculations, 89–90
trade governance, 338
diffusion mechanisms, 89f
diffusion outcomes, 93, 99, 102
types of, 91
dispute settlement systems, 98, 515, 546f, see also adjudication; regional courts; regional dispute settlement
alternative mechanisms, 538
compliance, 551
contributing to conflict, 552
diversification in, 541
supranational courts, 545–6
tribunals, 49, 235, 500–1, 540, 542, 640
weaker dispute settlement, 545
dollar, US, 364, see also currency
domestic actors, 42, 90, 139, 237, 306, 380–1, 384–5, 388, 494, 497–9, 547
domestic coalitions, 47, 74
domestic institutions, 388, 513, 520, 525–6
deep PTAs and, 331–2
domestic legitimacy, 414
domestic models of survival, 77
domestic politics, 99, 568
institutional design, 306
domestic veto players in member states, and deep PTAs, 331
domestic welfare state, 416, 417
domino theory of regionalism, 329
Dutch disease, 73
East Africa, 546
East African Community (EAC), 98, 115, 274, 280, 287t, 315t, 360, 469, 476t, 502t, 540
industrialization policy, 393t
East African Court of Justice, 546
East African Development Bank (EADB), 391t
East African Standby Force (EASF), 275
East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA), 378
East Asia, 45, 78, 80, 124, 431, 517
coalitional profile model, 75
diffusion model, 72
regional institutions, 74–5
ruling coalitions, 69, 72
East Asian Summit (EAS), 79, 229, 241t, 312, 316t
Eastern African Community (EAC), 422t
Eastern African Power Pools (EAPP), 392t
Eastern Caribbean Common Market (ECCM) (later the Economic Affairs Secretariat of the OECS), 168t
(p. 659) Eastern Caribbean Currency Area/Union (ECCA), 356, 367t
Eastern Europe, 203
Economic Commission for Latin America, 94, 157–8
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), 287t
Economic Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), 316t
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 5, 41, 50, 52, 111, 118–19, 123, 274–5, 277, 282, 284, 287t, 303, 315t, 379, 411, 422t, 457, 466–9, 471, 476t, 490, 494, 502t, 516, 524, 584, 590, 628, 636
delegation/pooling of authority, 626–7t
ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID), 392t
General Convention on Social Security (1993), 472
intra-regional mobility flows, 474
progressive policy expansion, 625–6t
Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), 302–3, 306
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), 217t
economic exchange, and geographic proximity and democracy, 50
economic integration, 118–19, 279
intra-regional trade and, 229
migration cooperation and, link between, 470
Third World, 115
welfare effects and, 524–5
economic interdependence, 50, 55, 185, 519–20, 636
Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC), 287t
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), 100, 279
economic performance, improvement of, 210
economic production networks, 230
economic regionalism, 46, 630
West vs. non-West, 118
Economic and Social Consultative Forum, 162
Ecuador, 312
Egypt, 45, 78
election monitoring, 100, 491, 493, 497–8
elite identity, 561–2
elite identity talk, 566–7
emergent effects, 447
emerging regionalisms, 122–4
empirical legitimacy, 582, 593
emulation, 101–2
diffusion of institutional designs and, 99
energy integration, 379
enforcement
democratic election norms, 498
measures post-expansion, 496
standards, threat to enforcement of, 501
environmental pollution, 6, 434–9, 448–9t
acid rain, 432, 435, 437, 444, 446
carbon emissions and greenhouse gases, 44, 139, 435
environmentalism, new political economy of, 447
epistemic communities, 444
development banks and, 383
equifinality, 574, 640
Erasmus exchange program, 569–70
ethnic regionalization, 146
EU-centrism, 109–10, 119, 193
EU Structural Funds, 381, 384
EU–Mercosur inter-regionalism, 93
Eurasia, 93, 98
contested boundaries, 204–5
naming, 202–3
regional organizations, 209
Eurasian Development Bank (EDB), 206, 216t, 399t
Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), 181, 206, 216t
Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) agreement, 98, 207, 217t
Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG), 218t
Eurasian Monitor, 212
(p. 660) Eurasian regionalism, 109, 206–7
drivers of, 207–8
effects, 209–11
future research, 214–15
institutional design, 208–9
Eurasian regionalization, 211–12
drivers of, 212–13
effects, 213–14
institutional design, 213
euro, 362, see also currency
euro crisis, 595
Euro-Mediterranean regionalism, 109
Eurocentrism, 119
Europe, 437
Christian occident and the concomitant othering of Islam, 179
domestic autonomy, 118
environmental policy-making in, 437
impact of regionalism on
democracy, 192
inequality, 192
peace, 191–2
welfare, 192
institutional developments in, 124
nation-state, 20
neo-functionalism, 17
region, 178–82
regional organizations, pooling, 514
European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC), 20
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), 381, 398t
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 20, 48–9, 182
European Cohesion Fund (ECF), 398t
European Commission,, regionalization across the globe programs, 92
European Communities (EC), 18, 20, 23, 45
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 489
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), 190, 489, 494, 498–9, 552
European Court of Justice (ECJ), 98, 411, 437, 518, 545, 547, 552
European Economic Area (EEA), 181
European Economic Community (EEC), 20, 112, 115, 182–3, 329, 517
European Economic Community/European Community (EEC/EC), 489
European Economic Community/European Union (EEC/EU), 423t
European-Eurasian borders, 188
European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), 367t
European Free Trade Agreement, 525
European Free Trade Area/Association (EFTA), 181, 195t, 329
European governance, 183
European identity, 111, 120
European integration, 3, 42–3, 189f
transferability to other regional contexts, 116
European Investment Bank (EIB), 397t
European Monetary Union, 368t
European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), 208, 257
European Parliament (EP), 592, 594
prerogatives, 593
European Partnership Agreements (EPA), 92, 279
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), 397t
European regionalism
development of, 188–91
development of literature, 182–4
drivers of, 184–8
European Semester, 413, 418
European Social Charter, 489
European Stability Mechanism (ESM), 368t
European Union (EU), 5, 8, 33, 52–3, 67, 73, 88, 98, 100–1, 109, 120, 162, 180, 195t, 317t, 361, 415, 439, 449t, 479t, 488, 503t, 525, 628
active agent, 160
common market design, 98
comparison with other regional orders, 5
delegation/pooling of authority, 626–7t
democratic legitimacy, 594
environmental protection, 437
forced regional cooperation, 89
free movement regime, 461
governance mix of, 54
(p. 661) indirect effects of regional institutions on identity, 568–9
influence of regional governance on international actorness, 527
institutional design of inter- and transregionalism, 608
inter-regional cooperation with, 93
inter-regionalism, 607
internal mobility flows, 472–3
legitimacy, 579, 591–2, 594
migration regime, 461
peace and security, 523
pooling, 514
progressive policy expansion, 625–6t
PTAs, 97
regulation of migration, 458
SADC and, 469
social law, 418
supranationalism, 95–6, 461–2
system of differentiated integration, 183–4
transregional super-region, 466–70
Europeanization, 183, 192–3
and domestic change, 52
Europeanized public spheres, 568–9
Eurostars, 571
Eurozone, 190
exchange rate regimes, 364
export growth strategies, economic regionalization and, 160
export-oriented industries, 325
external actors, role of, 159
external influence, 279
external legitimacy challenges, 587
Extraordinary African Chambers, 547
FCFA zone (Africa), 280
federalism, 21, 114
feminism, 419–20
Financial Action Task Force, 355
financial crisis, and policy ideas, 381
financial governance, 353–4, see also regional monetary and financial governance
financial stability, 359
Financial Stability Forum, 355
First International Conference of American States, 19–20
flows of capital, 43
FONPLATA fund, 379, 394t
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations), 431–2, 434, 438
forced regional cooperation, 89
foreign direct investment (FDI), 72, 210–14, 230, 237, 304, 414
formal institution-building, 52–3
formality and informality institutions, link between, 54–5
forum shopping, 501
in dispute settlement, 332–3
Framework Agreement on Services (AFAS) (1995), 465
France and the Francophone African colonies/countries, 19
free movement of workers, 462
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), 158, 160–1, 170t, 379
free trade areas (FTAs), 42, 93–4, 235
freedom of movement, 471
functional cooperation, 238, 284
functionalism, 21, 114, 276
Fund for the Economic Convergence of Mercosur (FOCEM), 382–3, 395t
Fund for the Plata Basin Development (FONPLATA), 394t
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 67, 328, 605
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), 458, 472
general jurisdiction, 543t
general purpose organizations, 542, 547
geographical spill-overs, 186–7
geopolitics, 136, 185
regional development governance emergence and, 382–3
Georgia, 205
German Zollverein, 525
Germany, 111
global environmental institutions, 432
global international organizations (IOs), 99
global liberalization, 159
Global North, 94, 96, 100
(p. 662) global production networks, and deep PTAs, 331
global security governance, 299
global social governance, 417
Global South, 93–6
globalization, 27, 45–6, 144, 365, 630
consequences of, 406
domestic politics and, 64
regional orders and, 64–7, 65f
Gold Standard, 356
good governance, 52, 100, 190, 488, 494–5, 526
gradualists, 583
Grand National Projects, 411
Great Plains Institute, 149t
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, 111
Greater Mekong Economic Cooperation Program (GMS), 386
Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS), 378, 396t
Greater Syria scheme, 253
Group of Eastern European States (GEE), 180
Group of Rio, 169t
Group of Three, 169t
Group of Western European and Other Countries (WEOG), 180
GUAM, 205, 218t
Guatemala, 312
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 118, 256–7, 259, 261–2, 267t, 302, 312, 317t, 352, 360, 368t, 412, 424t, 517
Gulf identity, 261, 265
Guyana, 312
Hashemites, 253
hegemonic regionalism, 111
hegemonic stability theory, 44–5, 66, 92, 185, 303, 633–4
hegemons, and adjudication dispute settlement, 549–50
Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), 434
Helsinki process, 181
Hemispheric Social Alliance, 415
hierarchical coordination, 53
historical institutionalism, 520
Honduras, 166, 312
horizontal integration, 189
human rights, 90, 165-166, 181, 190, 234, 238, 263, 278, 414, 418, 419, 610, 628, 638-639
dispute settlement, 538, 539, 546-547
emergence and consolidation of, 264
and emulation, 100-101
institution design, 519, 526
migration governance, 471, 473
protection and promotion of, 112, 113, 124, 155
regional identities, 566
trade governance, 334
violations, 51
ideas and norms, 17, 29, 112, 166, 632, 634
constructivism, 48, 55, 120, 235-236, 309-310, 520, 521
diffusion, 606, 607, 609, 610, 612
environmental governance, 446-447
gender governance, 416, 420
human rights and democracy governance, 488, 491, 493, 498
and informal institutions, 7, 27
institutional design, 76, 90, 125-126, 306, 526
legitimacy, 547-548, 585, 586
migration, 459, 469, 473, 474
power of, 264, 277
security governance, 298-299, 306
import-substituting nationalism, 79
import substitution industrialization (ISI), 157
incomplete contracting, 186
India, 45, 118
Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), 229
individual rights regimes, 413, 415, 418
(p. 663) Indo-Pacific, 227
Indonesia, 45, 73
Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT), 378, 397t
informal institutions, 7, 54–5, 516, 521
informal regionalisms, 5, 7, 54-55, 111, 136-137, 144, 640, see also informal institutions
bazaar networks, 205
coalitions, 53
gender governance, 420
institutional design, 213
migration governance, 457
national identities, 144
new regionalism, 119
trade governance, 323
norms and identities, 27
informal trade networks, 213
Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI), 379, 382–3, 386–7, 390, 397t
Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA)/UNASUR-COSIPLAN, 379, 382, 386–8, 395t
Initiative Plan-Puebla-Panama (later Mesoamerican Project (MP)), 379, 395t
Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL), 157, 161
institutional convergence, 90
institutional design, 436, see also institutions; regional institutional design
influence on economic welfare, 525
stability of democratic institutions, 525–6
transatlantic regionalism, 141
institutionalism, 136
historical institutionalism, 520
neo-liberal institutionalism, 45, 441–2, 518–20
regional environmental governance, 444
supranational institutions, 117, 184, 186, 416–17
institutions, 7, 66, 216–18, 432, 520, 560–1, 567, see also institutional design; institutionalism; regional institutional design
authoritarianism and, 639
cross-regional comparisons of, 77
democracy governance and, 487–91
domestic institutions, 331–2, 388, 513, 520, 525–6
formal institutions, 52–3
formality and informality institutions, link between, 54–5
global environmental institutions, 432
identity shaping institutions, 561–4
informal institutions, 7, 54–5, 516, 521
institution-building, 5
institutions shaping identity, 564–7
legitimizing through parliamentary assemblies, 591–2
strong institutions, 444
theoretical frameworks, 573–4
tiered structure, 516
Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA), 399t
integration theories, 114–15
regionalism outside Europe and, 114–22
inter- and transregionalism
complex inter-regionalism, 603
cooperation, 613–14t
defining and mapping, 600–2
effects of
impact on regions, 610
impact on the global order, 611
emergence of, 602–3
competing or complementary, 606–7
EU foreign policy, 603–4
international political economy, 605
international relations theories, 604–5
norm diffusion, 606
inter-regionalism, 92, 122
bilateralism and, 611
multilateralism and, 611
research gaps, 612
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), 165, 489–90
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 162, 490, 498
Inter-American Democratic Charter, 165
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), 377, 379, 382–3, 393t
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty), 155
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), 436
(p. 664) inter-Arab rivalry, 71, 265
inter-regional comparisons, 4
inter-state bargains, 42
interest groups, 324, 418
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), 275, 287t, 422t, 469, 476–7t, 502t
Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights, 491
Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees (IGC), 479t
Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee of Countries of the Plata Basin (CIC), 393t
intergovernmentalism, 21–2, 42, 162, 183–5, 233, 281–2, 305, 471, 514
internal mobility flows, liberalization of, 457–8
internal mobility regimes, 458
international arbitration for investment and commercial disputes, 541
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 434
international cooperation, 10, 21, 44, 46, 48-49, 185, 313, 352, 361, 514, 621
International Criminal Court (ICC), 547
international criminal tribunals, 543t
international dispute, definition of, 539
international economic courts, 543t
international economic governance, and mega-PTAs, 335
international human rights courts, 543t
international institutions, 440
international interdependence, 186
International Labour Organization (ILO), 407, 416, 459, 471
International Maritime Organization (IMO), 434, 438
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 158, 355
International Network of Basin Organizations (INBO), 432
international order, 74, 159
International Organization for Migration (IOM), 459, 469
International Organization of Securities and Exchange Commissions, 355
international organizations (IOs), 99, 161, 234, 303–5, 357, 415, 432, 444–5, 459, 486, 523, 528
regional security governance and, 304, see also regional organizations
international political economy (IPE), 42, 66, 94, 225, 262
regional cooperation, connection between, 157
international production networks, and deep PTAs, 331
international relations, 5, 43–4, 184
International Union of American Republics (later the Pan-American Union), 20
internationalization, 68, 79
internationalizing coalitions, 68–9
institutional design, 74
intra-African trade, 283
intra-regional comparisons, 4
intra-regional ties, 230
intra-regional trade, 164, 231f, 283
investment, 213
inward-looking coalitions, 68–70
Iraq, 45, 73
Islamic Development Bank (ISDB), 396t
isomorphic entities, and legitimacy of domestic rulers, 526
Istanbul Cooperation Initiative, 313
Japan, 45, 94, 111–12
economic interdependence, 50
Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, 438
Joint Forum, 355
Joint Public Advisory Committee, 436
judicialization of politics, 540
judicialized dispute settlement, 628
Korean War, 72
Kuwait–Iraq crisis, 264
labor rights, 413
Latin America, 45, 71, 94, 112, 117, 123, 154–5, 166, 312, 437, 525–6, 605
institutions of regional cooperation in, 161–3
normative emulation in, 97
(p. 665) pan-Americanism, 155
political unity, 155
post-variations on the theme, 158–9
region, 154–5
resistance to the Monroe Doctrine, 112
structuralism, 24
Latin American Association of Financial Institutions for Development (ALIDE), 393t
Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC), 171t
Latin American Economic System (SELA), 168t
Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), 394t
Latin American Free Trade Area, 115, 563
Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), 24, 156, 164, 167t
Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), 156, 168t
Latin American Parliament, 167t
Latin American regionalism, 112
deep roots of, 19–20
drivers of, 159–61
impact of, 164
democracy, peace, and human rights, 165–6
economic cooperation and trade, 164
social agendas, 164–5
new regionalism, 157–8
old regionalism, 156–7
Latin American Treaty of Tlatelolco, 101, 165, 300–1
League of Arab States (LAS), 5, 8, 45, 75–6, 78, 113–14, 118, 123, 249, 253, 258, 267t, 302, 308, 312, 317t, 412, 416, 424t, 491, 504t, 566, 636
delegation/pooling of authority, 626–7t
open regionalism, 76
progressive policy expansion, 625–6t
ruling coalitions, 76
legitimacy
concept of, 580–2
of political orders, 581
of regional institutions, see regional institutions, legitimacy of
legitimation strategies of political actors, 586–7
lesson-drawing, 90, 96, 102
level of analysis and logic of social action, relationship between, 43–4
liberal intergovernmentalism, 42, 184–6, 549, 630
liberalism, 232, 236
liberalized intra-regional trade and regional protectionism, 24
like-mindedness of states, 492–3, 501
localization, 99, 125–6, 388
logic of appropriateness, 89t, 90, 493, 587, 588t
logic of expected consequences, 89t, 587, 588t
Maastricht Treaty (1992), 461
macroeconomy, 353–4
stability, 79
Malaysia, 45, 73
Mano River Union (MRU), 502t
Maputo Protocol, 416
market-driven liberalization, 75
market economies, 125
market-integration regimes, 413–14
market-oriented regimes, 43, 418
Mediation and Security Council (MSC), 282
Mediterranean, 256, 431, 434
pollution control, 444
Mediterranean Dialogue, 313
Mediterranean Transit Migration (MTM) Dialogue, 481t
mega-preferential trade agreements (mega-PTAs), 335–6, 339
dynamics of diffusion in, 336–8
trade governance models, 337
Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS), 241t
Mekong River Commission for Sustainable Development (MRC), 449t
Membership Action Plan, 142
Mercosur, 52, 71, 94, 96, 98, 111, 157–8, 160, 162–6, 169t, 299, 305, 314, 352, 367t, 410–11, 415, 423t, 462–4, 470–1, 503t, 516, 519–20, 523, 563, 566
Andean Community (CAN) and, relations between, 602
delegation/pooling of authority, 626–7t
(p. 666) institutional design, and EU nor diffusion, 606
inter-state adjudication, 540
intra-regional mobility flows, 473–4
Parlasur, 591–2
progressive policy expansion, 625–6t
Social-Labour Declaration (1998), 471
MexAmerica, 147
Mexico, 112, 136, 160
LAFTA, 24
Middle East, 80, 96, 114, 249, 312
institutional design of regional organizations, 258–9
intra-regional diffusion, 73
multifaceted experience of regionalization and regionalism
above and below a fragmented Arab level, 255–6
emerging regionalization and early regionalist visions, 252–3
intergovernmental regionalism within an Arab concert, 254–5
new millennium of continuity and change, 257–8
turbulent years of competing visions about (Arab) regionalism, 253–4
new Middle East, 256, 260, 266
normative emulation in, 97
region, 250–2
regional organizations’ influence on identity, 566
ruling coalitions, 70, 72–3
Middle East and North Africa (MENA), 7, see also Middle East; Middle Eastern regionalism; North Africa
Middle Eastern regionalism
drivers and obstacles, 260
general international relations theories, 260–2
integration theories based on the European experience, 260
international relations/comparative politics nexus, 262–4
limited and ambiguous effects of, 264–5
migrant workers’ rights, protection and promotion of, 465–6
migration, 6, 213
international law, 459
international legal order fragmentation, 459
Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA), 476t
and EU, 469
Migration Dialogue for West Africa (MIDWA), 467–8, 476t
ECOWAS and, 468–9
migration governance, 101
military confidence-building measures (CBMs), 101
Mitteleuropa, 111
modern political orders, 581
monetary governance, 353–4
monitoring and verification provisions of environmental treaties, 445t
Monroe Doctrine, 111, 155
Morocco, 274
most-favored-nation (MFN), 330
Movement of Natural Persons (MNP), 465
multilateral free trade, 66
multilateral trading system, 338–9
multilevel governance, 42
multinational corporations, 325
political activism of, 326
multiplexity, 388
mutual recognition arrangements for professional services, 465
Myanmar, 610
NAFTA Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), 448t
Nahda movement, 252
narrow agreements, PTAs, 97
Nasserite model, 73
nation-building, 24
national liberation, 111
nationalism, 4, 22, 117, 125
suppression through economic and political integration, 111
neo-functional logic, 304
neo-functionalism, 17, 21, 23, 42, 46, 114–15, 117, 182–5, 331, 630
(p. 667) neo-liberal institutionalism, 45, 441–2, 518–20
neo-liberal Washington Consensus, 158
neo-liberalism, 144, 164, 377
neo-realism, 44, 78, 440
New Development Bank, 364
New Mexico, 138
New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), 275, 277–8, 379, 383, 392t
new regional banks, proposals for, 363
new regionalism, 17, 25, 26–9, 31t, 119–20, 122, 125, 276
new regionalism approach (NRA), 28
New Ruble Zone, 206
new style courts, 98
Nicaragua, 312
Nigeria, 19, 45
Nile Basin Initiative (NBI), 448t
Non-Aligned Movement, 227
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 8, 139, 264, 443, 486, 498, 608
non-hierarchical coordination, 53–4
non-state actors, 5, 28, 44, 47, 433, 497, 640–1
governance approach, 54
limited access to social policy-making, 416
regionalization, 8
non-West, 114
economic regionalism, 118
differences among regionalisms, 123
West vs., 116–18
Nordic Council (NC), 195t, 503t
normative approach, 584
normative emulation, 90, 96–7, 102
North Africa, 249, see also Middle East; Middle Eastern regionalism
regional identity, 261
North America, 133
North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC), 138–9
North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), 138–9, 413–15, 418, 464–5
North American Development Bank (NADB), 394t
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 45–6, 67, 94–5, 98, 100, 133, 135, 137, 148t, 160, 169t, 329, 418, 423t, 457, 525
delegation/pooling of authority, 626–7t
environmental side agreement, 436
institutional pooling and delegation in, 137
liberalization in, 465
mobility provisions within, 464–5
NAFTA Treaty, 464–5
progressive policy expansion, 625–6t
social rights and labor issues within, 464
North American Fund for Environmental Cooperation (NAFEC), 394t
North American regionalism, 135
drivers of, 135–7
effects of, 138–40
future research, 146–7
institutional design, 137–8
North American regionalization, 142–3
drivers of, 143–4
effects of, 145–6
forces promoting, 143
institutional design, 145
North Atlantic Region, 140–2
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 8, 45, 109, 120, 140–1, 148t, 190, 195t, 299, 306–7, 311, 316t, 562
mixed results in Afghanistan and other weak states have also come under scrutiny, 142
multilateral nature of, 309
Partnership for Peace, 191
North-East Asian Subregional Programme for Environmental Cooperation (NEASPEC), 240t, 435–6, 449t
North Sea, 434–5, 444
North–South Korean relations, 72
Northeast Asia, formal and informal institutions, 55
OAS Santiago Declaration, 165
object of diffusion, 88
official development assistance (ODA) policies, 283, 374–5, 390
old regionalism, 17–18, 20-21, 31t
developing world, 23–6
neo-functionalism, 17
regional integration, 20–3
(p. 668) open door approach to regional migration, 462
Open Economy Politics, 66
Open Method of Coordination on Social Protection and Social Inclusion (Social OMC), 413
open regionalism, 71, 74–6, 81, 122, 158–9, 232, 237, 376–8, 605
optimal currency area (OCA) theory, 358–9
optimal embedded currency area theory, 362
organic regional institutions, 432
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 47, 99, 390, 439
Organization of African Unity (OAU), 19, 25, 287t, 304, 313-314, 523–4, 562, see also African Union (AU)
collective bargaining, 118
and construction of African regions, 273-274, 275
identity, 565, 566
nationalism, 114
non-intervention norms, 302, 563
peace and security, 284
transformation into African Union, 277, 306
Organization of American States (OAS), 20, 114, 123, 155–6, 163, 165, 167t, 419, 422t, 489–90, 503t
domestic institutions, 526
and democracy, 165-166
human rights, 419, 489-490
modernization and reactivation of, 158
security governance, 301, 303, 304, 308, 312, 315t
social governance, 410, 412, 414
old regionalism, 156
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), 255, 267t
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), 218t
Organization of Central American States (ODECA), 167t
Organization of Collective Security Treaty (OCST), 216t
Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, 205, 424t
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), 169t
Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa, 540
Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; formerly Organization of the Islamic Conference), 255, 267t
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 109, 180, 191, 196t, 307, 311, 317t, 424t, 503t
organized networks of science, 445
Oslo agreement, 256
Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPARCOM), 434, 449t
overlapping diversity, 110
overlapping existing laws, 501
overlapping regionalisms, 163, 276
Pacific Alliance (PA), 71, 96, 159, 161, 163, 166, 171t
Pacific Islands Development Bank, 399t
Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), 423t, 503t
Pacific Northwest, 143
Pacific Northwest Economic Region, 135–6, 138, 148t
Pacific Pact, 308
pan-African identity, 565
pan-Africanism, 20, 25, 111, 273, 276–7
pan-Americanism, 111, 155
pan-Arabism, 20, 111
pan-Asianism, 20, 111
pan-Europeanism, 20
pan-regional movements, 20
PARLANDINO (Andean Parliament), 162
parliamentarization, 591
parliamentary assemblies/bodies, 515–16, 591, 594
parliaments, 162–3
Partido Acción Nacional, 146
Partnership for Peace agreements, 307, 311, 313
Pax Americana, 634
Pax Europaea, 634
Peninsula Shield Forces, 259, 312
permanent courts, 540–2, 546
permanent legal bodies, 540
personal connections with “femocrats,” 420
physical/geographical proximity as driver of democratization, 495
Plan Puebla Panamá (PPP), 381
(p. 669) pluralistic security communities, 182, 310
plutocratic delegation, 281
plutocratic regional agreements, 209
Poland-Hungary Assistance for Economic Reconstruction-Programme of Community Aid to the Central and Eastern Europe (PHARE), 399t
policy diffusion, see also diffusion approaches
dispute settlement and, 550
regional organizations, 100–1
policy ideas, and regional development governance, 381
policy/norm adoption, 90–1
political actors, legitimation strategies of, 586–7
political cooperation, 274
political economy, 183–4, 188
preferential trade agreements, 324
political elites, and legitimacy, 587–9
political ideology, 187
political liberalization and democratization processes, 278
political–military relations, and deep PTAs, 332
political opportunity structures, 418
political resentment, 233
political science, 567–9
political survival, 78
competing models of, 72
politicization, 573
pooling, 8, 514, 628, 636
sovereignty, 118
pooling and delegation, 305, 584, 592, 623
authority, 48–9
post-hegemonic regionalism, 160
post-liberal regionalism initiatives, 160
post-neoliberalism, 605
post-Soviet space, 203
post-World War II security governance, 304
power asymmetry
deep dispute settlement and, 549–50
Eurasian regionalism, 207
power-based approaches, 48–9, 51
power politics explanations, according to realist assumptions, 306
Prague Process, 481t
Precautionary Principle, 443
pre-emption as driver of democratization, 495
preferential trade agreements (PTAs), 41, 66–7, 92–6, 323, 338–9, 496, 549, 623, 638
deep integration and, 330
democracies and autocracies, 326–7
economic welfare, 524
human rights and, 638
impacts of, 334
institutional designs, 97
multilateral trading system and, 334
narrow agreements, 97
notified to the World Trade Organization, 340–5t
political–military tensions reduction and, 304
rationale for forming, 324–9
preferential trade areas, 42, 274
presidential diplomacy, 161
presidentialism, 162
preventive diplomacy, 565
procedural legitimacy, 581
society-centered conception of, 582
state-centered conception of, 582
process geography, 121
process tracing, 550, 564, 568, 574, 640
Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education, 135–6, 149t
Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), 393t
progressive policy expansion and delegation/pooling of authority, 625–7
Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, 490
Protocol of Montevideo on Trade in Services, 463
public and private actors, see also non-state actors
in regional development governance, 380–1
Puebla Process, 478t
rationalist approaches, 27, 44, 630, 632
cooperation and integration, 49–50
rationalist functionalist approaches, 45, 48, 51, 548
realist approaches, 185, 231, 262
delegation as a side payment, 518
(p. 670) realist intergovernmentalist accounts of integration, 185
recipient-driven diffusion mechanisms, 102
reflectivist approaches, 27–8
regime-boosting, 47, 210–11, 263, 526, 607, 631–2
regime dynamics of member states as a decisive explaining variable, 282
regime similarities and authoritarianism, 263
regime type, 187, 326
domestic political structures and, 278
region-building approach (RBA), 28
regional advocacy networks, 420
regional alliances formation to balance powerful states, 45
regional autonomy, 117–18
regional civil protection mechanism, 44
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), 335–6
Regional Conference on Migration (RCM), 465, 472
Regional Consultation Processes (RCPs), 101, 457, 459, 463, 465–6, 468–72, 474
integration and, 47, 87, 124
international political economy (IPE) and, connection between, 157
migration policies, effectiveness of, 473
model characteristics, 121
monetary and financial governance, 353
non-democracies, 210–11
regional courts, 98, see also adjudication; dispute settlement; regional dispute settlement
associated with trade liberalization, 547
human rights jurisdiction, 547
rise in, 538
regional democracy governance, see also regional human rights and democracy governance
causal mechanisms and effects in, 495–6
information and access, 497–8
issue linkage and conditionality, 496
judicialization, 498–9
socialization, 496–7
regional development banks (RDBs), 101, 375
regional development governance, 374–6, 376f
depth of goals, 383–4
developmental programs funded externally and, distinction between, 390
differing goals and means, 389
drivers for the emergence of
asymmetric interdependence of economies, 380–1
combining drivers, 382–3
critical events and policy diffusion, 381–2
power and security, 382
effects of, 386–9
external development aid model replication, 388
historical perspective, 375–6
classical developmental regionalism, 377
emerging regional development governance initiatives, 378–9
neo-liberal and open regionalism, 377
institutional variation of
goals of regional development governance, 383–4
means of regional development governance, 384–6
key goal for, 378
organizations, 391–9
overlapping of regional organizations and, 388
scope of goals, 383
social accountability and, 389
variations, 384–5
regional dispute settlement, 538–9, see also adjudication; dispute settlement; regional courts
challenges to theory-building, 550–1
concepts and trends, 539–42
drivers of legalized dispute settlement, regional, and otherwise, 548–50
effects of, 551–2
new regional courts, 542–8
trade and, link between, 548
regional distribution of international courts, 543–4t
Regional Economic Communities (RECs), 275
regional economic organizations, non-traditional effects of, 210
(p. 671) regional emissions trading system, 44
regional environmental governance, 430–2
advocacy networks, 443
air pollution, 435–6
causal mechanisms and drivers, 439–40
drivers of, 438–9
effectiveness of, 446
emergence of, 438
empirical record, 444
epistemic communities, 442–3
explanations of, 441t
indirect effects of, 446–7
institutional design of, 444–5
institutionalisms, 441–2
institutions and regions in, 437
international river basin management, 432–3
marine fisheries, 436
marine governance of regional seas, 433–5
organizations, 448–51t
realism and state leadership, 440–1
regional integration and the environment, 436–7
upstream/downstream dynamics, 433
regional financial governance, see regional monetary and financial governance
regional free movement schemes, 458
regional human rights and democracy governance, 486–7
explanation, 492
demand-side causes, 494–5
supply-side dynamics, 492–4
organizations, 502–4t
regional identities and communities, 559–60
regional institution-building, 42, 45, 55–6, 228
regional institutional design, 21, 66, 239-241, 513, 635
causes of
constructivism, 520–2
diffusion, 522
institutional approaches, 518–20
realism, 517–18
compare ROs more systematically with non-regional international organizations, 528
consequences of, 522
domestic institutions, 525–6
economic welfare, 524–5
international actorness, 526–7
peace and security, 523–4
diffusion of, 95, 97
direct influence mechanisms, 95–6
emulation, 96–9
institutional changes, 527–8
pooling and delegation, 514–17
regional cooperation vs. integration, variation regarding, 636–7
relationship between formal and informal institutions, 528
task expansion of regional organizations, 635–6
regional institutions, see also institutions; regional organizations
cross-regional comparisons of, 77
indirect effects on identity, 568–9
organic regional institutions, 432
strong institutions, 444
regional institutions, legitimacy of, 579–80, 593–5
empirical perspectives, 586–9
competition for external supply, 590–1
external templates emulation, 591–2
internal drivers and competing logics of action, 592–3
political expediency and a normative pretext, 589
legitimizing through parliamentary assemblies, 591–2
standards, 582
EU’s democratic deficit and, 583–4
non-EU regional institutions and, 584–6
(p. 672) regional integration, 3, 8, 21–2
lack of, 23
North American, and institutionalization, 147
purpose of, 20
Third World, 116
regional international organizations, delegation and pooling in, 528–9, 530t
regional market-making, 381
regional migration governance, 457–8
diffusion of, 468
emergence and institutional design of regional migration regimes, 458–60
Africa, 466–8
Europe, 461–2
North America, 464–5
South America, 462–4
Southeast Asia, 465–6
organizations, 476–81t
regional migration regimes
dimensions of, 460t
drivers of, 470–2
domestic politics, 471
policy transfer, 471–2
social rights emulation, 471–2
spill-overs, 470–1
effects of, 472–4
regional monetary and financial governance, 351–3, 366–8t
defining, 351–5
effects and implications of, 362–5
emergence of and variation in, 358
economic efficiency logics, 359–61
political logics, 361–2
reasons for limited governance, 351–2
typologies and examples of, 355–8
regional monetary fund, 44, 364
regional orders, 3, 5, 9, 64, 68, 232–3, 253, 628–9, 629f
domestic politics and, 64–5
micro-foundations of, 67–8
diffusion within and across regions, 72–3
globalization and domestic politics, 68–9
grand strategies—implications for regional order, 69–70
strategic interaction within regions—implications for regional orders, 70–2
security and, 66
Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA), 450t
Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME), 450t
regional organizations (ROs), 7–8, 41, 87, 624f, see also regional institutions
authoritarianism and, 639
delegation, 519
democracy governance and, 487–8
Africa, 490
Asia, 491
Eurasia, 491
Europe, 489
Latin America, 489–90
Middle East, 491
Eurasia, 216–18
Europe, 194–6t
existing organizations to deal with the newly identified problems, 432
globalization and, 66
identity and, 520
identity/community and, 560–1
domestic context, 573
identity shaping institutions, 561–4
institutions shaping identity, 564–7
theoretical frameworks and, 573–4
institutional design, 513
Latin America, 167–71t
Middle East, 267t
North America and the transatlantic area, 148–9t
progressive policy expansion and delegation/pooling of authority, 625–6
promotion of democracy governance by, 488
social and gender governance by, 422–4
sub-Saharan Africa, 297–8t
task expansion of, 635–6
tiered administrative structure, 516
trade and monetary integration, 49
regional parliament, 162
regional political communities, 278
regional seas, 434
Regional Seas Programme (RSP) (UNEP), 433–4
(p. 673) regional secretariats, 515
regional security, 100
structures and patterns of trade, connection between, 524
regional security governance, 297
contemporary literature on, 298
demand for, 300–3
effects of, 310–13
emergence of, 301
consequences, 302
factors, 302
evolution of the field, 298
future research, 313–14
impact on the domestic level, 313
impact on regional stability, 310–12
institutional design of, 305–6
constructivist-normative explanations, 309–10
domestic explanations, 308–9
rationalist explanations, 306–8
realistic explanations, 306
national security governance, 299
organizations, 315–17t
regional hub-and-spokes security governance, 306
shared negative security externalities, 302
success in the developing world, 311
typologies of, 299–300
regional social and gender governance, 405–6
effects of, 417–19
emergence of, 407
individual rights regimes, 410
market-led regulatory regime, 410–11
regimes, 407–13
state-led conservative regime, 412
state-led developmental regime, 411–12
explanation, 413
demand—the drivers, 413–14
institutional constraints, 416–17
supply—the drivers, 414–16
regional organizations, 422–4
regional trade agreements (RTAs), 93, 541, 637
regional trade governance, 323–4, 338–9
effects of preferential trade agreements on, 333–5
emergence of, 324
domestic politics of PRA-formation, 324–6
international politics and PTA-formation, 327
multilateral institutions and strategic interaction, 328–9
political power and inter-state conflict, 327–8
political institutions, 326–7
politics of institutional design in, 329–30
deep integration PTAs, 330–2
dispute settlement, 332–3
flexibility, 333
regional world, 30, 121–2, 125
regionalism, 3, 5, 7–8, 64
crafted by a dominant power, 109
diffusion of, 89
emulation, 93–5
regional orders and, 91
direct influence, 91–3
early, 17, 18–20, 29, 112, see also Third World
effects of, 637
democracy and human rights, 638–9
peace and security, 638
trade, growth, and prosperity, 637–8
emergence of, 47, 630
demand, 630–2
supply, 632–4
formal institutions and, 232
formal regional organizations, 623
forms of, 113
global heritage of, 32
globalization and, 30
inclusive form of, 114
localized instances of, 137
multidimensionality of, 26
multiple and global heritage, 111–14
non-Western world, fundamental differences in foundational motivations and goals, 116–17
path-dependent evolution of, 186, 233
regional orders and, 73–7
state-led formal institution-building, 42–3
regionalization, 3, 5, 8–9, 43, 64, 134, 160, 186, 353
cultural and ethnic spaces, 142
economic consequences of, 146
(p. 674) economic considerations, 144
economic exchanges, 142–3
extended networks of professionals and experts, 143
localized cross-border epistemic communities active around specific policy issues, 143
migratory networks, 142
strong regionalization, 265–6
weak regionalization, 265–6
regionally hegemonic currency, 364
regions, 121–2
characteristics, 23
concept of, 6–7
interdependencies between, 87
rent-economies, 637–8
Residence Agreement, 462, 470–1, 473–4
Rio Group, 163
Rio Plus 20 Summit (2012), 439
risk management, 298
Ruble Zone, 206
rule-base agreements, PTAs, 97
rule of law perspective, 553
ruling coalitions
East Asia, 69, 72
League of Arab States, 76
Middle East, 70, 72–3
Russia, 45, 93, 109, 141, 208
Russia–Belarus Union, 206
Schengen Agreement, 470
scientifically developed treaties, 435
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), 451t
securing regime survival, 55
security community approach, 22, 48, 520–1
security institutions, to deal with threats and to cope with security risks, 306–7
security interdependencies, 631
Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, 135, 139, 149t
security of regions, 112–13, 210
security threats and risks, 55, 205
common/regional, 227, 275, 313
external, 261
intermestic, 314
non-state actors, 297
non-traditional, 5–6, 301–2, 307–8
traditional, 47–8, 302
sender-driven regional governance, 99, 101
shadow regionalism, 55
shallow regionalism, 94
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), 8, 100–1, 205, 217t, 229, 241t, 302, 317t, 424t, 501, 503t, 590–1
Shanghai Five Group, 229
“Shanghai Spirit,” 590
shared community values and norms, 187
side payments, 414
Singapore, 386
single currency, 207, 352, 356, 359–62
Single Economic Space, 216t
Single European Market, 45–6
Six Party Talks (SPT), 241t
social action, 587
social and gender governance, see regional social and gender governance
social and gender policy, 6
social construction approaches, 43
governance approach, 55
Social-Labor Declaration, 410, 462
social learning, 90, 443–5
social science, 569–71, 621
social ties, 207
society-centered theories, 46–7, 630–1
procedural legitimacy, 582
soft regionalism, 238
Somalia, 311
South Africa, 45, 97, 283
developmental-functional model, 280–1
institutional design, 98
South African Development Coordination Conference, 94
South American Conference on Migration (SACM) (aka: Lima Process), 462–4, 478t
(p. 675) South American Development Bank (Bank of the South), 382
South American Plan for the Human Development of Migrants, 463
South American regionalism, 19, 462, 561, 563
institutional design, 98
regional organizations
identity changes and, 566–7
peace building, 638
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP), 448t
South Asia Seas Programme (SASP), 449t
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), 96, 227, 229, 239t, 306, 316t, 412, 423t
Social Charter, 412
South Asian Development Fund (SADF), 397t
South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA), 241t
South Korea, economic interdependence, 50
Southeast Asia, 378, 585, 589
democratic regionalism, 585
Southeast Asian Friendship and Economic Treaty (SEAFET), 229
Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO, aka: Manila Pact), 111
Southeast Pacific, 434
Southeastern Asian Agreement for Regional Cooperation, 504t
Southern African Customs Union (SACU), 19, 45, 279–81, 287t
Southern African Development Community (SADC), 19, 45, 92, 96–8, 111, 119, 274, 279, 283–4, 287t, 303, 315t, 379, 411–12, 415–16, 422t, 469, 476t, 490, 501, 502t
Gender and Development Protocol, 416
institutional design, and EU norm diffusion, 606
SADC Banking Association, 391t
SADC Regional Indicative Development Plan, 392t
Tribunal, 552
Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), 19, 25, 274, 517
Southern African Peoples’ Solidarity Network, 415
Southern African Power Pools (SAPP), 391t
Southern Cone, 71, 160
Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), 316t, 457, 490
Southern regionalism, 96
South–South diffusion of regionalism, 94, 101
South–South emulation of regionalism, 94
South–South inter- and transregionalism, 96, 603, 607
institutional design, 609
realist soft balancing and IPE, 607
sovereignty, 117, 163
sovereignty-boosting regionalism, 278, 302, 526
spaghetti bowl, of regional organizations, 95, 208, 638
spatial development initiatives (SDI), 279
Special Accession Program for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD), 399t
special purpose vehicles (SPVs) (regional development governance mechanisms), 379
specialized jurisdiction, 543t
spill-overs, 118, 186–7, 470–1
Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe for the Western Balkans (1999), 89, 92
state-centered conception of procedural legitimacy, 582
state-controlled dispute settlement, 545
state-led developmental regimes, 414
state-led regionalism, 623
state preferences, 186
strategic interaction among coalitions, 79
strength of weakness, 118
structuralism, 24
sub-regionalization, 265
sub-regions, 275, 378, 382
sub-Saharan Africa, 45, 96, 271–3
formal and informal institutions, 55
normative emulation in, 97
regionalism, 631, see also African regionalism
subordinate international system, 22
Summit of the Americas (SOA), 158, 160, 169t
supply of regional security governance
role of extra-regional hegemons or great powers, 304
(p. 676) role of international and regional organizations, 304–5
role of regional hegemons or pivotal states, 303–4
supranational courts, 542
supranational institutions/institutionalism, 117, 184, 186
weakness of, 416–17
supranational political elites, 593
supranationalism, 8, 54, 96, 162, 183, 186, 191, 305, 514, 526–7
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 439
Syria, 73
Syrian threats, 73
tariff reduction, 47, 97, 140, 206, 209, 278, 280, 330, 334, 377
terrain mapping, 623–30
theories of regional cooperation and integration (TRCI), 11, 41, 43–4, 52–3
effects of regionalism, 51–2
emergence of regionalism, 44–8
outcome of regionalism, 48–51
theory–data–method standard, 564
Third World, 115
regional integration, 116, 118
Tlatelolco Latin American regime of a nuclear-free zone, see Latin American Treaty of Tlatelolco
trade agenda, 463–4
trade alliances, 524
trade-creating agreements, 333
trade-diverting arrangements, 333–4
trade effects, 210
trade liberalization, 116, 605
consequences of, 406
economic regionalization and, 160
trade unions, 418
trans- and inter-regionalism in the European–African super-region, 466–70
Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T), 397t
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 335–6, 339
mega PTA, 94
trans-state regionalism, 55
trans-state regionalization, 281
transactionalism, 21–2, 48, 114, 121
Transatlantic Business Council, 141
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 140–1, 147, 149t, 335–7, 339
transformationalists, 583
transformations in regional and continental politics, 277
transgovernmental networks, 138
transnational activism, 278
transnational networks, 139
transnational NGOs, in coordinating lobbying efforts on governments, 443
transnational regulatory integration, strategies of, 4
transregional super-region, 466–70
transregionalism, 122, 227
Treaty of Bangkok (SEANWFZ), 241t
Treaty of Nice, 489
Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, see Latin American Treaty of Tlatelolco
Treaty of Rome, 461
Tripartite Environment Ministers Meetings (TEMM), 436, 449t
Turkey, 72
Turkic Council, 218t
Ukraine, 204–5
unilateral currency governance, 357–8
unintended effects, 446
Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), 257
Union Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UMOA), 274
Union of South Africa, 19
Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 111, 159, 161, 166, 171t, 309, 312, 316t, 364, 367t, 379, 411, 423t, 463, 478t, 503t, 602
Council of Energy, 395t
Council of Social Development, 395t
Union State of Russia and Belarus, 216t
United Arab Emirates (UAE), 249, 267t
United Arab Republic (UAR), 249, 261, 263, 265, 267t
United Kingdom, 71
(p. 677) United Nations (UN), 416, 571
Charter, 112
regional security governance, 304
security governance, 299
United Nations Conference on Human Environment (UNCHE), 437, 439
United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations, 571
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 448t
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), 274
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), 432, 434–5, 449t
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), 24
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 407, 415
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (ICO), 434
United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), 432, 445, 450t, 635
Regional Seas Programme (RSP), 433–4
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 459
United Nations Migrant Workers Convention, 471–2
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 101
United Nations Regional Center for Preventative Diplomacy for Central Asia, 205, 217t
United Nations Security Council (UNSC), 112–13
United Nations Special Program for the Economies of Central Asia (SPECA), 217t
United States (US), 45–6, 67, 111, 160, 517
hegemony, 44–5
interests in Trans-Pacific Partnership, 141
regional PTS, 46
rule-based FTAs, 95–6
universalism, 112, 125
US–Canada border, 134, 142
US–China interdependencies, 141
US–Mexico border, 134, 142
Uzbekistan, 45
Venezuela, 45, 112, 312
Ventotene Manifesto, 21
vertical integration, 189
vertical production networks, 237
veto players, 326–7, 339
Warsaw Pact, 306
Warsaw Treaty Organization, 195t, 203
Washington Consensus, 160
weak institutions, 444
West Africa, 308
West African Civil Society Forum (WACSOF), 308, 313
West African Development Bank (BOAD), 391t
West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), 19, 98, 280, 287t, 502t
West African Network for Peace-building (WANEP), 308, 313
West African Power Pool (WAPP), 392t
Western Climate Initiative, 135, 136–9, 149t
Western European Union (WEU), 181, 195t
Western Mediterranean Forum, 480t
World Bank, 99, 158, 434, 445
World Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Earth Summit) (1992), 439
World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002), 439
world systems frameworks, 79, see also globalization
World Trade Organization (WTO), 99, 328, 331, 339, 541, 623
most-favored nation (MFN) principle, 279