Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 August 2019

(p. 1273) Index

(p. 1273) Index

Aarhus Convention 1241
abortion
Committee against Torture (UN) 961
criminal law 988
cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment 961
Disabilities Convention 964
Down’s syndrome 1004
human rights 959, 961, 987–8
life, right to 964
policy 987
public health approach 959
regulation 988
safe motherhood 959
US Supreme Court 313
Abrams, H 552
abuse of a dominant position 682–5
abuse of power 842–5
accountability
adaptive drug licensing 933
autonomous weapon systems (AWSs), regulation of 1107–8, 1110–11
civil society groups 693
conflict of laws and Internet 278, 284, 291
democracy 1213
human biomedical interventions 835, 837, 844
international trade regulation 1021, 1027, 1043
organizational accountability 693
procedural accountability 693
public participation 629–30
standards 1043
surveillance 100, 101–3
technological management 55
Ackerman, B 366
actor-network theory (ANT) 671–3
actuarial justice
automatic criminal justice 708–10, 713–14
intelligence-led policing 708–9
risk 708
surveillance 709
unified actuarial system 708–9
adaptive drug licensing 929–46
accountability 933
approval 930–1, 937–8
autonomy 939
benefit-risk assessments 932, 937–42, 945–6
binary approach 937
Canada 931, 941
challenges and solutions 942–4
clinical trials 936–7, 942, 943–5
conditions for legitimate adaptive licensing pathways 939–40
constitutional rights 932
definition 937
democracy 932–3, 938–9
development of adaptive licensing 936–9
efficacy data 937
European Medicines Agency (EMA) 941, 943, 945–6
evidence versus access to medicines conundrum 936–7
feasibility 940–2
governance 932, 943
HIV advocacy groups 936–7
innovation 929–34
intellectual property rights (IPRs) 28
Janus Initiative 940–1
Japan 931
legitimacy 932–5, 944–6
managed entry 930, 946
marketing 930, 937–8, 944
NEWDIGs 940, 943
off-label use 944
ongoing prudent coordination 946
orphan drug regulation 930, 937
pathways 936–45
precautionary principle 933
progressive authorization 930
public participation 932, 934–6
reasons for adaptive licensing pathways 936–9
regional regulatory agencies 946
regulation 929–45
responsive regulation 931–44
risk management 932
safety 937
scientific uncertainty 932–3, 938–42
Singapore 931
social context 936–7
social contract 939–40, 943, 946
social licence 931–4
social scientific theory 934
staged assessment and reassessment 938
staggered approach 930
stakeholder engagement 933, 940–1, 945–6
transparency 933, 939, 946
addiction, brain receptor blockers to reduce 823
(p. 1274) administrative justice 708–9
adoption 967
Adorno, Theodor 192
advertising see also audience constructions and advertising; interactive advertising
networked digital technology 30–1
personalized information 31
subliminal advertising 841
surveillance 31, 111
targeted surveillance 111
advocacy groups
autonomous weapon systems (AWSs), regulation of 1098–9, 1111, 1113–14
civil rights movement 71
ecological movement 1202–3
HIV advocacy groups 936–7
vulnerable and marginalized populations 961
Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes, genetic modification of 388–9, 391, 1135
affirmative action 876, 902–6
Afghan refugees 778, 780–2, 792
African Union (AU) 680
African Women’s Rights Protocol to African Charter 954
Agamben, Giorgio 739
age of criminal responsibility 338, 341, 348–50
developmental immaturity 349–50, 356
doli incapax 348
expert evidence 348–50
homicide 348–50
Law Commission 349–50
sexual offences 341, 348
agencies
capture in developing countries 136
governance 21
independent regulatory agencies 827
personnel reliability programmes in government agencies 1126–7
regional agencies 946
specialized agencies 536–7, 590–1
standards 1042–3
United Nations 959–60, 962
agency
children 415
criminal responsibility 154–5, 157–63, 166–8
human biological interventions 846
human dignity 185, 189, 193
minimising human agency 705
moral agency 613
agriculture and water 1186
AIDR platform
AIDR Tagger 784
AIDR Trainer 784
application programming interfaces (APIs) 784
social media messages during humanitarian crises, classification of 778, 783–4, 792
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) 778
Albrechtslund, A 740
Alemanno, A 1216
Alexander, Keith 105
Alexy, Robert 441
alkali works 1258, 1261–9
Alkali Acts 1254–5, 1261–4, 1267
Alkali Inspectorate 1255, 1261–9
Alldridge, P 720
alternative disposal measures 710, 718–19, 723
Amazon 4, 291, 675, 680, 688, 1159, 1162
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) 954
Amoore, Louise 791
analogy, reasoning by 605, 608, 829–31
Anderies, J 367
Anderson, Elizabeth 81, 83
Anderson, M 1262, 1266
Andrejevic, Mark 1153
Android operating systems 677
animals
animalism 128
cloning 919, 1220–2
genetic modification 239–41
Harvard Oncomouse 22
hybridization 120
testing 632
transgenic animals 239
anthrax attacks 1125–6, 1128
anthropomorphism 599–600, 606
Anthropocene
definition 379–80
environmental enhancement 379–81, 394–5, 397
formalization 394
International Commission on Stratigraphy 394
Working Group 394
antidepressants 832–3
Aquinas, Thomas 142
arbitration clauses 330–2
Arendt, Hannah 419
Aristotle 74, 119, 142, 145, 148, 896, 935
Arkin, Ronald 1107
armed conflict law 30, 502–3, 1098–9, 1103–14
Armstrong, Lance 866–7, 869–71
Arnold, Thurman 1249
art 427
artificial intelligence (AI)
AIDR platform 778, 783–4, 792
anthropomorphism 606
autonomous weapon systems (AWSs), regulation of 1099, 1107, 1109
big data 711
computer-mind metaphor 605
data mining 791
employment relationships 1054, 1059, 1066, 1068
non-discrimination and non-equality 430
precautions 645
(p. 1275) public international law 503
robots, regulation of 539, 598, 605–6
strict liability 329
torts 538–9
asbestos 524–5, 526–7, 529
causation 525, 526–7
mesothelioma 524–5, 526–7
Ashby, E 1262, 1266
assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) 976–87 see also family and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)
autonomy 965, 989, 1009
commercialization 983–4
community, definition of 1006–7
consensus 994–7, 1002–6
consultation 1006–8
contraception, access to 985
cross-border reproduction 967
cryopreservation 309
culture 979, 982, 984, 995
deliberative democracy 884, 1006–9
democracy 844, 1001, 1006–9
desirability 993
direct democracy 1001
disabilities 995, 998
economic considerations 984
embryo selection 1002–3
eugenics 985
executive decision-making 1001–2
gene editing 994, 996, 1009–10
genetic testing 964, 966
governance 980–1, 1006
harm principle 979–80, 1008
homebirths 964
human rights 310, 983–7, 988, 1001
identity
non-genetic factors 998–9
Non-Identity Problem (NIP) 994, 996–9, 1002, 1009–10
relational 997–9
ideologies 984
imperfectly theorized agreements 994, 1002–6
individual choice 980–1, 984, 994, 996–7
innovation 977
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 983
international instruments 982–3
legal implications 979
legislation 994–6
legitimacy of regulation 992–1010
liberty/freedom 45
marry and found a family, right to 977–81
media 982
medical malpractice 311
moral populism 989
non-discrimination and non-equality 989, 995, 1004
Non-Identity Problem (NIP) 994, 996–9, 1002, 1009–10
permissibility 993–4
precautionary approach 979, 986
preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) 962, 966, 986, 997, 1001–8
private and family life, right to respect for 965
public opinion 993–4, 1006–9
public participation 1001–2, 1006–9
relational identity 997–9
religion 978, 984
repro-genetic techniques 964–7
same-sex couples 978–9
sex selection 1003, 1008
social implications 979
state, role of the 983–7
strategies and solutions 1000–2
torts 527, 528
treaties and conventions 982–3
virtue ethics 997, 999–1000
assisted suicide 353–4
audience constructions and advertising 1143–62
Audit Bureau of Circulations 1146, 1148
cable television 1147–8
classification strategies 1151–3
consumer empowerment 1160–2
consumer information 1145, 1152–4, 1162
consumer reputations 1152–3, 1160–2
cookies 1152
demographics 1146, 1148–52
EU law 1160–1
industrialization 1145
magazines 1144–7, 1151
market segmentation 1147–54, 1161
mass advertising 1146–7, 1151, 1161
measurement of audiences 1148–51, 1161
narrow social segments 1144
new algorithmic identity 1153
newspapers 1144–6
Nielsen 1148–9, 1152
non-discrimination and equality 1153, 1161
panoptic sort 1150
personalization of media 1145, 1151–4, 1161–2
policy 1161
privacy 1145
PRIZM programme 1152
radio 1147, 1151
security 1154
segment-making media 1149–50
self-regulation 1161
smartphones 1151
(p. 1276) social fractures 1148
society-making media 1149–50
specialized content 1144, 1147–8, 1161
surveillance 1144–5, 1150
targeted advertising 1147, 1149, 1151
television 1147–8, 1151
United States 1146–9, 1152, 1161–2
Wi-Fi 1151
Austen, Jane 136
Australia
carbon capture and storage (CCS), regulation of 1236, 1245–7
conflict of laws and Internet 275, 286
copyright 22, 452, 456–7, 459–61, 469
defamation 275
desalination 1178–9
Doodeward principle 200–1
human body and body parts 200–1
mousepox experiment 1127–8
patents 22, 452, 462–3, 465–8
sperm as property 204–5, 207–9
3D printing and scanning 22, 452, 456–7, 459–63, 465–9
Austria 1222
Automated Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) checks 715
automatic criminal justice 705–25
accuracy and certainty 717
actuarial justice 708–10, 713–14
administrative justice 708–9
agency, minimising human 705
alternative disposal measures 710, 718–19, 723
animator rather than provider and manager, state as 708
big data 711, 712–13, 716–17
budget constraints 708, 712
confront accuser, right to 722
costs savings 708, 710
criminal records checks 717–18
CSI effect 717
data mining and profiling 716–17
data protection 706, 711, 716–18, 720–5
databases 711
delay 716
deprivation of liberty 706–7
deterrence 709
distance, governing at a 708
diversion 710, 718–19, 723
DNA, on the spot analysis of 713
double jeopardy 714, 719–20
due process 705, 708, 716, 723–4
efficiency and effectiveness 705, 708, 710, 720–1
errors 717, 723
experts 710–13, 717, 723
extending scope of criminal justice model 718–20
facilitating state 708
factual accuracy 707
fair hearings, right to 707, 708, 716, 718
fingerprinting 712, 713
forensics 710–13, 720, 722
governance 705–10
hollowing out of the state 707–8
human dignity 707, 722
inner morality 706
intelligence-led policing 708–9, 712, 714
Internet of things 715
investigations and adjudication, blurring lines between 25
legitimacy 707, 716–17
logic behind decisions 723
market, reification of the 708
miscarriages of justice 717, 723
motor vehicle licence and insurance investigations 714–15, 716
neo-liberalism 708
new forensics 710–13, 720, 722
new public managerialism 708
objectivity 713
paradigm shifts in criminal justice 707–10
police 708–9, 711, 714–15, 720–1, 724–5
Automated Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) checks 715
CSI effect 717
criminal records checks 717–18
intelligence-led policing 708–9, 712, 714
motor vehicle licence and insurance investigations 714–15, 716
pre-emptive techniques 715
proactive policing 720
reactive models of policing 709, 720
pre-emptive techniques 708, 715
prejudices 713
presumption of innocence 719, 724–5
privacy 706, 711, 718, 720–3
privatization 708
procedure
infrastructure, dissolution of 714
legitimacy 716
profiling 711, 716–17, 721–3
proportionality 706–7
punishment 706–8, 714–15, 724
reactive models of policing 709
rehabilitation 708, 718
retreat of the state 708
retribution 708
risk management 708
social network analysis 711
state intrusion, minimization of 706–7
state powers, limits on 706
steer rather than row, states which 708
(p. 1277) subjective knowledge 713
summary justice 710, 713
surveillance 709–14, 718–19, 724–5
suspect, concept of a 719–20
interim categorisation of suspicion 719
presumption of innocence 719
reasonably suspected person 724
traditional criminal justice paradigm 705–7, 714, 716, 718–19, 722, 724
transparency 713, 722–3
values, implications for 716–18, 723–4, 725
autonomous weapon systems (AWSs), regulation of 598, 609, 1097–114
accountability 1107–8, 1110–11
advocacy campaigns 1098–9, 1111, 1113–14
armed conflict law 30, 502–3, 1098–9, 1103–14
artificial intelligence 1099, 1107, 1109
autonomous weapon systems, definition of 1100–3
best practices and informal norms 1112–13
consequentialism 1108
criminal liability 1110–11
decisions, moral principle that only humans should make 1107–8
deontology 1108
Department of Defense (DOD) 1104
DOD Directive policy memorandum 1097–100, 1113
meaningful human control (MHC) standard 1113–14
distinction, principle of 1104–6, 1114
human dignity 1108
Human Rights Watch (HRW) Losing Humanity: the Case against Killer Robots 1098–100, 1104
humanity, principle of 1114
indiscriminate nature 1104–5
meaningful human control (MHC) standard 1113–14
necessity 1114
policy guidance 1097–100, 1113
precautions in attack 1105–6
pre-emptive ban, arguments for 1098, 1107–111
programming 1107–9
processes of international discussions 1111–13
proportionality 1105–6, 1107, 1114
standards 1112–14
Stop Killer Robots campaign (HRW) 1098, 1111, 1113–14
targeting law 1105–6, 1107–9
transparency 1111
treaties and conventions 1098–9, 1103, 1111–12
UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) 1099, 1111–13
expert meetings 1111, 1113
protocol, proposals for a 1103, 1111–12
uncontrollable harmful effects 1105
United States 1097–100, 1103, 1111–14
unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury, illegality of causing 1105
usefulness of autonomous weapon systems 1100–3
autonomy
adaptive drug licensing 939
assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) 965
human dignity 186
human rights 956, 958–9, 962
parental responsibility 407, 415
population 959, 962
reproductive rights 963, 965
sterilization 962
surveillance 93, 96, 106, 107–11
avian flu (H5N1) 960, 1131–2
aviation crashes 32
Ayres, I 934, 936
Baird, P 979, 983–4
Baker, Howard 1197
Baldwin, R 934, 936, 988
Baltimore, David 921
Banks, S 1000
Barlow, John Perry 607
Barnouw, Erik 1148, 1150
Barocas, S 792
Barrett, Scott 815
Barton, C 978
Bayless, K 411–12
Baylis, Franèoise 140, 997–8
Beale, Joseph H 276
behaviour and criminal law 338–56
adversarial system 340
age of criminal responsibility 338, 341, 348–50, 356
developmental immaturity 349–50, 356
doli incapax 348
Law Commission 349–50
anti-social behaviour, identification of 342
blameworthiness 344
Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder policy 344–5
evidence 339–40, 345–56
excuses 344
expert evidence 339–40, 346–56
fair hearings, right to 343
free will 343
homicide 341, 348–50
insanity defence 341
interventionism 344
legitimacy 343, 344–5
LOMBROSO project 342
media 339–41
memory 11, 350–3, 356
(p. 1278) cross-examination, CPS guidance on 352–3, 356
expert evidence 350–2, 356
false memories 351, 352
juries 356
lie detectors/polygraph tests 352–3
sexual abuse 351, 353, 356
veracity 350–3
mens rea 345–6
mental disorder 344–5
Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder 344
Severe Personality Disordered Offenders 345
social perceptions of 340–1
neurocognition 338–43, 348, 352
neurocriminology 338–9
neurology 338
new technologies 345–54
non-accidental head injuries, death of children caused by 338, 346–7, 356
battered baby cases 346–7
expert evidence 346–7, 356
sudden infant deaths 346–7, 356
preventive detention 342, 345
public interest 345
public opinion 340–1, 344
public policy 339–41
public protection 341–5
recidivism 345
reform 354–6
science 338–41
sentencing
aggravating factors 344
mitigating factors 344
Severe Personality Disordered Offenders 345
social context 343
veracity 350–3
Violence Scale Risk scores 345
voluntary acts 343
witness testimony 339, 350–3, 356
memory 11, 350–3, 356
veracity 350–3
behaviour modification see human biomedical interventions
Belgium 916, 1239
Bell, Alexander Graham 605
Bell, J 525
Bendoly, E 789
Bennett Moses, Lyria 209–10, 214
Bentham, Jeremy 733–5, 741–2, 748
Berg, Paul 1120, 1123
Berlin, Isaiah 47–8, 92
Bernstein Report of the American BioCentury Publications 929–30
best available technology (BAT) 1198, 1254–5, 1261
best available techniques not entailing excessive costs (BATNEEC) 1261
best practicable means (BPMs) 1254–5, 1261–2, 1264–7
big data 33–4
artificial intelligence 711
automatic criminal justice 711, 712–13, 716–17
commercial big data 106–8
consent 110–11
cybercrime 1092
effectiveness 11
non-discrimination and equality 440
second generation forensics 710
surveillance 106–8, 710, 743, 746
tax law 556–7
television 1160
Bigo, D 739
biodiversity
Biodiversity Convention 503–5, 507, 809
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 504, 507
Conference of the Parties 503
genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) 1222
geoengineering 513
living modified organisms (LMOs) 504, 507
Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing of Biodiversity Convention 1035
ocean fertilization 513–14
solar climate engineering (SCE) 809
traditional knowledge 1035
transboundary harm 504, 507
bioethics
cloning 306–7, 309
common good 135, 140–2, 144, 148
human biomedical interventions 825–35, 839, 841, 845–8
human dignity 177
human rights 19, 198, 920, 955, 956–8
sperm as property 209
stem cell research 299–307
US Constitution 298, 299–305, 309–12
biological differences between humans 17
Biological Weapons Convention 1972 504–5
biomedical interventions see human biomedical interventions
Biomedicine and Human Rights Convention (Council of Europe) 916–18, 955
Additional Protocol 920
Belgium 916
Central and Eastern European countries 917
cloning human embryos for research 916, 920
consent 916–17
entry into force 916
ethics 917–18
genomes, modification of 505
germline genetic engineering 137
human rights 916
legitimacy 917
(p. 1279) patients’ rights 916
ratifications/signatures 916–17
biometrics 94
biotechnology see common good and biotechnology; United States Constitution and biotechnology
human dignity 22
Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions Directive 389
non-discrimination and equality 69
patentability 22
public international law 503–5
regulation 148, 238, 239–41, 503–5
bioterrorism 30, 503–4, 1125–32
bird flu (H5N1) 960, 1131–2
Black, Julia 6, 9–10, 575, 673, 827–8, 834, 844, 934, 936, 981, 988
Blanchett, Cate 869
Bochel, H 981
Bogojevic, S 361, 366–7
Bolt, Usain 868–70
Boracas, Solon 107
Bostrom, Nick 857, 863
Botkin, J 83
Box, Jason 386–7, 389
boyd, dm 740
brain see also criminal responsibility and sciences of brain/mind
brain receptor blockers to reduce addiction 823
transcranial magnetic stimulation 824
Braithwaite, J 934–6
Brandeis, Louis 530
Brants, C 720
Brazil
Civil Rights Framework 435
health 960
WIPO 960
Breazeal, Cynthia 599–602
Brenner, Joel 1256, 1258, 1260
Brooks, Rodney 598
Brown, Louise 919
Brown, Mike 886–7
Brownsword, Roger 381, 439, 810–11, 930, 981–2, 992–3, 1006
browse-wrap 322
Brunon-Ernst, Anne 733
Bruns, Axel 1154
Bublitz, J 846
Buchanan, Allan 83–4, 860, 958
Bucher, Taina 1155
Bulgarian Constitution 690
bullying and harassment online 482–3, 529, 531, 586, 694, 1089–90
Burkert, H 767
Bush, George W 105, 302–3
business actors 675, 676–80
architecture or code 673–5
East Coast codemakers 673–5, 677, 680
West Coast codemakers 674–5, 680
cloud-based services 680
codemakers 673–5, 677, 680
content online, access to 676
Electronic Commerce Directive 678
gatekeeper position 676–8
immunity 678
Information Society Directive 678
Internet intermediaries (IIs)/Internet service providers (ISPs) 676, 677–80
proportionality 678–9
proxy regulators 676–80
streaming services 680
CAD design files 453–4, 456–7, 459–61
Callahan, Daniel 140–1
Callon, Michel 370, 671
Calo, MR 539, 602
Cameron, David 409
Campbell, Liz 710, 724
Canada
adaptive drug licensing 931, 941
Alberta, sterilization in 841
British Columbia Business Practices and Consumer Protection Act 332
carbon capture and storage (CCS), regulation of 1233, 1245–7
chemicals regulation 374
formation of contract 321–2, 325
privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) 754–5
Ontario
consumer protection 323–4, 331
Electronic Commerce Act 320–4
privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) 754–5
unreasonable contract terms 327, 332–3
sperm as property 204–5
tax 553
United States 331–2
unreasonable contract terms 327–32
writing 317, 323–4, 334
capability, equality of 76–7, 81–2, 84–5
Carbado, Devon 875–6
carbon capture and storage (CCS) see carbon capture and storage (CCS) in EU, regulation of; carbon capture and storage (CCS), regulation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in EU, regulation of 21, 1232–49
Aarhus Convention 1241
all available evidence test 1245–6
barriers in legislation 1235
claw-back provisions 1246
commercialization 1234, 1236, 1243, 1248
Commission 1235, 1237–40, 1245
costs 1245–6
(p. 1280) deficient data 1246
demonstration and pilot projects 1236–7, 1240
design 1232
deterrence 1248
discretion of Member States 1232, 1235, 1237–41, 1247
emergency technology 1233
emissions trading schemes 1236, 1240, 1244–5
environmental harm 1233, 1238
European Parliament 1235, 1237–8, 1240
fault, definition of 1246
federal or quasi-federal states 1233
Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide Directive 1232, 1234–48
background 1235
preamble 1242
review mechanisms 1236–7, 1240
transposition 1238–40
governance 1233
incentives proportionate to benefits 1235
indemnities 1247
IPPC Directive 1235
judicial review 1237
leakage 1234, 1244–5, 1247
legitimacy 1232–3, 1237
liability 1235, 1244–8
long-term storage 1232, 1235–7, 1247–8
Member States
balance of power with Commission 1237
discretion 1232, 1235, 1237–41
power to reject CCS 1237–41
negligence 1244, 1246
NGOs 1235, 1237
offshore storage 1238, 1242, 1247
opposition 1235, 1239–40, 1246
power to reject CCS 1237–41
private sector 1233, 1236
prohibition in Member States
discretion 1232, 1235, 1237–41
federal or quasi-federal states, decision-making in 1233
public participation 1232, 1235, 1241–4, 1248–9
reasons 1237–8
rejection of CCS
power to reject CCS 1237–41
reasons 1237–8
review mechanisms 1236–7, 1240
safety 1235
single operators 1237
standards 1240–1
Strategic Environmental Assessment 1243–4
third parties 1245–7
transparency 1237
veto powers 1238
carbon capture and storage (CCS), regulation of
Australia 1236, 1245–7
Canada 1233, 1245–7
description of technology 1233–4
leakage 1234, 1245
liability 1245–7
Norway 1233
oil recovery 1233–4
purpose 1233–4
transport 1233
United States 1233
carbon dioxide removal (CDR) 509
Carlsen, Magnus 870
Carr, David 1159–60
Carson, Rachel 799, 1197, 1202–3
Carter, Ashton B 1097
case management systems (CMSs) 251–3, 256
Castignone, S 979–80, 983
CATNIP (cheapest available technology not incurring prosecution) 1261
causation
asbestos 525, 526–7
child abuse 162–3
civil judicial procedures 248
compulsion 161
criminal responsibility and sciences of brain/mind 157–8, 161–6
identity 117–20, 127–31
precautionary principle 652
Cavoukian, Ann 758, 761
CCTV 110, 741, 743
cement industry 1255, 1265–8
censorship 432, 437–8, 445
Central and Eastern European countries 917
certainty see also scientific uncertainties
automatic criminal justice 717
legal evolution in response to technological change 226
solar climate engineering (SCE) 814–15
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 392, 435, 441
Charter of Human Rights and Principles for the Internet 434–5, 438, 442, 445
Chaum, David 757
chemical castration 824–5, 827, 838
chemicals regulation 371–5
applied science 371
command-and-control regulation 372–3
commons problem 371
green chemistry 373–5
market-based approach 372–3
Cheney-Lippold, John 1153
chess computers 870
children see also assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs); parental responsibility
abuse 162–3, 351, 353, 356
age of criminal responsibility 338, 341, 348–50, 356
battered baby cases 346–7
China’s one-child policy 976, 987
human enhancement and power over children 859–60
monitoring and tracking children 414
non-accidental head injuries, death of children caused by 338, 346–7, 356
battered baby cases 346–7
expert evidence 346–7, 356
sudden infant deaths 346–7, 356
parent-child relationship 844, 845–6
paternity testing 200, 967
privacy 414
safe motherhood 959
sudden infant deaths 346–7, 356
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 967
Chile, Vivo Positivo in 961
chilling effect 107, 110, 531, 533, 538, 540
China
desalination 1170
germline modification in embryos 915–16
human dignity 183
one-child policy 976, 987
Chinese walls 1216
choice architecture 837
Christensen, Clayton 7, 681–2
circumvention of technological measures 58
citizenship 71–2, 74, 96
civil and political rights 72, 285
civil disobedience 57–8
civil judicial procedures, use of ICT in 246–63
case management systems (CMSs) 251–3, 256
causation 248
context 248
culture 247
e-curia (CJEU) 260–1, 263
effectiveness 255
efficiency 247–8, 252
e-filing 251–2, 253–4, 257, 262–3
digital signatures 254
e-curia (CJEU) 260–1
interoperability 254
e-justice 247–51, 256–7, 263
efficiency and costs 247–8
political dimensions 247–8
rationalization 247, 249
research 247–8
social dimensions 247–8
electronic signatures 257
email 259
European Order for payment regulations 258
exchange of information 250
integrated justice systems 254, 258
interoperability 254, 256–7, 260
legal information systems (LISs) 251–2
Money Claims Online (England) 257
non-discrimination and equality 253
organizational procedures and processes 246–63
political dimensions 247–8
rationalization 246, 247, 249, 251
regulation 249–50, 255–6, 262
small claims (EU) 258
social dimensions 247–8
standardization 249–53
techno-legal assemblages 247–8, 251–61, 262–3
transparency 253
video technologies 252, 253
videoconferencing 252, 253, 255–6
civil rights movement 71
civil society groups 689–92 see also non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
accountability 693
Data Retention Directive 677, 689–92
EU law 691
governance 675, 676, 689–92, 693
Internet 693–4
Non-Commercial Stakeholder Group (NCSG) 693
Open Rights Group (ORG) 676
privacy 676, 677, 691–2
Privacy International 676
risk management 9
soft law 693–4
surveillance 676, 691
transparency 691–2
Clapper, James 105
Clark, Charles 754–5
Clarke, R 716
class and socio-economic status 81, 83, 409, 412, 416–17
Clayton, M 867–8
Clegg, Nick 409
climate change see also geoengineering; greenhouse gases
adaptation policy 386
common good, concept of 143–4
cost-benefit analysis 1202
decarbonization programmes 386–90, 397
engineering 390, 394, 396
environmental enhancement 382, 386, 389, 392
future generations 190
patents 1035
targets 367
UN Framework Climate Change Convention 800, 808–10, 814–15
(p. 1282) clinical trials 936–7, 942, 943–5, 957
Clinton, Bill 301–2
cloning
animals 919, 1220–2
bioethics 306–7, 309
Biomedicine and Human Rights Convention (CofE) 916, 920
Commerce Clause 307
commercialization 308
consent 308
Dolly the Sheep 919
federal action, limiting 306–8
Habitats Directive 390–1
hostility 919–20
human enhancement 862
human rights 955
stem cell research 306–8
treaties 955
Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UNESCO) 920–1
Universal Declaration on Human Cloning (UDoHC) 918–19
US Constitution 297–8, 304–9, 312
cloud-based services 680, 1078–9
Cocks, Raymond 1257–8
coercive state power, monopoly of 33
cogeneration 1174
cognitive enhancing drugs 824
cognitive heuristics 837
cognitive jurotherapy (CJ) 156
cognitive science 166, 171
Cohen, C 979–81
Cohen, Glenn 958
Cohen, Jonathan 154–5, 168–9
Cohen, Julie 209, 744, 747
Cohen, Lisbeth 1147
Cole-Turner, Ronald 832
collective action 480–2
collective bargaining 1053–4, 1056–7, 1062–4, 1067–8
Collingridge, David 21, 588
Collins, Francis 915–16, 923
Collins, H 369
combined heat and power (CHP) systems 1174
command-and-control regulation 363, 366–7, 372–3, 1260
commercialization
assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) 983–4
biotechnology 308
carbon capture and storage (CCS) 1234, 1236, 1243, 1248
cloning 308, 1221
friendship, of 1155–6
interactive advertising 1155–6
novel foods 1210
sperm as property 199, 211, 216
common good and biotechnology 135–48
bioeconomy 136
bioethics 135, 140–2, 144, 148
biomedical commons 144–8
biomedical research 135–6
capture of regulatory agencies in developing countries 136
charitable trust model 146–7
common good, concept of 140–4
common heritage 144–5
commons 144–8
agriculture 146–7
anti-commons, tragedy of the 145–6
corporate commons 147–8
private goods 145
underuse, problem of 146
communitarianism 144, 146
competitiveness 136, 139–40
democracy 142–4, 148
DNA 147
genomes 144–6
indigenous people 147
individualism 141–2, 147
liberal democracies 142–4
liberal individualism 141–2
media 140
patents 136, 146
political elites, use of term ‘common good’ by 143
private interests 142, 145, 147–8
regulation 148
retail genetics firms, ban on 136
scientific-industrial complex 143
scientific progress 135–6, 144–7
social contract 142–3
three parent IVF 136, 137–41, 144
tragedy of the commons 145
transparency 148
trusts 146–7
Western liberalism 142–3
commons problem
chemicals regulation 371
tragedy of the commons 145–6, 282, 360–72, 375–6, 1202
common heritage of humanity 920, 925
communitarianism 144, 146
companies see corporations
compatibilist theories 161, 163, 167
competition
abuse of a dominant position 682–5
bundling 683–5
conflict of laws and Internet 284
corporations 288
DG Competition 680–5, 694
EU law 677, 680–5, 694
international trade regulation 1018, 1027, 1032
Microsoft cases 677, 682–5
non-discrimination and equality 440
undisclosed information and data, protection of 1035
web browsers 682–5
WTO 1032
competitiveness
common good and biotechnology 136, 139–40
genetic engineering 1123, 1125
computers see also contract law and computer technology; Internet; software
employment relationships 1057–8, 1065–6
improvements in computing power 860–1
power, growth in computing 3–4
confidentiality 442
conflict of laws and Internet 269–91
accessibility 274–8
accountability 278, 284, 291
adequacy of private international law 272
comity 286
common law 277, 287
competition law 284
complaints procedures 291
consumer contracts 279–82
continuation and convergence of conflict rules 273–82
corporations 288, 290–1
data protection 280, 283–4, 287–8, 291
defamation 274–6, 282–3
economic liberalism 284
empowerment of Internet 271
EU law 279–84, 287–8
consumer contracts 279–82
Data Protection Directive 283–4, 288
General Data Protection Regulation 280
internationalism 279
Jurisdiction Regulation (EU) 276
extraterritoriality 277–80
foreseeability 278–9
freedom of expression 282, 285–6, 288, 291
General Data Protection Regulation 280
globalization 23, 270–1
governance 270, 272, 289
human rights 272, 285–8, 289
civil and political rights 285
commercial activities 285
freedom of expression 282, 285–6, 288, 291
intellectual property rights (IPRs) 274–5, 276, 277–8, 280, 284, 291
copyright 276, 280, 282, 291
defamation 282
trade marks 276, 277–8
interest analysis 280
intermediaries 282, 290–1
internationalism 278–90
Jurisdiction Regulation (EU) 276
legitimacy 269–70, 272, 280, 288, 291
legitimate expectations 278
lex loci delicti 275, 280
misuse of private information 287
most significant relationship test 280
national law
adequacy 272
conflict of laws as part of 269
parochialism 274–8, 280, 285
personal jurisdiction 275–6, 281
place where damage occurred 275–7, 285–6, 289
precedent 274
privacy 274–6, 282–3, 285, 287, 291
private and family life, right to respect for 287
private or civil disputes 270–1
public interest 283, 284–5, 289
public international law 270–1
public policy exception 286
public-private dichotomy 270–1, 283–5
reciprocity 282
regulation 271, 289–91
Rome II Regulation 280
standards 290–1
state sovereignty 284
statism 273
substantive law 275
targeting test 280–2
territoriality 273–4, 276–8, 282–90
tort or quasi-tort 274–6, 280, 284, 287
tragedy of the commons 282
transnationality 269–75, 278–85
vested rights, theory of 276, 280
consent
big data 110–11
Biomedicine and Human Rights Convention (CofE) 924–5
cloning 308
Crispr/Cas9 system 924–5
human biomedical interventions 841
informed consent 91, 107–8
medical or scientific experimentation 959–60
spam 233
sperm as property 209, 211–12, 215
surveillance 91, 107–8, 110–11, 483, 745–6
consequentialism 181, 1108
constitutional claims 19
constitutional rights 198–9 see also United States Constitution
constitutional values 11, 835–42, 843, 844–5
consultation
assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) 1006–8
information and consultation rights of workers 482
public participation 624
regulation 13
(p. 1284) consumers
audience constructions and advertising 1145, 1152–4, 1160–2
conflict of laws and Internet 279–82
interactive advertising 1154, 1161
reputations 1152–3, 1160–2
unreasonable terms 327–34, 335
contraception, access to 962, 964, 985
contract law and computer technology 317–35
automation of trading and consumption 23
browse-wrap 322
doctrinal rules, re-evaluation of 8
enforceability 318, 322, 335
formation of contract 317, 318–35
assent by electronic communication 321–3
offer and acceptance 318–21, 335
postal acceptance rule 318–21
rescission 322
signature 317, 325, 335
unreasonable terms 317, 322–3, 326–34
writing 317, 323–4, 335
modification of contracts 317
offer and acceptance 318–21, 335
postal acceptance rule 318–21, 335
setting aside contracts 317
signatures 325, 335
standard terms 22, 326–34, 335
unfairness 317
unreasonable terms 317, 326–34, 335
writing 317, 323–4, 334
Conway, Martin 350–1, 356
Cooke, William Fothergill 228
cookies 1152
copyright
artistic craftsmanship 456
artistic works 454–5, 458–9, 467
authorial input 459
CAD design files 453–4, 456–61
compulsory licensing 1034
Copyright Directive 452, 768
creativity and functionality, blurring between 452
culture 446
design documents or models 454–5
Digital Rights Management Systems (DRMSs) 766
Electronic Copyright Management Systems (ECMS) 754
enforcement and infringement 457–61
engravings 456
fair use 460, 1034
file-sharing 45
functionality 455–6, 467
gaps in protection 457
harmonization 452
immunity 678
industrial application 463
industrial designs 456–7
international trade regulation 1019, 1034–5
Internet service providers 460–1, 678–80
inventive step 463
modifications 458–60
new copyright 458–9
novelty 463
originality 458
patents 22, 452–3, 463–4, 469
piracy 606
public interest 1035
sculptures 456
secondary infringement 459–60, 468
software 369, 457
Statute of Anne 452
Statute of Monopolies 463
subsistence 454–5, 463–4, 468
substantial part 460
technologisation 754
term of protection 446
theft 606
3D printing and scanning 22, 452–7, 459–61, 463–4, 467–9
WIPO Copyright Treaty 768
corporations
conflict of laws and Internet 288, 290–1
competition 288
corporate social responsibility 1032
governance 1043
human rights 288
international trade regulation 1018
sperm as property 216–17
standards 290–1
states versus corporations 288
surveillance theory 735–7, 739, 743, 744–5
corruption 692
Council of Europe (CoE) see also European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
Convention on Biomedicine and Human Rights 916–18, 920
European Social Charter (CoE) 490
human rights 954–5
Crawford, K 792
Crick, Francis 856
criminal law and justice see also automatic criminal justice; behaviour and criminal law; criminal responsibility and sciences of brain/mind; cybercrime; fraud
abortion 988
autonomous weapon systems (AWSs), regulation of 1110–11
circumvention of technological measures 58
control of actions 17
corruption 692
(p. 1285) DNA databases and retention 51
drink or drugs, immobilizing vehicles where drivers under influence of 54
experts 723
health and safety 54
homicide 341, 348–50
identification, pre-emptive and predictive 56
liberty/freedom 51, 53–4, 55–8
non-discrimination and equality 71
private and family life, right to respect for 954
robots, regulation of 598
serious and organized crime 91–2, 101
sexual offences 341, 348
situational crime prevention 824, 846
speed limits 53–4
strict liability 23
surveillance 91–3, 96–7, 101, 741
systemic irrationality 17
technological management 53–4, 55–8
criminal responsibility and sciences of brain/mind 153–73
action-guiding, law as 158
addicts 159
brain overclaim syndrome (BOS) 156
causation 157–8, 161–6
child abuse 162–3
cognitive jurotherapy (CJ) 156
cognitive science 166, 171
compatibilist theories 161, 163, 167
current status of new sciences 163–73
decision-making 166
defences, affirmative 160
desert theory 157, 169
determinism 154–6, 161–2, 167
duress, coercion, or compulsion 160–1
ethics 161
excuses 160–2, 171
externalizing strategy 156
false starts and dangerous distractions 161–3
folk psychology 153, 155, 157–61, 164, 169–71, 173
free will 159, 162
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 156, 164
future dangerous behaviour 172
genetics 153–5, 162–3, 172
human genome 155–6
incarceration, increase in 157
insanity 160–1, 170–1
intentional acts 158–62, 167–8
internalizing strategy 156
legitimacy of law 155
mental states as explanations of human action 157, 163–4, 167
mitigation 157, 171
murder, mens rea for 159–60
neuroscience 155–7, 163–72
person, law’s concept of the 153
personhood 155
prediction techniques 172
privacy 170
proof of concept studies 172
psychodynamic psychology 157
psychology 153, 155, 157–61, 164–6
punishment 157, 168–9
radical view 167–9
rationality 153, 157–9, 162–3, 167, 171
reason 157, 168
reasons 158
retributive justice 156–7
scientific evidence 159
scientific overclaiming 155–7, 168
self-control 160–1, 163, 171
social control 156–7
Stroop test 165
victims of neuronal circumstances 167–9
voluntary acts 159–60
Crisp, Roger 111
Crispr/Cas9 system 923–5, 1135
consent 924–5
ethics 924
germline modification in embryos 916, 920, 923–5
Non-Identity Problem 924
Cross, Gary 1146
crowdsourcing 428
Crutzen, Paul 394
cryopreservation 309
cryptography 447, 448
culture
assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) 979, 982, 984, 995
civil judicial procedures 247
copyright 446
cultural participation, right to 443
environment 367, 375–6
ethics 918
global policy challenges 27
human dignity 182–5, 189, 193
human rights 426, 443, 445–6
parental responsibility 412
relativity 1215
solar climate engineering (SCE) 805–6
UN special rapporteur 958–9
currencies 1090
Currie, Brainerd 276, 280, 283
customary international law 503, 505, 507, 512, 809
customary practices 1265
cybercrime 1075–93
advanced fee fraud 1089–90
affinity-based network societies 1091–2
(p. 1286) bad behaviour 1084–9
big data 1092
civil society groups 694
cloud technologies 1078–9
common law 1076
cooperation 1092
criminal justice system, which crimes affect 1082–5
criminal labour 1078
cross-jurisdictional governance 1090
crypto-currencies 1090
cyber-assisted crime 1081
cyber-dependent crime 1081
cyberthreats
changes in landscape 1079–80
deciphering threats 1087
fear, culture of 1087–8, 1090–1
media 1083
reassurance gap 1087–8, 1091
statistics 1082
dating scams 1089–90
de minimis rule 1084
definition 1080–2
deterrence 1091
developments in technology 1090–2
distributed behaviour 1077
distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) 1079, 1081, 1086
estimates of crimes and prosecutions, divide between 1083–7
expectations, managing 1088
Facebook and flirting 1085, 1087
failure to respond to changes 1091–2
fear, culture of 1087–8, 1090–1
global behaviour 1077
global policy challenges 30
glocalization 1078
harassment and bullying 482–3, 529, 531, 586, 694, 1089–90
informational behaviour 1077
local police forces, crimes impacting on 1088–90
Lottery scams 1089
mesh technologies 1090
modus operandi 1081
opportunities 1076, 1078
organized crime 1078, 1091
oversight 1076
peer to peer online relationships (P 2P) 1089
policing 1076–8, 1082–9
5–10 year impact in police 1090–2
affect police, which crimes 1082–5
call-centres 1088–9
expectations, managing 1088
local police forces, crimes impacting on 1088–90
reassurance gap 1087–8, 1091
regulation 1080
social media 1080, 1084–9
reassurance gap 1087–8, 1091
revenge porn 1085
security 444–5, 1076–7, 1087
self-deleting communications 1090
service delivery 1090–1
Snapchat and sexting 1085, 1087
social media 1076, 1078–9, 1084–91
stakeholder groups 1091
TalkTalk hack 1085–7
transformation of criminal behaviour 1077–9
transformation test 1081
transparency 1076
United Kingdom 1082–3
victimization 1076, 1078, 1080–4, 1086–90
vigilantism 1091–2
cybernetic theory 673
cyberpaternalism 672–3
Cyprus and energy 1170, 1174–5
Czarniawska, B 258
Daar, J 997–9
Daitch, Carolyn 411
damages 229–31, 525, 535–7
Damaška, Mirjan 705, 716
Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder policy 344–5
Darling, K 602–3
Darnovsky, Marcy 916, 918
data mining
AIDR platform to classify social media messages during humanitarian crises 778, 783–4, 792
AIDR Tagger 784
AIDR Trainer 784
application programming interfaces (APIs) 784
Twitter 783–4, 792
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) 778
automatic criminal justice 716–17
bias 792
compliance 786
decentralization 779
definition 778–80, 792
descriptive data mining 788
design and deployment of tools 779–80
efficiency 26
equity 786
governance 776–94
hardware 779–80
international organizations 778, 784
k-means cluster analysis 788–90
(p. 1287) legitimacy 790
models 777–85
poverty mapping 780
profiling 716–17, 743–4
public participation 786
sock drawer analogy 777, 785–92
software 779–80
structured data 778–9
supervised data mining 779
surveillance theory 743–4
treaties
implementation 785
modification 785
ratification 785
UN Global Pulse study on mobile phone transactions as proxy to track non-monetary poverty 778, 782–3, 791–2
UNHCR program for biometric registration and de-duplication of Afghan refugees humanitarian assistance for repatriation, applications for 778, 780–2, 792
BioID 780–2
Pakistan, repatriation from 778, 780–2
unstructured data 778–9
unsupervised data mining 779
data protection see also Data Retention Directive
automatic criminal justice 706, 711, 716–18, 720–5
bad character evidence 720
conflict of laws and Internet 280, 283–4, 287–8, 291
Data Protection by Design (DPbD) 755, 757–61, 769–72
Data Protection Directive 283–4, 288, 443, 721–3
data protection principles 724
Data Retention Directive 677, 689–92
employment 478
EU law
Data Protection Directive 283–4, 288, 443, 721–3
Data Retention Directive 677, 689–92
international trade regulation 1036
privacy 675, 677, 689–92
exemptions 721
fair and lawful processing 724
forgotten, right to be 443
General Data Protection Regulation 280, 444, 721–2
health data, confidentiality and security of 442
Information Commissioner 724
international trade regulation 1036
opacity, right to 441
personal data 431, 444, 711–12, 718, 721, 723
police and presumption of innocence 724
portability of personal data 444
privacy 441–3, 718, 720–3, 1036
Data Protection by Design (DPbD) 755, 757–61, 769–72
EU law 675, 677, 689–92
privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) 754–5, 757–62, 765, 767–9, 772
profiling 711, 721–3
reputation 443
retention 718
Safe Harbour Privacy Principles 1036
surveillance 431, 484–6, 493–4, 745, 746
transparency 441
undisclosed information and data, protection of 1023, 1035–6
values of criminal justice system 723–4, 725
Data Retention Directive 689–92
Access to Information Program (AIP) 690
Bulgarian Constitution 690
civil society groups 677, 689–92
Digital Rights Ireland 690
electronic commerce 689
Germany 690
governance 677, 689–92
harmonisation 689–90
privacy 690
proportionality 689–91
reform 690
Romania 690
serious crime, investigation, detection and prosecution 689
statistics 689–90
dating scams 1089–90
Davies, Sally 139
de Finetti, B 654
de Grey, Aubrey 861–2
De Hert, Paul 441
De Ruyter, D 410
de Vries, Pierre 607
decentring analysis 673–4
declarations of origin 1035
defamation 522–3
chilling effect 531, 533
conflict of laws and Internet 274–6, 282–3
freedom of expression 531–3
fresh publication 531–2
hosting services 532–3
injunctions 678–9
Internet 531–3, 677–9
limitation periods 531–2
residual indirect liability 533
self-censorship 533
defective products see product liability
Delaney, James 999
Deleuze, Gilles 709, 735–7, 738–9
delict see torts
democracy
accountability 1213
adaptive drug licensing 932–3, 938–9
assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) 884, 1006–9
(p. 1288) deliberative democracy
assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) 884, 1006–9
multiple communities 1007
direct democracy 1001
e-democracy 428–9
employment 489–90, 492, 494
governance 10, 577, 581–2
human biomedical interventions 835–42, 844–5
human dignity 191
ICANN 686–7
Internet 16
liberal democracies 11, 26–7, 50, 90–111, 142–4
non-discrimination and equality 72, 83
precautionary principle 651, 662
public participation 428–9, 622–4, 1006–9
race 904
surveillance 25, 91–2, 96–7, 100–8
tax 550
decryption technologies 97–8
deontology 18, 181–2, 1108
deprivation of liberty 706–7
desalination 1170, 1173–4, 1177–80, 1189
Descartes, René 214
desert theory 157, 169
design
biological approach 828–34, 837–42, 848
CAD design files 453–4, 456–7, 459–61
carbon capture and storage (CCS) 1232
data mining 779–80
Data Protection by Design (DPbD) 755, 757–61, 769–72
displacement 836
health 828–9
human biomedical interventions 824–45
legitimacy 834–45
liberty/freedom 52, 62–4
non-state actors 831, 842–5
Privacy by Design (PbD) 62, 747, 755–61, 764–72
product liability 534
regulation 21, 823–4, 826–48
biological approach 828–34, 837–42, 848
sociotechnical change 581–2, 585–7
robots, regulation of 605–6, 610, 613, 615
self-administration 831–4
social approach 828–34, 836–7, 845, 848
social control 827
state, use by 831
technological management 62–4
detention 157, 342, 345, 706–7, 960
determinism 154–6, 161–2, 167, 672–3
deterrence
automatic criminal justice 709
carbon capture and storage (CCS) 1248
cybercrime 1091
damages 535
detention 157
product liability 535–6
surveillance theory 741–2
torts 540
developing countries
capture of regulatory agencies 136
food security 49
health and safety 28
international trade regulation 1042
medication 28
patents 28, 1035
research and development, costs of 28
solar climate engineering (SCE) 801, 804, 809, 815–16
standards